1. QUALITY SEED PRODUCTION IN
Speaker: Ramyajit Mondal
COURSE-AGRON 649 Seminar-I Date:06.02.2018
Department of Agronomy
Faculty of Agriculture
Bidhan Chandra Krishi
Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal
Chairman: Prof. S.B. Goswami Seminar Leader: Prof. B.C. Patra
2. SEED PRODUCTION OF AGRICULTURAL
What is Seed?
Seeds are the food for men, animals and birds .They are the wealth, they are
the beauty, they are the symbol of beginning.
In Broad Sense
• Seed is a material which is used for planting or regeneration purpose.
• Seed is a fertilized matured ovule together covered with seed coat is
called seed or it is a propagating material.
Technological Point Of View
• Seed is a fertilized ripened ovule consisting of three main parts
namely seed coat, endosperm and embryo, which in due course gives
rise to a new plant.
• It also refers to Propagating materials of healthy seedlings, tuber,
bulbs, rhizome, roots, cuttings, setts, all types of grafts and
vegetatively propagating materials used for production purpose.
3. IMPORTANTANCE OF SEED
The seed is the first determinant of the future plant development. The seed is
the master key to success with the cultivation.
Seed is crucial and basic input to increase crop yields per unit area. There is
clear mention in ancient literature yajarveda “May the seed viable, may the
rains plentiful and may the grains ripe days and nights”
The green revolution was only possible with production of generally quality
seeds possessing other qualities namely high germination, high vigours high
physical purity and sound health. Hence green revolution is in fact seed
Only seeds of assured quality can be expected to respond to fertilizer and
other inputs in expected manner, otherwise seed of hope may turn into seed
Among the inputs used by farmers seed in the cheapest input. It is basic inputs
and forms small part of the total cost of cultivation.
The quality seed ultimately increase the efficiency of the factor of crop
4. ABOUT QUALITY OF SEED
Quality seed is defined as varietal purity with high
germination percentage, free from disease and pest, and
with a proper moisture content and weight.
Quality seed ensures good germination, rapid emergence
and vigorous growth. These aspect translate to a good plant
stand in field. Poor quality seed results in “skips” excessive
thinning or yield reduction due to over crowding all of which
5. IMPORTANCE OF QUALITY SEED
1. Quality seed is a vital input in crop production:
• It is the cheapest input in crop production and key to
• Crop performances largely depend on the seed materials
used for sowing
• Response of other inputs in crop production depends on
seed material used
2. The seed required for raising crop is quite small and its cost
is so less compared to other inputs
4. It is estimated that good quality seeds to improved varieties
can contribute about 20-25% increase in yield.
5. Quality seeds are important to unfold the potential yield
performance of the species and variety
6. CRITERIA OF QUALITY SEED
1. They are genetically pure (true to type).
2. The good quality seed has high return per unit area as the genetic
potentiality of the crop can be fully exploited.
3. Less infestation of land with weed seed/other crop seeds.
4. Less disease and insect problem.
5. Minimization of seed/seedling rate i.e., fast and uniform
emergence of seedling.
6. They are vigorous, free from pests and disease.
7. They can be adopted themselves for extreme climatic condition
and cropping system of the location.
