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  2. 2. MINERALS • More than 50 elements are found in the human body which are required for growth, repair and regulation of vital body functions. • These are inorganic elements which are required in minute amounts in our body. • There are seven principal elements (macro-minerals) which constitute 60-80% of the body’s inorganic material. These are required in amounts greater than 100mg/day. These are also known as major minerals. • Micro-minerals are those minerals which are required in amounts less than 100mg/day. These are also known as trace minerals.
  3. 3. MACRO-MINERALS: 7 macro-minerals include: 1. Calcium 2. Phosphorus 3. Magnesium 4. Sodium 5. Potassium 6. chloride 7. Sulfur
  4. 4. MICRO-MINERALS Some of the important micro-minerals include: 1. Iron 2. Copper 3. Iodine 4. Manganese 5. Zinc 6. fluorine 7. Selenium
  5. 5. IRON: • Iron is a very essential micro-mineral that plays a key role in numerous bodily functions. • The foremost amongst them being proper red blood cell synthesis and transport of oxygen to various tissues and organs in the system.
  6. 6. IRON:
  7. 7. FUNCTIONS: • Forms a structural part of hemoglobin, a protein that is crucial for carrying oxygen in the blood • Ensures a healthy and safe pregnancy, by meeting vital nutrient requirements of both the expecting mother and the developing fetus. • Boosts the system's innate immune activity. • Helps cells meet energy requirements, to carry out routine biochemical roles • Promotes digestion and gut health • Enhances brain function, memory and concentration.
  8. 8. SOURCES OF IRON: Some common food sources abundant in iron include: • Green beans and peas • Lentils such as moong dal, urad dal, toor dal, channa • Whole grains like ragi, oats, quinoa • Dark green vegetables such as spinach, broccoli, kale, moringa leaves • Tofu • Potatoes • Cashew nuts
  9. 9. SUPPLEMENTS: In many instances, growing children, adolescents and even young adults do not consume a healthy balanced diet, thus not obtaining adequate amounts of iron required by blood cells in the body. Hence, iron supplements, taken once a day following a meal, vastly supplement the system’s requirements of iron, to perform usual biochemical enzymatic functions. Iron supplements usually are in the form of tablets of the ferrous sulphate salts, sometimes coupled with vitamin C, as vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that also increases the absorption of iron by tissues.
  10. 10. DEFICIENCY: • The deficiency of iron in the body leads to alarmingly low concentrations of healthy red blood cells. This, in turn, causes severe complications such as a lack of hemoglobin. • Whereas in the muscles and other tissues do not receive oxygen supply to carry out their normal functions. This is a condition referred to as iron deficiency anemia, common symptoms of which comprise fatigue, dizziness and difficulty breathing. • Consuming a diet rich in iron-fortified foods and taking iron supplements regularly can help alleviate symptoms of anemia.
  11. 11. SYMPTOMS OF IRON DEFICIENCY: • Extreme fatigue • Weakness • Pale skin • Chest pain, fast heartbeat or shortness of breath • Headache, dizziness or lightheadedness • Cold hands and feet • Inflammation or soreness of your tongue • Brittle nails
  12. 12. TOXICITY: • Too much iron in the body can cause grave consequences such as 1) Nausea 2) Vomiting 3) Upset stomach 4) Internal bleeding 5) In rare cases, even a coma.
  13. 13. CALCIUM: • Calcium is a macro-mineral most often associated with healthy bones and teeth, • Although it also plays an important role in blood clotting, helping muscles to contract, and regulating normal heart rhythms and nerve functions. • About 99% of the body’s calcium is stored in bones, and the remaining 1% is found in blood, muscle, and other tissues. Recommendations: • The RDA for adults is between 1,000-1,200 mg daily, depending on age.
  14. 14. FUNCTIONS: • Building strong bones and teeth. • Clotting blood. • Sending and receiving nerve signals. • Squeezing and relaxing muscles. • Releasing hormones and other chemicals. • Keeping a normal heartbeat.
