Dr Matani- Latest Advancements in electric vehicles (2) (1)[P-copy.ppt
1. Latest Advancements in electric vehicles
Dr. Ashok G. Matani
Professor- Mechanical Engineering
Government College of Engineering,
Amravati – [M.S.] India
2. • An electric car consists of an energy storage
device powering one electric traction motor,
which spins wheels via a transmission.
• First invented in the 19th century, electric cars
ultimately lost the battle to the internal
combustion engine, unable to compete with the
energy density of gasoline.
• Over one hundred years later, the Li-ion battery is
enabling their meteoric rise as a solution for
reducing local emissions and green-house gases.
3. • Electric vehicles now include cars, transit
buses, trucks of all sizes, and even big-rig
tractor trailers that are at least partially
powered by electricity.
4. Significance of Electric vehicles
• Electric vehicles are saving the climate
• The largest source of climate pollution in the United States
is Transportation. To solve the climate crisis, we need to
make the vehicles on our roads as clean as possible.
• We have only a decade left to change the way we use
energy to avoid the worst impacts of climate change.
• Emissions from cars and trucks are not only bad for our
planet, they’re bad for our health.
• Air pollutants from gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles
cause asthma, bronchitis, cancer, and premature death.
5. • The long-term health impacts of localized air
pollution last a lifetime, with the effects borne
out in asthma attacks, lung damage, and heart
• Electric vehicles have a smaller carbon
footprint than gasoline-powered cars, no
matter where your electricity comes from.
6. • Because electric vehicles are more efficient in
converting energy to power cars and trucks,
electricity across the board is cleaner and
cheaper as a fuel for vehicles, even when that
electricity comes from the dirtiest grid.
7. • In the manufacturing process, electric vehicles
will produce more global warming emissions
than the average gasoline vehicle, because
electric cars’ large lithium-ion batteries
require a lot of materials and energy to build.
(For example, manufacturing a mid-sized
electric car with an 84-mile range, results in
15% more emissions.)
8. Current Electric Car Technology Advancements
• Electric vehicle batteries are becoming less
expensive while at the same time becoming
• Production costs are down and the use of
lithium-ion batteries has increased.
9. • You may find that the vehicle you are looking at, such
as the Nissan Leaf, has remote access to your vehicle
from your smartphone.
• With this technology, you can start your car before
you’re in it. Along with change the temperature in your
car from outside of it, and give you charging
information to that second.
• The features that used to come with vehicles as extra
additions are now staples. An example of this is voice
recognition or being able to find your car remotely in a
10. • Many of the interior characteristics are more
simplified in these vehicles to focus on
• Using your smartphone for a variety of things
throughout the car makes it so much easier to
feel connected to the machine.
11. Electric Vehicle Battery Advancements
• Part of the reason for the decline in the costs associated with electric
vehicles is battery advancements.
• The gradual decline in electric vehicle battery costs has helped to make
the vehicles themselves more affordable for a variety of customers.
• Since 2010 the average costs of batteries has dropped from $1,000/kWh
to roughly $227/kWh. This results in a drastic reduction in the overall costs
associated with the vehicle. In addition to the battery production costs
reductions, batteries themselves have become more efficient.
• Overall, most electric vehicles use Lithium-ion batteries. Companies like
Tesla have continued to invest heavily in this technology due to the high
recharge capacity of these batteries. An example of a prime development
in Lithium-ion batteries was made by researchers at Stanford where they
made a protective nano layer that expands with the batteries increasing
temperatures. However, even with these advancements, there are still
many hurdles that electric vehicles must overcome before widespread
12. Advancements in Electric Vehicle Technology
• Battery technology―the electronic systems that
keep EVs working and safe―and electric motor
efficiency were limiting factors that worked
against EV production in the 20th century.
• Continuous innovations in each of these
technologies, such as the invention of lithium-ion
in the 1980s, paved the way for a profound rise in
EV manufacturing and consumer adoption.
14. • Charging station availability—long the
infrastructural bane of EV ownership—continues
• New materials like silicon carbide have enabled
revolutions in legacy silicon technologies,
showing even more promise for optimizing EV
efficiency and power utilization.
• Other technological optimizations such as high-
voltage current protection, signal isolation,
and battery management
technologies continually drive EV performance.
15. The Future of Electric Vehicles
• We can expect new electric vehicles to enter the
market, building on the innovations made by
Tesla and other well-known EV manufacturers like
BYD, BAIC, Nissan, BMW, and Volkswagen.
• Legislative advancements in Europe, ever-
increasing demand in Asia, and an increased
awareness of fossil fuels' environmental impacts
will ensure that EV technology continues to grow.
16. Here are a few industries to watch for EV innovation:
• Racing. Consumer road vehicles aren't the only ones going electric. Formula 1, the pinnacle of
automotive racing, has announced a momentous leap toward full-electric motor technology. In an
industry where torque and efficiency are paramount, it was only a matter of time before EV
technology found a home here.