8. The quality seed respond well to the high fertilizer dose.
9. Uniform in plant population and maturity.
10. Crop raised with quality seeds are aesthetically pleasing.
11. Good seed prolongs life of a variety.
12. Yield prediction is very easy.
13. Handling in post-harvest operation will be easy.
14. Preparations of finished products are also better.
15. High produce value and their marketability.
8. GLOBAL SCENARIO OF QUALITY SEED
World seed production of important crops (2016)
Crop World Production
1 Rice 740.96
2 Wheat 749.46
3 Maize 1060.11
4 Pulses 81.80
5 Oilseed 138.26
6 Potato 3768.3
7 Sugarcane 1890.66
Source: FAOSTAT, 2016
9. INDIAN SCENARIO OF QUALITY SEED
Production/Availability of Seed (Metric Tonnes)
SOURCE: Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare
YEAR BREEDER SEED
2010-11 11921 180640 32,13592
2011-12 12338 2,22681 35,36200
2012-13 11020 1,61700 32,85800
2013-14 8229 1,74307 34,73130
2014-15 8621 1,57616 35,17664
2015-16 9036 1,49542 34,35248
2016-17 11221.8 (Target) 2,20907 38,02904
10. SEED QUALITY PARAMETERS
• Seed quality is determined by the following characteristics:
11. SEED QUALITY
1. Physical Attributes
• A minimum of damaged seed
• A minimal amount of weed seed or inert matter
• A minimum of diseased seed
• Near uniform seed size
2. Physiological Attributes
• Germination Percentage or Viability
The germination percentage or viability is an indicator of the seed's
ability to emerge from the soil to produce a plant in the field under
• Seed Vigour
Seed vigour is the capacity of seed to emerge from the soil and
survive under potentially stressful field conditions and to grow
rapidly under favourable conditions
12. SEED QUALITY
3. Genetic Attributes
Seed of the same variety
Adapted to the local conditions
Pe st and disease tolerance
High yielding ability
Temperature of the environment
13. CLASSIFICATION OF QUALITY SEED
Breeder-classification based on genetical quality (purity) viz. nucleus,
breeder’s stock seed, foundation, certified & truthfully label seed .
Botanical based on
number of cotyledon, viz.
14. CHARATERSTICS OF SEED TYPE
It is the initial & lowest quantity of pure seed of an improved
variety and generated by original breeder . While more than one
variety of the same crop is to be grown for production of nucleus
seed, then proper isolation distance must be maintained to retain
the purity . It is genetically cent per cent pure . It requires no tag
due to be conserved with so restrictions .
15. BREEDER’S SEED
It is the progeny of nucleus seed, also maintained
by original breeder along with either agricultural
university or research institute. It is also cent per
cent pure . It requires a golden yellow tag with length
of 12cm & width of 6 cm .
16. FOUNDATIONAL SEED
It is the progeny of nucleus or breeder seed,
maintain by either seed company or progressive
farmer under certification of State Agricultural
Department. It requires a white tag.
17. CERTIFIED SEED
It is the progeny of either foundation or registered*
seed, produced for mass multiplication among the
common farmers and approved by seed certifying
agency . It requires a azure blue tag with length of
15cm & width of 7.5cm.
18. TRUTHFULLY LABEL (TL) SEED
It is the progeny of either certified or registered* seed, supervised by
farmer . It requires a opal green tag with length of 15cm & width of
Registered Seed: It is the progeny of foundation seed raised on land of private
growers selected for this purpose and its genetic identity & purity are
maintained such as the certified .
19. GENERATION SYSTEM OF SEED
MULTIPLICATION AND THEIR TAG COLOUR
21. STEPS OF QUALITY SEED PRODUCTION
Genetic principles of Seed Production
Production of genetically pure and otherwise good quality
pedigree seed is an exacting task requiring high technical skills
and comparatively heavy financial investment.
During seed production strict attention must be given to the
maintenance of genetic purity and other qualities of seeds in
order to exploit the full dividends sought to be obtained by
introduction of new superior crop plant varieties.
In other words, seed production must be carried out under
standardized and well-organized condition
22. GENETIC PRINCIPLES OF SEED
Minor Genetic Variation
Selective Influence of Disease
Techniques of Plant Breeder
24. Agronomic Principles of Seed Production
Selection of Suitable Agro climatic Zone
Selection of Land
Isolation Distance of the Seed Crop
Preparation of the land
Selection of the variety
Time of Sowing / Planting
Method of Sowing
Depth of Sowing
Disease – Pest Control
Nutrition of the Crop
Drying Of Seed
Seed Testing Report
Biofortification & Biopriming
Seed Viability Test
Moisture Content Test
26. Bio-fortification: Greek word “bios” means “life” and Latin word
“fortificare” means “make strong”. Food fortification or
enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential
trace elements and vitamins) to food.