  15. 15. SOURCES OF CALCIUM: • Dairy (cow, goat, sheep) and fortified plant-based milks (almond, soy, rice) • Cheese • Yogurt • Calcium-fortified orange juice • Winter squash • Tofu, made with calcium sulfate • Canned sardines, salmon (with bones) • Almonds • Leafy Green vegetables
  16. 16. SUPPLEMENTS:
  17. 17. DEFICIENCY: • The most common cause of calcium deficiency is not getting enough calcium in your diet. • Other causes include Being lactose intolerant or having celiac disease (gluten intolerance) Eating a high-protein diet that doesn't Include enough dairy products or leafy greens. • Hypocalcemia, also known as calcium deficiency disease, occurs when the blood has low levels of calcium.
  18. 18. SYMPTOMS OF CALCIUM DEFICIENCY: • A long-term calcium deficiency can lead to 1) Dental changes 2) Cataracts 3) Alterations in the brain 4) Osteoporosis, which causes the bones to become brittle. • A calcium deficiency may cause no early symptoms.
  19. 19. TOXICITY: • Too much calcium in your blood can 1) Weaken our bones 2) Create kidney stones 3) Alter heart and brain work. • Hypercalcemia is usually a result of overactive parathyroid glands. These four tiny glands are situated in the neck, near the thyroid gland.
  20. 20. COPPER: • Copper is a micro-mineral that is found throughout the body, as a part of many enzymes. Recommendations: • The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for adult men and women is 900 μg/day.
  21. 21. FUNCTIONS: • It helps your body make red blood cells and keeps nerve cells and your immune system healthy. • It also helps form collagen, a key part of bones and connective tissue. • Copper may also act as an antioxidant, reducing free radicals that can damage cells and DNA. • Copper works with iron to help the body form red blood cells. • Copper also aids in iron absorption
  22. 22. SOURCES OF COPPER: • The richest dietary copper sources include: 1. Shellfish 2. Seeds and nuts 3. Organ meats 4. Wheat-bran cereals 5. Whole-grain products 6. Chocolate
  23. 23. DEFICIENCY OF COPPER: • Common risk factors for copper deficiency are 1) Foregut surgery, 2) Dietary deficiency, 3) Enteropathies with Malabsorption 4) Prolonged intravenous nutrition (total parenteral nutrition).
  24. 24. SYMPTOMS OF COPPER DEFICIENCY: • Symptoms of copper deficiency include: • Fatigue and weakness due to a decreased number of red blood cells (anemia) and • Sometimes an increased risk of infections due to a decreased number of white blood cells.
  25. 25. TOXICITY OF COPPER: • Copper toxicity can result from chronic or long-term exposure to high levels of copper through contaminated food and water sources. • Symptoms of this condition include 1) diarrhea 2) headaches 3) In severe cases, kidney failure. 4) Certain genetic disorders, such as Wilson's disease, can also lead to copper toxicity.
  27. 27. SODIUM: • Sodium is a very important micro-nutrient required by all humans and is one of the body's electrolytes, which are minerals that the body needs in relatively large amounts. It is a chief cation of extracellular fluid. • Sodium helps the body keep fluids in a normal balance, along with another trace element potassium. • About 50% of sodium is present in the bones, 40% of sodium is present in extracellular fluid and the remaining 10% in the soft tissues.
  28. 28. FUNCTIONS: • It also plays a key role in normal nerve and muscle function. • Regulation of acid-base balance in association with chloride and bicarbonate • Maintenance of osmotic pressure and fluid balance • Necessary for initiating and maintaining heartbeat • Involved in the intestinal absorption of glucose, galactose and amino acids. Recommendation: American Heart Association recommends no more than 2,300 milligrams (mg) a day and moving toward an ideal limit of no more than 1,500 mg per day for most adults.
  29. 29. DIETARY SOURCES OF SODIUM: • Table salt • Bread, whole grains and nuts • Processed items and fried fast food • Spicy snacks such as chips, popcorn, cracker • sauces and dips • Leafy vegetable e.g Spinach, kale and broccoli • Frozen meat • Eggs and milk
  30. 30. SUPPLEMENTS:
  31. 31. DEFICIENCY OF SODIUM: • Hyponatremia is a deficiency disease wherein sodium concentrations in the body are very low. A normal blood sodium level is between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Hyponatremia occurs when the sodium in your blood falls below 135 mEq/L. • Occurs due to excessive vomiting, diarrhea, and excess sweating, chronic renal diseases and Addison’s disease (adrenocortical insufficiency) • Results in reduced blood pressure and circulatory failure.
