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personality is a person’s pattern of habits, attitudes and traits which
determine his adjustment to his environment
Personality is known by the conduct, behavior, movements and everything else
concerning the individual
The term personality is derived from the Latin word 'persona’
it was used by the actors to change their appearance
Personality hides the actual introduction of an Individual and reflects
special characteristics and qualities
Personality is not a fixed state but a dynamic totality which continuously
changes due to relation with environment
Personality is a set of all those specific qualities acquired by an
individual through socialization
Personality is one’s effect upon other people
Personality is also used colloquially to imply personal attractiveness, the
ability to withstand hardships and other specific qualities
Personality is the most characteristic integration of individuals structure,
modes of behavior, interests, abilities and aptitudes
The Personality is the combination of activities whether internal or external.
It can be said like as organization of internal and external activities
Allport –“Personality is the dynamic organization, within the individual of
those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his
Stephen p. Robbins – “ Personality is the sum total of ways in which an
individual reacts and interacts with others.”
Moorhead & Griffin – “ The personality is the relatively stable set of
psychological attributes that distinguish one person from another.”
So meaning of personality could be
1) Personality means, the sum of the characteristics which make up physical and
mental being, including manners, tastes and moral character;
2) Personality is the characteristics that distinguish one person from another (this
is equivalent to individuality);
3) Personality is the capacity for having mental states, i.e., possessing a stream of
4) Personality means, the organized pattern of behavior and attitudes that makes a
human being distinctive.
5) Personality is the behaviors and techniques for solving problems that are used
by an individual - personality is to the individual as culture is to the group.
6) Personality is formed by the ongoing interaction of temperament character and
7) Personality includes, personal beliefs, expectations, desires, values and
behaviors that drive from interactions, between culture and the individual.
Nature of Personality:
• Personality refers to relatively dynamic or stable set of characteristics
and tendencies of an individual. The characteristics can be physical
• Personality is not related to bodily structure alone. It includes both
structure and dynamics.
• Personality is concerned with factors that explain both commonalities
and differences in behavior.
• Outcome interaction of heredity and environment
• Personality is concerned with reactions and interactions of individual
with factors within people that cause to behave them as they do. It
describes the structure of person.
•Personality is concerned with reaction and interactions of
individual with others and the situation. The interactions
take place in environmental setting at different time
•Personality is goal-directed behavior.
•Personality is an important factor in understanding and
predicting individual behavior.
•Every personality is unique.
Factors determining personality:
• Personality of an individual is determined by different factors some of them are
• biological and
A. Biological factor :
Heredity is one of the powerful factors that contribute to the formation of human personality.
It is through the process of heredity that children normally get some of the physical and
psychological characteristics of their parents.
Heredity refers to the biological process of transmission of certain biological and psychological
characteristics from parents to their children through genes.
Sex, colour of eyes and hair, complexion form, distribution of hair, finger prints, form of body,
chemical composition of blood, the blood types, efficiency of brain, immunity of various diseases
etc. are determined by heredity
• Nervous System: Nervous System controls or limits ones learning capacity. It is evident that
development of personality is influenced by nature of nervous system.
• Endocrine Glands
Thyroid Gland: The secretion of this
gland is called thyroxin which influences
the rate of physical growth.
Parathyroid Gland: The main function
of this gland is to control the quantity
of calcium which makes the development
of bones and teeth smooth, if its secretion
Adrenal Gland: The secretion from this gland stimulates the blood supply and
influences liver. As a result, fatigue is reduced and the wastes of the body are
Pituitary Gland: The hormone secreted from the anterior part of this gland controls the
secretions of various glands and the secretion from its posterior part stimulates the
Gonad Gland: The secretion from these glands is called gonadal hormones (Progestin,
Androgens and Estrogens). Due to these secretions males have masculine traits and
females have feminine qualities.
• Physical features:
A vital ingredient of the personality, an individual's external appearance, is biologically
The fact that a person is tall or short, height, weight, physical defects fat or skinny, black
or white will influence the person's effect on others and this in turn, will affect the self-
Practically all would agree that physical characteristics have at least some influence on
Environmental (physical and socio-cultural factors):
• Geographical environment: Individuals personality is influenced by the geographical
conditions. An individual’s thinking or creativity and his external characteristics like skin
colour, health etc. may get influenced by the natural environment
• Childhood experiences: It is of vital importance. When in childhood, the individual is
hunted by tensions and emotions, it influences its development. the person is affected
most by his relations with mother during early period. child’s socialization and
development was influence by the presence and absence of father. If there are more
members in the family then language and other mental abilities of the child develop
faster. The economic condition of the family also affects the personality. The children of
a poor family may develop a feeling of inferiority and insecurity
• School: School plays a major role in the development of personality. Most precious
thing is the teachers personality. That is, the attitudes, beliefs habits, etc of teacher. It
really affects the development of personality. Also, how teacher teaches to an
individual. It plays a vital role.