•Crop Bio-fortification is the idea of breeding crops to increase
their nutritional value.
Ex; Zn rice, Zn wheat,iron pearlmillate,QPM,Golden rice
Synonymous term to Biological seed treatment.
A new technique of integrating biological (inoculation of seed with beneficial
organism to protect seed) and physiological aspects (seed hydration) of disease
In broader sense, it is an ecological approach and an effective alternative to
chemical control unique from chemical seed treatments by their utilization of
living microorganisms.ex Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum
Biofortification & Biopriming
28. QUALITY SEED PRODUCTION IN A FLOW CHART
29. SEED PRODUCTION IN BCKV AT A GLANCE
SEED PRODUCTION OF DIFFERENT CROP(2016-17):
OILSEED 12 Tonnes
ELEPHANT FOOT YAM:15 Tonnes
(Source- Directorate of Farms, B.C.K.V.)
PRICE OF DIFFERENT CLASSES of
RICE SEED IN WB:
BREEDER SEED:Rs 61.50/kg
FOUNDATIONAL SEED:Rs 33/kg
CERTIFIED SEED:Rs 30/kg
30. Rice Varieties Cultivated in the BCKV Farms
IET 4786, Rajendra Bhabati, Swarna sub-1, Prathika, sahbhagi dhan,
DRR Dhan -39, Sujala, Kushala, Banskathi, Dudheswar, GB-1,GB-3.
Scented rice: Gobindobhog, Chinigora,Black rice.
TOTAL RICE SEED PRODUCTION IN DIFFERENT FARMS: 280 Mt
T.F.Mondouri-65 ton Canning- 7 ton
Balindi RC-46 ton Ragunathpur (RRSS)-11 ton
Kalyani AB-30 ton Chakdaha (RRSS)-15 ton
Kalyani C Unit-17 ton Sekhampur (RRSS)-10 ton
Kalyani C Block 10 ton Kakdwip (RRS)-11 ton
Kalyani D Block-55 ton Gayshpur (CRF)-3 ton
32. SEED CERTIFICATION
A legally sanctioned system to maintain quality of seeds during
seed production, post harvest operation and distribution of seeds.
Seed certification is a quality assurance process. Seeds intended
for domestic and international markets is controlled and inspected
by official sources in order to guarantee consistent high quality for
It includes field inspection, seed quality tests and pre & post
Certification is a voluntary process but labelling is compulsory.
33. CONCEPT OF SEED CERTIFICATION
Concept of seed certification was originated in Sweden during 20th Century by
visiting agronomist and plant breeder to the progressive farmers, who took
seeds from them, primarily with the objective of educating them on how to
avoid contamination. This initiated field inspection process.
• In India the field evaluation of the seed crop and its certification started with
the establishment of National Seed Corporation (NSC) in 1963.
• The seeds act of 1966 provided the required impetus for the establishment of
official seed certification agencies by the states.
• Maharashtra was the first state to establish an official seed certification
agencies during 1970 as part of department of agriculture.
34. PRINCIPLES OF FORMING SEED CERTIFICATION AGENCY
It should not involve in seed production and marketing.
It should have autonomy.
Seed certification procedure adopted should be uniform throughout
It should closely be associated with technical institutes.
It should operate on a no profit and no loss basis.
It should have adequate technical staff and facilities for timely
inspection of seed fields.
It should serve for the interests of seed producers and buyers.
