• 5G simply refers to the next and newest mobile
wireless standard based on the IEEE 802.11 standard
of broadband technology.
• 5G Wireless Technology denotes the proposed next major
phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond
the current 4G standards.
• This would make it feasible for a large portion of the
population to consume high-quality streaming media
many hours per day on their mobile devices, also when
out of reach of wifi hotspots. 5G research and
development also aim at the improved support of machine
to machine communication, also known as the Internet of
things, aiming at lower cost, lower battery consumption,
and lower latency than 4G equipment.
3. Basic Requirements
• High & increased peak bit rate (Up to 10Gbps connections to
endpoints in the field)
• Efficient use of energy in devices
• Larger data volume per unit area (i.e. high system spectral efficiency)
• High capacity to allow more devices connectivity concurrently and
instantaneously (100 percent coverage)
• More bandwidth
• Lower battery consumption
• Better connectivity irrespective of the geographic region, in which you
• Larger number of supporting devices (10 to 100x number of
• Lower cost of infrastructural development
• Higher reliability of the communications (One millisecond end-to-end
round trip delay)
5. 5G Communication System
• The 5G mobile cellular communications system will be a major shift in
the way mobile communications networks operate. To achieve this a
totally new radio access network and a new core network are required
to provide the performance required.
a) 5G New Radio, 5G NR: 5G new radio is the new name for the 5G
radio access network. It consists of the different elements needed for
the new radio access network. Using a far more flexible technology the
system is able to respond to the different and changing needs of mobile
users whether they be a small IoT node, or a high data user, stationary
b) 5G NextGen Core Network: Although initial deployments of 5G will
utilise the core network of LTE or possibly even 3G networks, the
ultimate aim is to have a new network that is able to handle the much
higher data volumes whilst also being able to provide a much lower
level of latency.
6. 5G Technologies
• The technologies being developed for 5G include:
• Millimetre-Wave communications: Using frequencies much higher in the frequency
spectrum opens up more spectrum and also provides the possibility of having much
wide channel bandwidth - possibly 1 - 2 GHz. However this poses new challenges for
handset development where maximum frequencies of around 2 GHz and bandwidths of
10 - 20 MHz are currently in use. For 5G, frequencies of above 50GHz are being
considered and this will present some real challenges in terms of the circuit design, the
technology, and also the way the system is used as these frequencies do not travel as
far and are absorbed almost completely by obstacles. Different countries are allocating
different spectrum for 5G.
• Waveforms : One key area of interest is that of the new waveforms that may be
seen. OFDM has been used very successfully in 4G LTE as well as a number of other
high data rate systems, but it does have some limitations in some circumstances. Other
waveform formats that are being discussed include: GFDM, Generalised Frequency
Division Multiplexing, as well as FBMC, Filter Bank Multi-Carrier, UFMC, Universal
• Multiple Access: Again a variety of new access schemes are being investigated for
5G technology. Techniques including OFDMA, SCMA, NOMA, PDMA, MUSA and IDMA
have all been mentioned. As mentioned above it appears that the most likely format
could be OFDMA
7. 5G Technologies…
• Massive MIMO with beamsteering: Although MIMO is being used
in many applications from LTE to Wi-Fi, etc, the numbers of antennas
is fairly limited. Using microwave frequencies opens up the possibility
of using many tens of antennas on a single equipment becomes a
real possibility because of the antenna sizes and spacings in terms of
a wavelength. This would enable beams to be steered to provide
• Dense networks: Reducing the size of cells provides a much more
overall effective use of the available spectrum. Techniques to ensure
that small cells in the macro-network and deployed as femtocells can
operate satisfactorily are required. There is a significant challenge in
adding huge numbers of additional cells to a network, and techniques
are being developed to enable this.
8. Difference between 5G and Previous
• 5G networks expand broadband wireless services beyond mobile internet to IoT
and critical communications segments.
• 4.5G (LTE advanced) networks doubled data speeds from 4G.
• 4G networks brought all-IP services (Voice and Data), a fast broadband internet
experience, with unified networks architectures and protocols.
• 3.5G networks brought a true ubiquitous mobile internet experience, unleashing
the success of mobile apps eco-systems.
• 3G networks brought a better mobile internet experience but with limited success
to unleash massive data services adoption.
• 2.5G and 2.75G networks brought a slight improvement to data services,
respectively with GPRS and EDGE.