• Culture: Personality is the image or mirror of culture. It plays a great role in the
development of personality.
• Other Environmental factors lie clubs, cinemas, mosques, churches, etc., lays a
Theories of personality
•Theory of Freud
Sigmund Freud is considered to be the father of psychiatry
Austrian psychiatrist and founder of psychoanalysis
contributed much towards the clarification of personality development
Freudian theory of personality. It has been the focus of many additions,
modifications, and various interpretations given to its core points
behavior and personality as being the product of nature and nurture
believed that human beings are born with certain innate natural drives or
The adult personality emerges as a composite of early childhood experiences
experiences are consciously and unconsciously processed within human
developmental stages, shape the personality.
Stages of Development
Believing that most human suffering is determined during childhood development,
Freud placed emphasis on the five stages of psychosexual development. As a child passes
through these stages unresolved conflicts between physical drives and social expectation
• These stages are:
• Oral (0 – 1.5 years of age): Fixation on all things oral. If not satisfactorily met there is
the likelihood of developing negative oral habits or behaviors.
• Anal (1.5 to 3 years of age): As indicated this stage is primarily related to developing
healthy toilet training habits.
• Phallic (3 – 5 year of age): The development of healthy substitutes for the sexual
attraction boys and girls have toward a parent of the opposite gender.
• Latency (5 – 12 years of age): The development of healthy dormant sexual feelings for
the opposite sex.
• Genital (12 – adulthood): All tasks from the previous four stages are integrated into
the mind allowing for the onset of healthy sexual feelings and behaviors
TripartiteTheory of Personality
• during the stages of development the experiences are filtered through
the three levels of the human mind
• Each stage is processed through Freud’s concept of the human mind as
a three tier system consisting of the superego, the ego, and the id
• Freudian theory views the socialization process as a struggle between
these natural drives and society’s expectations
• Freud referred these natural drives as:
animal impulses or all the unconscious impulses of men.
demand for immediate fulfillment without considering social rules or
The egocentric center of the human universe, Freud believed that
within this one level, the id is constantly fighting to have our way in
everything we undertake.
The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for
immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs.
If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a
state anxiety or tension.
For eg. If the infant is hungry or uncomfortable, he or she will
cry until the demands of the id are satisfied. Because young
infants are ruled entirely by the id
According to Freud, the id tries to resolve the tension created
by the pleasure principle through the primary process, which
involves forming a mental image of the desired object as a way
of satisfying the need.
The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for
dealing with reality.
the mediator between desires and action.
represses the urge of ‘ID’ when necessary. a set of adjustment
kill acquired by an individual.
The ego operates based on the reality principle, which strives to
satisfy the id's desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways.
In many cases, the id's impulses can be satisfied through a
process of delayed gratification—the ego will eventually allow
the behavior, but only in the appropriate time and place.
Freud compared the id to a horse and the ego to the horse's
behavior norms of society.
man can judge any behavior good or bad, moral or immoral.
The superego works to suppress the urges of the id and tries to make
the ego behave morally, rather than realistically.
The ideals that contribute to the formation of the superego include
not just the morals and values that we have learned from our parents,
but also the ideas of right and wrong that we acquire from society
and the culture in which we live.
The primary action of the superego is to suppress entirely any urges
or desires of the id that are considered wrong or socially
the superego strives for moral perfections, without taking reality into
What Happens If There Is an Imbalance?
• According to Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the id, the
ego, and the superego.
• If the ego is able to adequately moderate between the demands of reality, the id, and
the superego, a healthy and well-adjusted personality emerges.
• Freud believed that an imbalance between these elements would lead to a
• An individual with an overly dominant id, for example, might become impulsive,
uncontrollable, or even criminal. This individual acts upon his or her most basic urges
with no concern for whether the behavior is appropriate, acceptable, or legal.
• An overly dominant superego, on the other hand, might lead to a personality that is
extremely moralistic and possibly judgmental. This person may be very unable to
accept anything or anyone that he or she perceives as "bad" or "immoral."
• An excessively dominant ego can also result in problems. An individual with this type of
personality might be so tied to reality, rules, and appropriateness that they are unable
to engage in any type of spontaneous or unexpected behavior. This individual may
seem very concrete and rigid, incapable of accepting change and lacking an internal
sense of right from wrong.
Trait Theories of Personalities
• Trait is an identifying characteristic, habit, or trend.
• Allport's & Cattell‘s trait theories propose that individuals possess certain personality traits
that partially determine their behavior
• Gordon Allport organized traits into a hierarchy of three levels: cardinal traits, central traits,
and secondary traits.