35. ELEGIBILITY REQUEIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION
A variety to become eligible for seed certification
should meet the following requirements :
38. Field visit of certification team (SSC,WB) at Balindi Research Complex, BCKV
39. STATUS OF SEED REPLACEMENT IN
DIFFERENT CROP AND VARIETY
PADDY 33 82 AP 9 UTTRAKHAND
WHEAT 25 42 MAHARASTRA 11 J&K
MAIZE 50 100 KARNATAKA 5 ODISHA
JOWAR 26 65 AP 11 TAMILNADU
BAJRA 63 100 GUJARAT 29 KARNATAKA
SUNFLOWER 43 100 AP 8 MP
42. National Seed Production Agencies :-
National Seed Corporation (NSC), DELHI
State Farm Corporation of India (SFC)
Indian Councils of Agriculture Research (ICAR)
Indian Institute of Horticulture Research (IIHR)
India Agriculture Research Institute (IARI)
43. State Seed Production Agencies :-
State Seed Certification Ltd (SSCL), Ganesh Chandra Avenue, Kolkata-700013,
State Seed Certification (SSC), Tollygung, Kolkata
Private Seed Companies.
A number of private seed company are also engaged in seed production , research and
development activities 1969 onwards.
Syngenta India Ltd
Sutton and son Calculta (WB)
Bejo Sheetal hybrid seed Jalna (MH)
Unicorn group Hydrabad.
Namdari seeds Bangalore
Hinduston Lever Ltd Bombay
Pioneer Seed company Ltd Hyderabad
Maharashtra hybrid, seed company Jalna
Indo-American Hybrid seed Ltd Bangalore
Nath seeds Aurangabad
45. NATIONAL SEED POLICY
Objectives of the National Seeds Policy:
The provision of an appropriate climate for the seed
industry to utilize available and prospective
Safe guarding of the interests of Indian farmers and
the conservation of agro-biodiversity
A regulatory system of a new genre is, therefore,
which will encompass quality assurance mechanisms
coupled with facilitation of a vibrant and
responsible seed industry
46. Development of new and improved varieties of plants
Timely availability of quality seeds
Compulsory registration of seeds
Creation of infrastructure facilities
Quality assurance, promotion of seed industry,
Abolition of licensing for seed dealers,
Facility for import of best quality seeds,
Encouragement to export of seeds
Creation of Seed Banks and National Seed Grid.
47. SEED ACTS & POLICIES:
National seed act 1966
Seed control order 1983
New seed policy 1988
The Seeds Bill , 2004
National Seed plan-2005-06.
National Food Security Mission -2007
Export-Import policy 2002-07
Seed Bank Scheme, 2000
Enactment of the Seeds Act, 1966
Seed Review Team-SRT,1968
48. SEED IMPORT AND EXPORT
The annual import value of seed : Approx $200 mil.
Hybrid seed: annual import of 15000tons (75%):$45 mil.(mainly from
Hybrid Maize:10000 tons (60%) or $40 mil.(mainly from Thailand and India)
Vegetable seed: Imported 80% or $100 mil. Mainly from Thailand, China,
Japan, Korea and French.
Export of seed: Very small or insignificantly
49. QUALITY SEED PRODUCTION THROUGH
SEED VILLAGE SCHEME
“A seed village“ is a village where trained group of farmers are involved in
production 'of seeds of various crops and cater to the needs of themselves,
fellow farmers of the village and farmers of neighbouring villages in
appropriate time and at affordable cost.
To produce better quality of seeds through farmers’ participation, a new
initiative to Participatory Seed Production. This is a novel scheme of Govt. of
India run by State Agricultural Department.
CONCEPT OF SEED VILLAGE:
Organizing seed production in cluster (or) compact area
Replacing existing local varieties with new high yielding varieties.
Increasing the seed production
To meet the local demand, timely supply and reasonable cost
Self sufficiency and self reliance of the village
Increasing the seed replacement rate
Example: Gontra Village of Chakdah Block, WB, Kulgachi Village under
Krishnanagar Block 1
50. PATICIPATORY SEED PRODUCTION BY
DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL CREDIT SOCIETY
Seed Village Scheme
Model Village Scheme
Participation in Exhibition, Kisan Goshthis and farmers’
Revolving Fund Scheme
51. WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN QUALITY SEED PRODUCTION
Promotion of woman entrepreneurs in developing countries is essential
to reduce poverty and strengthening their socio-economic status.
