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DOORDARSHAN KENDRA PATNA SUMMER TRAINING

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DOORDARSHAN KENDRA PATNA SUMMER TRAINING

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Doordarshan is the oldest and the biggest Broadcasting media in India.. One must have never thought that so many things are required for watching a television. The camera, the studio, the transmitter, the PDA, the setup box (installed in houses) everything is connected to each other. Here man and electronics work as if they are a family. So many process and lots of hard work, sincerity is required to just have a show or say a movie on air i.e. to be broadcasted.

Doordarshan is the oldest and the biggest Broadcasting media in India.. One must have never thought that so many things are required for watching a television. The camera, the studio, the transmitter, the PDA, the setup box (installed in houses) everything is connected to each other. Here man and electronics work as if they are a family. So many process and lots of hard work, sincerity is required to just have a show or say a movie on air i.e. to be broadcasted.

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DOORDARSHAN KENDRA PATNA SUMMER TRAINING

  1. 1. GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE JHALAWAR INDUSTRIAL TRAINING FROM DOORDARSHAN KENDRA, PATNA ON TOPIC TELEVISION BROADCAST SYSTEM SUBMITTED BY:- RAVI SHANKAR KUMAR B.TECH (FINAL YEAR) ROLL NO- 14EEJEC014
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TV STUDIO EARTH STATION TRANSMISSION 2
  3. 3. GLIMPSE OF DDK PATNA
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION  Process of sending information to a distant place is called Broadcasting.  DOORDARSHAN = Distant + Show  Means of Broadcasting in India: 1.Terrestrial. 2.Satellite. 3.Internet.  Both AIR and DD make use of both Terrestrial and Satellite.  Doordarshan is a public broadcast terrestrial Channel run by Prasar bharati.
  5. 5. DOORDARSHAN NETWORK
  6. 6. TELEVISION STANDARDS • NTSC-National television standards committee(US) (525 Horizontal & 60 vertical lines) • SECAM-System electronics for colour avec memory(FRANCE)(625 vertical & 50horizantal lines) • PAL- Phase Alternating lines(GERMANY)(625 horizontal & 50 vertical line) Television standards used in India is PAL
  7. 7. PAL ENCODER & DECODER • Input is the primary colour (i.e. red, green, blue) into matrix circuit as Y, R-Y, B-Y. • Y=0.30R+0.59G+.11B • U=0.477(R-Y) • V=0.895(B-Y) • Out of 625 horizontal line only 575 are active • 50 vertical lines
  8. 8. ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXING Y=0.30R+0.59G+0.11B U=0.477(R-Y) V=0.895(B-Y)
  9. 9. RESOLUTION  Resolution refers to the number of pixels in an image. Resolution is sometimes identified by the width and height of the image as well as the total number of pixels in the image. BRIGHTNESS • Mixing Of Black and White at a contrast ratio 20:1 CONTRAST • Relative Difference Between Black and White.
  10. 10. TELEVISION COMMUNICATION SYSTEM AUDIO AMPLIFIER FM MODULATOR FM SOUND TRANSMITTER MIC. CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR RF AMPLIFIER POWER AMPLIFIER SCANNING CIRCUIT COMBINING NETWORK DEPLEXER CAME RA VIDEO AMPLIFIER AM MODULATION AMPLIFIER
  11. 11. •Studio - A (Main) Four Camera Digital set up For recording of programmes and other major activities. •Studio - B (News) Two Camera digital set up For News & Regional transmissions •OB VAN Six Camera digital set up For outdoor coverage •Earth Station •ENG (Electronic News Gathering) •With 12 portable ENG units for the purpose of day to day News and outdoor programmes coverage. •Post production facilities •Computer based 3D Graphics facility. •Separate studio for audio dubbing. STUDIO SETUP
  12. 12. 12 • A television studio, is an installation room in which video productions take place, either for the recording of live television to video tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for post-production. • Studio hall contains many devices for shooting. Like lighting , microphone, makeup room, Furniture, Cameras and sound absorbers • DDK patna produce their own programs like “Bihar Bihan” and “Fursat Ghar”.
  13. 13. Components of TV studio • Camera • Lighting • Microphones • Vision mixer and Audio consoles • MSR • VTR • Acoustics • Post production and video effects • Supporting services like AC, UPS 13
  14. 14. CAMERA  camera is an optical instrument that records images that can be stored directly, transmitted to another location, or both. These images may be still photographs or moving images such as videos or movies.  A TV camera consist of three section.  Optical part - To form optical image.  Transducer - To convert optical image in to electrical signal.  Electronic part - To process output of a transducer to get a CCVS ( colour composite video signal).  CCD Camera are used for recording. 14
