Different types of inflation

DIFFERENT
TYPES OF
INFLATION
Rajbardhan singh
B.A.LL.B.(H)
sikarwarrajthakur@gmail.com
2/28/2021 Annual Review 2
INDEX
1. Introduction
2. Definition
3. Different types of inflation on
different basis
4. Demand pull inflation Meaning
Causes Effects
5. Cost push inflation Meaning
Causes Effects
6. Markup inflation
7. Conclusion
2/28/2021 Annual Review 3
INTRODUCTION
Unlimited human wants is one of the basic
economic problems. Humans always want a big
and diversified set of products as well as a host of
services for living a comfortable life. Inflation
aims to measure the overall impact of price
changes for a diversified set of products and
services and allows for a single value
representation of the increase in the price level of
goods and services in an economy over a period of
time.
2/28/2021 Annual Review 4
DEFINITION
 Crowther- Inflation is a state in which value of money is falling and
prices are rising.
 ACI Day- Inflation consists of a process of rising prices.
 Paul A Samuelson- Inflation is a time of generally rise in prices for
goods and factors of production.
2/28/2021 Annual Review 5
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
INFLATION
On the basis of degree
of control
 Open inflation
 Suppressed inflation
 Partial inflation
 Full inflation
On the basis of rate of
employment
On the basis of rate of
employment
 Creeping inflation
 Walking inflation
 Galloping inflation
 Hyper-inflation
2/28/2021 Annual Review 6
Some other inflation
 Stagflation
 Core inflation
 Asset inflation
 Demand pull inflation
 Cost push inflation
 Markup inflation
Types of inflation on
the basis of causes
2/28/2021 Annual Review 7
DEMAND PULL INFLATION
Demand pull inflation is set in motion when consumer
demand increases. when the aggregate demand for
goods and services is higher than aggregate supply,
sellers will raise prices as a result. This price hike is
called demand pull inflation. Demand pull inflation is
one of the most common causes of inflation in the
economy.
2/28/2021 Annual Review 8
CAUSES OF DEMAND PULL
INFLATION
 Increase in consumer expenditure.
 Increase in money supply and bank credit i.e. Money
supply expansion.
 Increase in public expenditure i.e. Government spending.
 Reduction in taxes.
 Inflation expectation.
 Strong branding.
 Growing economy.
 Increase in population.
 Increase in foreign demand for domestic goods.
2/28/2021 Annual Review 9
DEMAND PULL INFLATION USING AS-AD DIAGRAM
2/28/2021 Annual Review 10
EFFECTS OF DEMAND PULL
INFLATION
 Demand pull inflation creates imbalance in the usual relationship between supply and demand
because production cannot keep up with consumer demand for any of the reasons outlined above
higher prices are the ultimate result.
Some other effects are:-
● Produces purchasing power of consumers.
● Increases the cost of borrowing.
● Potential impact on currency rates.
● Continued inflation growth.
● Encourages spending to avoid impact of further inflation.
2/28/2021 Annual Review 11
COST PUSH INFLATION
Cost push inflation occurs when overall prices increase due to increase in the
cost of factors of production. Higher cost of production can decrease the
aggregate supply in the economy. Since the demand for goods has not
changed, the price increases from production are passed on to consumers
creating cost push inflation.
2/28/2021 Annual Review 12
CAUSES OF COST PUSH INFLATION
 Increase in labour cost.
 Increase in interest rate.
 Increase in rent.
 Increase in profit margin.
 Increase in raw material.
 Reduction in subsidies.
 Increase in indirect taxes.
 Natural disasters.
 Devaluation of currency.
2/28/2021 Annual Review 13
COST PUSH INFLATION USING AS-AD DIAGRAM
2/28/2021 Annual Review 14
EFFECTS OF COST
INFLATIONS
 The inflation caused by cost push inflation is somewhat the wrong kind of inflation. Cost
push inflation is characterized by rising prices and falling real GDP.
Some other effects are:-
● Productivity level of the economy deteriorates.
● Decreases employment.
● Decline in real GDP.
● Laying off of workers.
● Fall in living standards.
2/28/2021 Annual Review 15
MARKUP INFLATION
 The theory of markup inflation is mainly associated with Professor Ackley. Firms fix administrative prices
for their goods by adding to their direct material and labour costs and some standard markup which covers
profit. labour also seeks wages on the basis of fixed markup over its cost of living.This model of inflation
can lead to a stable,a rising or a following price level depending on the mark of switch firms and workers
respectively use. Increase in prices to maintain desired markup leads to increase in prices of other firms.
When consumers buy such goods, their cost of living rises.This leads in rising of wage costs.
 According to Ackley, the size of the markup applied by firms and workers is a function of the pressure of
demand felt in the economy.To conclude with Ackley, " Inflation might start from an initial autonomous
increase either in business and labour markets or it may start from an increase in aggregate demand and
which first and most directly affected some of the flexible market determined prices. But however it
starts,the process involves the interaction of demand and market elements.