It has been observed in a no. of countries that women can participate
as entrepreneurship more efficiently in agriculture if proper facilities
Women are good communicator and more conscious about making
An intelligent woman is an Efficient Manager and can handle her
business more effectively through SHG.
It is a holistic approach for rural women empowerment and through
which poverty can be reduced significantly.
53. SCOPE OF QUALITY SEED PRODUCTION IN
Moreover 40 % of food grain production comes from dry lands. India will
need 308.5 mt of food grains by 2030 to feed the growing population
At present, 3 ha of dry land crop produce cereal grain equivalent to
that produced in one ha irrigated area
Almost 80% of maize (Zea mays) and Jowar, 90% of Bajra and
approximately 95% of pulses and 75% of oilseeds are obtained from
54. SCOPE OF QUALITY SEED PRODUCTION IN
Vegetable are bestowed with title of protective food as being rich in
vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates mineral salts etc
In developing countries like like india , vegetables plays a tremendous
role in alleviating the malnutrition and improved nutritional standard.
India holds the second position in vegetable producer after china.
The total production of vegetables has increased from 23.4 MT in
1961-62 to the tune of 162.89 MT in 2013-14.
By following appropriate seed production techniques in vegetable
crop the growers can be able to produce quality seed for own use and
on the other hand can fetch handsome remuneration by selling seeds.
The overall vegetable production with respect to quantity and quality
can gain rapid momentum.
55. SCOPE OF ORGANIC SEED
At the simplest level,organic seed‟ means planting seed (i.e. „certified‟ seed)
that is produced and audited to internationally recognised organic agricultural
production standards, i.e. “certified organic”.
REASON TO GROW ORGANIC SEED:
The market is expanding for organic products
Consumers have concerns about environment and pesticides residues
STATUS OF ORGANIC SEED PRODUCTION OF DIFFERENT CROP:
India produced around 1.35 million MT (2015-16) of certified organic products
which includes all varieties of food products namely Sugarcane, Oil Seeds,
Cereals & Millets, Cotton, Pulses, Medicinal Plants, Tea, Fruits, Spices, Dry
Fruits, Vegetables, Coffee etc.
Among all the states, Madhya Pradesh has covered largest area under organic
certification followed by Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan.
EXPORTS:The total volume of export during 2015-16 was 263687 MT. The
organic food export realization was around 298 million USD.
56. THRUST AREA OF SEED PRODUCTION IN
Promotion of seed production unit/agency for Varietal development
and plant variety protection
Infrastructure development , seed production, processing and
Targeting export of seed and planting material
Strengthening rural youth and women for seed production ,
certification and marketing
Utilization of bio technology in seed production and germ plasm
Seed Replacement for self pollinated crops
Transgenic Plant Varieties
Promotion of Domestic Seed
Strengthening of monitoring system
Paleolithic man discovered the function of the seed and thereafter humans became
Seeds are the food for men, animals and birds.
Seed in Agriculture is a material which is used for planting or regeneration
Quality seed posses high vigour, genetically pure and free from disease and pest
Quality seed is a vital input in crop production
The good quality seed has high return per unit area as the genetic potentiality of
the crop can be fully exploited.
World seed production (million tonnes) of important crops as Rice -741, Wheat-
750, Maize-1061 m t production (FAO, 2016)
Indian Production of Seed (Metric tonnes) as Breeder -11222, Foundation-
Follow Genetic principles & Agronomic Procedures of Seed Production for quality
Seed certification is needed to ensure the acceptable standards of seed viability,
vigour, purity and seed health.
Quality Seed Production thrust areas – Infrastructure development, targeting
export, utilizing rural human resources for participatory seed production,
germplasm conservation and harnessing Biotechnology