  32. 32. SYMPTOMS OF SODIUM DEFICIENCY: • Headaches • Weakness • Low energy • Fatigue • Muscle cramps • Brain fog • Insomnia • Salt cravings (often mistaken for carb cravings) • Irritability or other mood disruptions
  33. 33. TOXICITY OF SODIUM: • If sodium concentration rises in the blood it causes 'Hypernatremia’, a condition where sodium accumulates in blood than the normal level which can lead to high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, kidney damage, seizures, coma, intense thirst, and death. • It may occur due to hyperactivity of adrenal cortex (Cushing’s syndrome) , prolonged administration of cortisone or sex hormones. • Loss of water from the body causing dehydration as it occurs in diabetes insipidus results in hypernatremia. In edema, along with water, sodium concentration in body is also elevated.
  34. 34. GUIDELINES FOR CUTTING DOWN ON SALT • Avoid salty foods in diets or choose low sodium foods. When reading food labels, low sodium is defined as 140 mg of sodium per serving. • Reduce the amount of salt used in cooking. • Season foods with spices, herbs, lemon, garlic, ginger, vinegar, and pepper. • Read ingredient labels if foods are with 400 mg or more of sodium then they are high in sodium. • Eat more home-cooked meals; they are naturally lower in sodium than packaged foods.
  35. 35. POTASSIUM: • Potassium is a macro-mineral required by the body to perform numerous important functions such as relaying nerve signals and regulating muscle contractions. In fact, it is the third most abundant mineral found in the human body, after calcium and phosphorous. It is the principal intracellular cation. • 80% of the mineral is found in muscle cells, while the remaining 20% is stored in bone tissue, liver as well as red blood cells. Recommendation: • RDA for potassium is 3500-4700mg/day.
  36. 36. FUNCTIONS: • Maintaining normal blood pressure • Transmitting nerve signals between organs • Controlling muscle contractions • Ensuring optimal water balance within the system • Balancing pH in the body between acidity and alkalinity • Upholding accurate heart rate i.e. pulse • Regulating proper digestion processes • Preventing stroke and heart disease • Sustaining regular heart muscle activity
  37. 37. SOURCES OF POTASSIUM: • fruits, such as apricots, bananas, kiwi, oranges, and pineapples • vegetables, such as leafy greens, carrots, and potatoes • lean meats • whole grains e.g brown rice, bread, oat bran • beans and nuts, seeds e.g flax seeds • Tender coconut water (richest source)
  38. 38. SUPPLEMENTS:
  39. 39. DEFICIENCY OF POTASSIUM: • Decrease in the concentration of serum potassium results in a deficiency disorder called hypokalemia. • Occurs due to: overactivity of adrenal cortex (Cushing syndrome), prolonged diarrhea and vomiting, severe sweating, prolonged cortisone therapy, treatment of diabetic coma with insulin, overuse of diuretics and use of antibiotics.
  40. 40. SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY OF POTASSIUM: • extreme fatigue • muscle spasms, weakness, or cramping • irregular heartbeat • constipation, nausea, or vomiting • Cardiomegaly • Cardiac arrest • Bloating and flatulence
  41. 41. TOXICITY: • When the potassium quantities in the system rise to alarmingly high levels, leading to hyperkalemia. • Occurs due to adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison’s disease), severe dehydration, renal failure, diabetic coma and administration of fluids with excessive potassium salts. • Signs include mental confusion, numbness, depression of central system, chest pain and finally cardiac arrest.
  42. 42. MAGNESIUM: • Magnesium is one of the vital macro-minerals required by the human body, along with calcium and phosphorous, to maintain optimal bone health. • Adult body contains about 20g magnesium. • 70% of which is found in bones in combination of calcium and phosphorus, remaining 30% is found in soft tissues and body fluids. Recommendation: • RDA for magnesium is 300-350mg/day.
  43. 43. FUNCTIONS: • Formation of bones and teeth • Preventing insulin resistance and lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes • Enhancing cardiac muscle activity • Necessary for proper neuromuscular function • Serves as a co-factor for several enzymes requiring ATP e.g hexokinase, glucokinase and phosphofructokinase.