2/28/2021 Annual Review 16
CONCLUSION
Basically inflation refers to a substantial rise in
the prices of the goods and services in the
economy. There are various causes due to which
inflation occurs in the economy. Due to its
occurrence, Inflation has various types on the
basis of degree of control, employment, inflation
rate and causes. Inflation is controlled by the
central bank in the economy through its monetary
and fiscal policies which can vary from time to
time.
THANKYOU
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Different types of inflation

  • 2. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 2 INDEX 1. Introduction 2. Definition 3. Different types of inflation on different basis 4. Demand pull inflation Meaning Causes Effects 5. Cost push inflation Meaning Causes Effects 6. Markup inflation 7. Conclusion
  • 3. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 3 INTRODUCTION Unlimited human wants is one of the basic economic problems. Humans always want a big and diversified set of products as well as a host of services for living a comfortable life. Inflation aims to measure the overall impact of price changes for a diversified set of products and services and allows for a single value representation of the increase in the price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
  • 4. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 4 DEFINITION  Crowther- Inflation is a state in which value of money is falling and prices are rising.  ACI Day- Inflation consists of a process of rising prices.  Paul A Samuelson- Inflation is a time of generally rise in prices for goods and factors of production.
  • 5. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 5 DIFFERENT TYPES OF INFLATION On the basis of degree of control  Open inflation  Suppressed inflation  Partial inflation  Full inflation On the basis of rate of employment On the basis of rate of employment  Creeping inflation  Walking inflation  Galloping inflation  Hyper-inflation
  • 6. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 6 Some other inflation  Stagflation  Core inflation  Asset inflation  Demand pull inflation  Cost push inflation  Markup inflation Types of inflation on the basis of causes
  • 7. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 7 DEMAND PULL INFLATION Demand pull inflation is set in motion when consumer demand increases. when the aggregate demand for goods and services is higher than aggregate supply, sellers will raise prices as a result. This price hike is called demand pull inflation. Demand pull inflation is one of the most common causes of inflation in the economy.
  • 8. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 8 CAUSES OF DEMAND PULL INFLATION  Increase in consumer expenditure.  Increase in money supply and bank credit i.e. Money supply expansion.  Increase in public expenditure i.e. Government spending.  Reduction in taxes.  Inflation expectation.  Strong branding.  Growing economy.  Increase in population.  Increase in foreign demand for domestic goods.
  • 9. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 9 DEMAND PULL INFLATION USING AS-AD DIAGRAM
  • 10. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 10 EFFECTS OF DEMAND PULL INFLATION  Demand pull inflation creates imbalance in the usual relationship between supply and demand because production cannot keep up with consumer demand for any of the reasons outlined above higher prices are the ultimate result. Some other effects are:- ● Produces purchasing power of consumers. ● Increases the cost of borrowing. ● Potential impact on currency rates. ● Continued inflation growth. ● Encourages spending to avoid impact of further inflation.
  • 11. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 11 COST PUSH INFLATION Cost push inflation occurs when overall prices increase due to increase in the cost of factors of production. Higher cost of production can decrease the aggregate supply in the economy. Since the demand for goods has not changed, the price increases from production are passed on to consumers creating cost push inflation.
  • 12. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 12 CAUSES OF COST PUSH INFLATION  Increase in labour cost.  Increase in interest rate.  Increase in rent.  Increase in profit margin.  Increase in raw material.  Reduction in subsidies.  Increase in indirect taxes.  Natural disasters.  Devaluation of currency.
  • 13. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 13 COST PUSH INFLATION USING AS-AD DIAGRAM
  • 14. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 14 EFFECTS OF COST INFLATIONS  The inflation caused by cost push inflation is somewhat the wrong kind of inflation. Cost push inflation is characterized by rising prices and falling real GDP. Some other effects are:- ● Productivity level of the economy deteriorates. ● Decreases employment. ● Decline in real GDP. ● Laying off of workers. ● Fall in living standards.
  • 15. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 15 MARKUP INFLATION  The theory of markup inflation is mainly associated with Professor Ackley. Firms fix administrative prices for their goods by adding to their direct material and labour costs and some standard markup which covers profit. labour also seeks wages on the basis of fixed markup over its cost of living.This model of inflation can lead to a stable,a rising or a following price level depending on the mark of switch firms and workers respectively use. Increase in prices to maintain desired markup leads to increase in prices of other firms. When consumers buy such goods, their cost of living rises.This leads in rising of wage costs.  According to Ackley, the size of the markup applied by firms and workers is a function of the pressure of demand felt in the economy.To conclude with Ackley, " Inflation might start from an initial autonomous increase either in business and labour markets or it may start from an increase in aggregate demand and which first and most directly affected some of the flexible market determined prices. But however it starts,the process involves the interaction of demand and market elements.
  • 16. 2/28/2021 Annual Review 16 CONCLUSION Basically inflation refers to a substantial rise in the prices of the goods and services in the economy. There are various causes due to which inflation occurs in the economy. Due to its occurrence, Inflation has various types on the basis of degree of control, employment, inflation rate and causes. Inflation is controlled by the central bank in the economy through its monetary and fiscal policies which can vary from time to time.