• 2G networks brought digital cellular voice services and basic data services (SMS,
Internet WAP browsing) – as well as roaming services across networks.
• 1G networks brought mobility to analog voice services.
10. Advantages of 5G
• ➨Data rates of about 10 Gbps or higher can be achieved. This
provides better user experience as download and upload
speeds are higher.
➨Latency of less than 1 ms can be achieved in 5G mm wave.
This leads to immediate connection establishment and release
with 5G network by 5G smartphones. Hence traffic load is
decreased on 5G base stations.
➨Higher bandwidth can be used with the help of carrier
➨Antenna size is smaller at higher frequecies. This leads to
use of massive MIMO concept to achieve higher data rates.
➨Due to improved 5G network architecture handoff is smooth
and hence it does not have any effect on data transfer when
mobile user changes cells.
➨Typically 5G offers 10x throughput, 10x decrease in latency,
10x connection density, 3x spectrum efficiency, 100x traffic
capacity and 100x network efficiency.
11. Disadvantages of 5G
• It requires skilled engineers to install and maintain 5G network.
Moreover 5G equipments are costly. This increases cost of 5G
deployment and maintenance phases.
➨5G smartphones are costly. Hence it will take some time for
the common man to make use of 5G technology.
➨The technology is still under development and will take time
before it is fully operational without any issues.
➨Coverage distance of upto 2 meters (in indoor) and 300
meters (in outdoor) can be achieved due to higher losses at
high frequencies (such as millimeter waves). 5G mmwave
suffers from many such losses (penetration loss, attenuation
due to rain, foliage loss etc.)
➨It will take time for security and privacy issues to be resolved
fully in 5G network.
13. Future Scope
• 5th generation technology is designed to provide incredible and
remarkable data capabilities, unhindered call volumes, and
immeasurable data broadcast within the latest mobile operating
system. Hence, it is more intelligent technology, which will
interconnect the entire world without limits. Likewise, our world would
have universal and uninterrupted access to information,
communication, and entertainment that will open a new dimension to
our lives and will change our life style meaningfully.
• Moreover, governments and regulators can use this technology as an
opportunity for the good governance and can create healthier
environments, which will definitely encourage continuing investment
in 5G, the next generation technology.
• there are dozens of countries using 2G and 3G technologies and
don’t know even about 4G, in such a condition, the most significant
questions in everyone’s mind are −
• How far will 5G be viable?
• Will it be the technology of some of the developed countries or
developing countries will also get benefit of this?
• To understand these questions, the challenges of 5G are categorized
into the following two headings −
• Technological Challenges
• Common Challenges
15. Technological Challenges
• Inter-cell Interference − This is one of the major
technological issues that need to be solved. There is
variations in size of traditional macro cells and concurrent
small cells that will lead to interference.
16. Technological Challenges…
• Efficient Medium Access Control − In a situation, where dense
deployment of access points and user terminals are required, the user
throughput will be low, latency will be high, and hotspots will not be
competent to cellular technology to provide high throughput. It needs
to be researched properly to optimize the technology.
• Traffic Management − In comparison to the traditional human to
human traffic in cellular networks, a great number of Machine to
Machine (M2M) devices in a cell may cause serious system
challenges i.e. radio access network (RAN) challenges, which will
cause overload and congestion.
17. Common Challenges
• Multiple Services − Unlike other radio signal services, 5G would
have a huge task to offer services to heterogeneous networks,
technologies, and devices operating in different geographic regions.
So, the challenge is of standardization to provide dynamic, universal,
user-centric, and data-rich wireless services to fulfil the high
expectation of people.
18. Common Challenges…
• Infrastructure − Researchers are facing technological
challenges of standardization and application of 5G
• Communication, Navigation, & Sensing − These
services largely depend upon the availability of radio
spectrum, through which signals are transmitted. Though
5G technology has strong computational power to
process the huge volume of data coming from different
and distinct sources, but it needs larger infrastructure
19. Common Challenges…
• Security and Privacy − This is one of the most important
challenges that 5G needs to ensure the protection of
personal data. 5G will have to define the uncertainties
related to security threats including trust, privacy, cyber
security, which are growing across the globe.
• Legislation of Cyber law − Cybercrime and other fraud
may also increase with the high speed and ubiquitous 5G
technology. Therefore, legislation of the Cyberlaw is also
an imperative issue, which largely is governmental and
political (national as well as international issue) in nature.