  44. 44. DIETARY SOURCES OF MAGNESIUM: • Nuts and seeds like almonds • Dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach and kale • Whole wheat bread, oatmeal • Fruit such as figs, avocado, banana and raspberries • Legumes including black beans, chickpeas and kidney beans • Vegetables such as peas, broccoli, cabbage, green beans, artichokes, asparagus, brussels sprouts • Dark Chocolate
  45. 45. SUPPLEMENTS :
  46. 46. DEFICIENCY OF MAGNESIUM: • Malnutrition, alcoholism and cirrhosis of liver may lead to magnesium deficiency. • Deficiency causes muscular irritation, weakness, and convulsions. These symptoms are similar to that observed in tetany (Ca deficiency) which are relieved only by Mg. • Low levels of Mg may be observed in uremia, rickets and abnormal pregnancy.
  48. 48. TOXICITY: • Most of the magnesium consumed in the diet is flushed out by means of urine. • Situations of magnesium accumulating in the body to toxic levels do not occur often. • Nevertheless, when magnesium toxicity is detected in a person, grave complications like kidney problems, central nervous system malfunctioning and cardiac arrest can occur. Hence, prompt medical treatment is required in such cases, for normalizing body functions in the person.
  49. 49. IODINE: • Iodine is an element that occurs naturally in the soil landmass as well as ocean waters on earth. • It is one of the micro-mineral that is required by our body. Our body contains about 20mg of iodine. • 80% of it is present in thyroid gland. Muscle, salivary glands and ovaries also contain some amount of iodine. Recommendation: • RDA of iodine for adults is 100-150mcg and for pregnant women is 200mcg.
  50. 50. FUNCTIONS: • Maintaining normal synthesis and operation of thyroid hormone, by catalyzing the conversion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) into triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), thus uplifting immunity, heart wellness and metabolism. • Preventing the incidence of hypothyroidism, i.e. an underactive thyroid gland • Ensuring optimal neural development in the growing fetus in pregnancy • Lowering the risk of goitre, which results in enlargement of the thyroid gland • Promoting memory, concentration, intelligence, rational thinking and other brain operations
  51. 51. DIETARY SOURCES OF IODINE: • Dairy produce including milk, yoghurt, cheese • Eggs and seafood such as fish • Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower • Fruits consisting of dried plums, also known as prunes, bananas • Iodized salt
  52. 52. IODIZED SALT: • A manufactured seasoning wherein regular sea salt is fortified with iodine
  53. 53. SUPPLEMENTS:
  54. 54. DEFICIENCY OF IODINE: • The main deficiency disorder arising from low intake of iodine on a routine basis is hypothyroidism. When iodine supplied form diet is only in minute volumes, as low as 10 to 20 micrograms per day, the thyroid stimulating hormone cannot perform its bodily tasks. This is characterized by a significant swelling in the thyroid gland, in the neck, referred to as goiter. • Hypothyroidism also results in severe exhaustion, fatigue and body weakness.
  56. 56. TOXICITY: • The highest level of daily iodine intake must not exceed 1100 micrograms for adults. Sometimes, iodine is consumed in huge amounts for a prolonged period of time, which causes excess accumulation of the mineral in the body. This results in serious inflammatory conditions of thyroiditis and even thyroid papillary cancer. • Rarely, iodine poisoning happens in the system, which gives rise to painful, burning sensations in the mouth, throat, stomach, abdominal complications of diarrhea, vomiting and grave complications including a weakened pulse and coma.
  57. 57. RDA FOR PHOSPHORUS : 800mg/day
  58. 58. SUPPLEMENTS :
  59. 59.  RDA FOR ZINC IS: 10-15mg/day
  60. 60. FUNCTIONS:
  62. 62. SUPPLEMENTS :
  64. 64. CHLORIDE:
  65. 65. SUPPLEMENTS :
  66. 66. FUNCTIONS:
  67. 67. SUPPLEMENTS:
  68. 68. SELENIUM:
  69. 69. SOURCES:
  70. 70. SUPPLEMENTS:
  71. 71. SUPPLEMENTS :

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