  15. 15. Types  Hard lighting  Soft lighting Use gels to control the which in beyond control to match it. Never avoid the lighting mismatch
  16. 16. TYPE INTENSITY OF LIGHTING KEY LIGHT 100% FILL LIGHT 80% BACK LIGHT 110%
  17. 17. Sound is important for establishing mood and intensifying an event The sound track helps us to connect the visual fragments of the relatively small, low-definition television image to form a meaningful whole
  18. 18. Major types  Dynamic/moving coil microphones  Condenser microphones  Ribbon/velocity microphones
  19. 19. VISION MIXER • A vision mixer (also called video switcher, video mixer or production switcher) is a device used to select between several different video sources and in some cases mix video sources together and add special effects. • It has many input sources such as cameras, VCR/ server, Graphics/Character Generators,etc. • Out of these input, any source can be taken as output. • Sources can be changed as cut to cut, dissolve, wipe and other special effects.
  20. 20. PRODUCTION CONTROL ROOM • MONITOR PROGRAM AND GRAPHICS • VISION MIXER (to select video sources) • Audio console • Add video effect
  21. 21. MSR • It is the heart of the studio. • Most of the switching electronics is kept e.g. camera base stations, switcher main frame, SPG, Satellite receivers, MW link, DDA & most of the patch panels. • Signal is routed through MSR. • Signal can be Monitored at various stages
  22. 22. MASTER CONTROL ROOM It connect the of following equipment • Camera control unit • VTRs • Patch panel • Vision mixer
  23. 23. • CHARCTER GENERATORS Names and graphics inserted into programs • CONTROL APPARATUS ROOM Includes the power supply unit UPS room Generator • VIDEO TAPE RECORDER Consists of recorded materials i.e. v.c.r
  24. 24. Acoustic System 24  It is derived from a Greek word “akoustos” which means “hearing”. It is use to prevent sounds from it’s echo. In Doordarshan studio , all the sound must have to be done Acoustic treatment to preserve the originality of the sound along with extending maximum pleasure to the listener.
  25. 25. EARTH STATION
  26. 26. EARTH STATION • Earth Station is a very important part of satellite communication system for broadcasting of signals. • It is an uplink center from which the signals are fed to Satellite for distribution in a specified area covered by the Satellite. • The signal is up-linked from the Earth Station and received by many down link centers in TV broad casting via PDA. • Two Types: 1) Analog, 2) Digital • Digital Earth Stations are widely used because of various advantages over analog.
  27. 27. Major Components of Digital Earth Station • PDA (Parabolic Dish Antenna) • FEED • Wave Guide / Low Loss Cable • HPA (TWTA, Klystrons) • Up converter • Modulator • Encoder • Multiplexer • IRD (Integrated Receiver Decoder)
  28. 28. EARTH STATION Up linking process
  29. 29. EARTH STATION Down Linking Process
  30. 30. EARTH STATION TANSMITTER/RECEIVER SATELLITE DTH RECEIVER TV UPLINKING DOWNLINKING THE PROCESS OF TRANSMISSION 30
  31. 31. OB Van  Outside broadcasting (OB) is the electronic field production (EFP) of television or radio programmes (typically to cover television news and sports television events) from a mobile remote broadcast television studio. 31
  32. 32. OB VAN
  33. 33. OB Van & DSNG • A typical OB Van is usually divided into 4 parts. • The first and largest part is the production area or sitting area for all directors & producers. • The second part of a van is for the audio engineer. • The 3rd part of the van is video tape.
  34. 34. • The 4th part is transmission where the signal is monitored by and engineered for quality control purposes and is transmitted or sent to other trucks. • DSNG is a portable uplinking centre.
  35. 35. ANTENNA & SATELLITE • An antenna (or aerial) is a transducer designed to transmit or receive electromagnetic waves. In other words, antennas convert electromagnetic waves into electrical currents and vice versa.
  36. 36. TRANSMITTER  A television transmitter is a device which broadcasts an electromagnetic signal to the television receivers.  Television transmitters may be analog or digital.  Types of Transmitters  (1)VLPT’s  (2)LPT’s  (3)HPT’s  DDK Patna Has 6 HPT’s, 24 LPT’s ,2 VLPT’s. 36
  37. 37. DD Free Dish is India's only Free Direct-To-Home Service previously known as DD Direct +. This service was launched in December, 2004. DD Free Dish DTH service is owned and operated by Public Service Broadcaster Prasar Bharati (Doordarshan).
  38. 38. DIGITAL TERRESTRIAL TV Digital terrestrial television (DTTV or DTT) is a technological evolution of broadcast television and an advancement over analog television. DTTV broadcasts land-based (terrestrial) signals.
  39. 39. 39 T V STUDIO PCR Tx Room MSR Tx E/S DTH Service O B Van DSNG Van Rx cable TV Rx E/S H P Tx Rx dish TV DD Archives SAT Feed Room CONCLUSION
  40. 40. 40

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