• Motorcycles. Historic motorcycle manufacturers such as Harley-Davidson and Ducati are already
gearing towards a shift towards electric motorcycles, hoping to capitalize on performance
advantages and carbon footprint reduction. Zero, the motorcycle world's version of Tesla, is quickly
becoming known as a top motorcycle manufacturer.
• Electric Semi-trucks. The long-awaited electric semi-truck has never felt closer. Companies like
Nikola, Rivian, Tesla, Daimler, and Volvo will revolutionize the road-based transportation industry.
The electric semi-truck industry is the latest proving ground for technology seeking to maximize EV
range, and each of those companies is trying to crack the code.
• Boating. Seafarers rejoice at the prospect of a boat that never needs to dock for fueling. Electric
boats may soon arrive at a marina near you, allowing boaters to access the world's vast waters
using only wind, solar power, and electric motors.
• Airplanes. Electric planes feel like the final frontier for electric vehicles. However, the very first all-
electric plane certification was recently awarded to Pipistrel Aircrafts, and we're excited to see
what comes next.
17. Recent Developments
• In April 2021, Toyota launched the new LS and Mirai models
in Japan which come with advanced driving assist
• In April 2021, BYD launched four new electric vehicle
models equipped with Blade batteries in Chongqing. The
new vehicle models, Tang EV, Qin Plus EV, Song Plus EV and
E2 2021 come with advanced battery safety features.
• In April 2021, Volkswagen unveiled the 7 seater EV ID.6
Crozz and ID.6 X produced along with FAW and SAIC in
• The vehicles will be sold only in China. It comes in two
battery versions, 58 kWh and 77 kWh and comes in four
18. • In March 2021, Volvo showcased its new C40 Recharge
model. The vehicle is designed as a pure electric car and
has most features similar to its XC60 model.
• In December 2020, Nissan announced 2021 Leaf model in
US. The vehicle comes with a choice of battery between 40
kWh and 62 kWh. The mileage ranges between 149 miles
and 226 miles per charge.
• In July 2020, BYD launched its Han which comes with blade
battery and is available in BEV and PHEV versions.
• It comes with two battery options, 65 kWh option for 314
miles and 77kWh option for 342 miles range.
• Its PHEV comes with a 13 kWh battery and a 2.0 L gasoline
engine and 180 kWh electric motor.
19. • In March 2020, BMW launched the 2nd generation
330e and 330e xDrive in the North American market.
• The vehicle comes with a 12 kWh battery and an all-
electric range of 20-22 miles.
• In November 2019, BYD launched its e3 electric sedan
• It comes with two battery options, 35.2 kWh and 47.3
kWh and a single 70 kW electric motor.
• The vehicle has a range of around 252 miles.
• In May 2019, Hyundai group showcased its new Ioniq
electric version with an increased battery of 38.3 kWh
(from 28kWh) and a larger range.
20. • The global Electric Vehicle Market is estimated to be 4,093
thousand units in 2021 and projected to reach 34,756 thousand
units by 2030, at a CAGR of 26.8%
• The Electric Vehicle Market is dominated by established players
such as Tesla (US), BYD (China), Volkswagen AG (Germany), BMW
Group (Germany) and Nissan Motors (Japan).
• The market ranking has been derived by considering a certain
percentage of the segmental revenue for each of the companies
• These companies also offer extensive products and solutions for the
• These companies have strong distribution networks at the global
level, and they invest heavily in R&D to develop new products.
21. Market Trends
• EV battery price reductions, connected cars, battery management system, Smart
charging, wireless on the go charging are the key market trends or technologies
which will have a major impact on the electric vehicle market in the future.
• Electric cars are known to be very efficient as they consume less energy and have
much lower emissions, making them environmentally friendly automobiles.
• Electric vehicle sales have increased demand for various components of electric
vehicles in turns such as batteries, instrument clusters, infotainment systems, and
• Batteries are the most important part of any electric vehicle as they provide power
to the vehicle’s engine.
• They are also the costliest part of the electric vehicle. Battery Management System
(BMS) is also known as the brain of a vehicle as it manages the output, charging,
and discharging of the battery.
• Therefore, determining how much electricity should flow through the battery at
what speed. Every electric vehicle comes with an inbuilt rechargeable battery.
22. • Battery accounts for 70% of the weight of an electric vehicle. In the future, it is
estimated to reduce significantly with the increase in the power holding capacity
of a battery.
• On-board chargers are used to convert AC into DC while charging. They work at
low voltage levels, which helps to avoid the issue of overheating.
• The instrument cluster in an electric vehicle not only provides vital information to
the driver but also performs a more complex task of battery management.
• The available range of a vehicle and charging required are the additional functions
added to the instrument cluster in electric vehicles. The instrument cluster helps
to understand the power consumption of an electric vehicle.
• Fuel cell stacks are used in FECV’s for electric power generation using hydrogen as
• Each fuel cell provides a minute amount of electricity, thus they are stacked
together to provide sufficient power for the operation of the FCEV.
• These vehicles have much more range compared to other EV’s due to the
compressibility of hydrogen in a hydrogen tank making the vehicle drive much
longer on a single filling.
23. Domestic Manufacturing Push for EV
• Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises
(MHIPE) issued a notification to all the testing agencies
under Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric
Vehicles in India (FAME II). The notification covers the
eligibility under the revised Phased Manufacturing Program
(PMP) for xEV (generic name for electromotive vehicles
such as hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric
vehicles, and fuel-cell electric vehicles) parts.
• PMP will be valid for five years until 2024 and promotes
domestic production across the EV value chain.
• The notification specifies that all other parts and
components other than the ones mentioned should be
domestically manufactured and assembled.
24. • The Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public
Enterprises extended the effective date for
xEV parts’ indigenization to April 1, 2021.
25. Sale of Electric Vehicles Without Pre-fitted
• In August, the Ministry of Road Transport and
Highway (MORTH) announced that all the states
and union territories are allowed to register and
sell EVs without pre-fitted batteries.
• The move was intended to boost the wider
adoption of EVs across the country.
• The prototype of EVs and battery types has to be
authorized by the test agencies according to the
Central Motor Vehicle Rules.
26. FAME-II Program for EVs Gets New
• The Government also extended the validity of the FAME-II program for all
approved electric vehicle models by three months up to December 31, 2020.
• The extension comes to effect from October 1, 2020. All approved vehicle models
would need to be re-validated by December 31, 2020.
• FAME India is part of the National Electricity Mobility Mission Plan, launched to
provide a push for early adoption and market creation for both hybrids and EVs.
• The FAME program covers all vehicles – two-wheelers, three-wheelers, four-
wheelers, and buses. The incentives to be provided are based on the type and
make of any given vehicle.
• The program is the expanded version of FAME India I, launched on April 1, 2015,
with a total outlay of ₹8.95 billion ($126.2 million).
• In January 2020, the Department of Heavy Industries (DHI) approved 2,636 electric
vehicle charging stations in 62 cities across 24 Indian states and union territories
(UTs) under the second phase of the FAME program.
27. Government Readies Incentives for 7,000 E-Buses,
55,000 E-Cars, 1 Million Two-Wheelers
• Central Govt. had provided a demand incentive of ₹950 million
(~$12.9 million) towards 27,201 EVs until September 10, 2020.
• The demand incentives will cover 7,000 electric buses, 55,000
electric cars, and one million electric two-wheelers under FAME-II.
• 5,595 electric buses had been approved for several states and city
transport undertakings under the FAME II program, including a
government incentive of ₹28 billion (~$380.5 million).
• Under FAME-I, the department had allocated 425 electric and
hybrid buses across several Indian cities at an approximate cost of
₹2.8 billion (~$38.05 million).
• For the FAME-II program, the government had made a
budgetary allocation of ₹6.93 billion (~$94.17 million) for FY 2020-
28. Delhi, Telangana Exempt Road Tax for EVs
• The Delhi Government exempted road tax on all
battery electric vehicles. The transport department
issued a notification saying that the Delhi government
has exempted the tax on all battery electric vehicles
with immediate effect in the region under the Delhi
Motor Vehicle Taxation Act, 1962.
• In August 2020, the government introduced the Delhi
Electric Vehicle Policy 2020 to enhance EV adoption in
the national capital region. The new policy proposed
tax waivers, charging and swapping infrastructure
establishment, battery cycling ecosystem, and creating
a non-lapsable State EV Fund.
29. • The Government also offered financial incentives for EV buyers in the region. Under the
policy, e-rickshaws, electric two-wheelers, and goods carriers will receive incentives of
₹30,000 (~$408.09). Simultaneously, purchasers of electric cars will receive incentives ranging
from ₹10,000 (~$ 136.03) to ₹150,000 ($ 2040.47).
• It also planned to boost the adoption of battery electric vehicles, contributing to 25% of all
new vehicle registrations by 2024. The government plans to pay the subsidies within two
days to eligible EV buyers in Delhi through a software developed by the ICICI Bank.
• The Government of Telangana also released its new Electric Vehicle and Energy Storage Policy
for 2020-2030, announcing subsidies, policy measures, and other incentives to turn the state
into an EV and energy storage system development and manufacturing hub.
• The new policy will be applicable for ten years and provides a framework to boost EV
adoption, charging infrastructure development, and component manufacturing in the state.
• Under the policy, the first 200,000 electric two-wheelers, 20,000 electric three-wheelers,
5,000 electric four-wheel commercial passenger vehicles, 10,000 electric three-wheel goods
e-carriers, 5,000 private electric four-wheelers, 500 electric buses, and electric tractors would
be eligible for a 100% exemption on road taxes and registration fees.
30. Electric Two-Wheelers Can Operate as Taxis
• According to new motor vehicle aggregators guidelines,
the government will allow two-wheelers running on
electricity or alternate fuels (such as bio-ethanol) to be
operated as taxis.
• According to the new guidelines, state governments
would facilitate the implementation of this move.
• The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has also
exempted electric vehicles running on ethanol or
methanol from permit requirements.
• The increased focus on electric mobility bodes well for
2021, and one expects intelligent mobility slowly
becoming a big part of India’s strategy for sustainability