• Using a statistical process known as factor analysis, Raymond Cattell generated sixteen
dimensions of human personality traits, known as the 16PF.
• Trait theorists believe personality can be understood by positing that all people have certain
traits, or characteristic ways of behaving. Do you tend to be sociable or shy? Passive or
aggressive? Optimistic or pessimistic?
• personality traits are prominent aspects of personality that are exhibited in a wide range of
important social and personal contexts.
• individuals have certain characteristics that partly determine their behavior; these traits are
trends in behavior or attitude that tend to be present regardless of the situation.
• An example of a trait is extraversion–introversion. Extraversion tends to be manifested in
outgoing, talkative, energetic behavior, whereas introversion is manifested in more reserved
and solitary behavior.
• An individual may fall along any point in the continuum, and the location where the individual
falls will determine how he or she responds to various situations.
Gordon Allport (1897–1967)
• Gordon Allport was one of the first modern trait theorists.
• Allport and Henry Odbert worked through two of the most
comprehensive dictionaries of the English language available
and extracted around 18,000 personality-describing words. From this list they
reduced the number of words to approximately 4,500 personality-describing
adjectives which they considered to describe observable and relatively
permanent personality traits.
• Allport's theory of personality emphasizes the uniqueness of the individual
and the internal cognitive and motivational processes that influence
behavior. For example, intelligence, temperament, habits, skills, attitudes,
• Allport believes that personality is biologically determined at birth, and
shaped by a person's environmental experience.
Allport organized these traits into a hierarchy of three levels:
• Cardinal traits
dominate and shape an individual's behavior, such as the words "Christ-like“
and "Freudian" .
The origins and meanings of these traits are very easy to determine.
A person may be called "Christ-like" if he sacrifices his own good for the
benefit of others.
Cardinal traits, therefore, are the ones that dominate the entirety of a
person's life such that a person carrying such trait may even become famous
and have their name become synonymous with these traits.
They stand at the top of the hierarchy and are collectively known as the
individual's master control.
They are considered to be an individual's ruling passions.
Cardinal traits are powerful, but few people have personalities dominated by a
single trait. Instead, our personalities are typically composed of multiple traits.
• Central traits
These are general characteristics found in varying degrees in every person (such as
loyalty, kindness, agreeableness, friendliness, sneakiness, wildness, or grouchiness).
They are the basic building blocks that shape most of our behavior.
These are general characteristics that we use to describe another person. Examples
include kind, sincere, cool and jolly.
• Secondary traits
exist at the bottom of the hierarchy and are not quite as obvious or consistent as
They are plentiful but are only present under specific circumstances
they include things like preferences and attitudes.
These secondary traits explain why a person may at times exhibit behaviors that seem
incongruent with their usual behaviors.
For example, a friendly person gets angry when people try to tickle him; another is not
an anxious person but always feels nervous speaking publicly.
Raymond Cattell's 16PF Trait Theory
Raymond Cattell (1905–1998) put an effort to make Allport's
list of 4,500 traits more manageable,
removed all the synonyms, reducing the number down to 171.
According to him a trait is either present or absent does not accurately reflect a
person’s uniqueness, because all of our personalities are actually made up of the
same traits; we differ only in the degree to which each trait is expressed.
Cattell believed it necessary to sample a wide range of variables to capture a full
understanding of personality.
The first type of data was life data, which involves collecting information from an
individual's natural everyday life behaviors.
Experimental data involves measuring reactions to standardized experimental
questionnaire data involves gathering responses based on introspection by an
individual about his or her own behavior and feelings.
Using this data, Cattell performed factor analysis to generate sixteen dimensions
of human personality
• Based on the 16 factors, he developed a personality assessment called the 16PF.
• Instead of a trait being present or absent, each dimension is scored over a continuum, from high to low.
For example, your level of warmth describes how warm, caring, and nice to others you are. If you score
low on this index, you tend to be more distant and cold. A high score on this index signifies you are
supportive and comforting.
• The sixteen personality factors or 16PF psychometric test assesses various primary personality traits in
order to provide feedback about an individual’s disposition, traditionally used by psychologists in a
clinical or research setting and more recently by recruitment consultants and prospective employers.
• Personality characteristics have been linked to job performance and satisfaction within occupational
roles by a number of psychological studies, suggesting that not only will some individuals perform at a
higher level in a specific employment; they are also more likely to gain greater satisfaction and
fulfilment from a job that is suited to their character.
• The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire is a comprehensive measure of normal range personality.
It gives a deep, integrated picture of the whole person, including both personal
strengths and weaknesses.
• the 16PF aims to evaluate personality in terms of traits and individual qualities; however, these are
assessed on a scale among a range of aspects, as opposed to being given a score of high to low.
• By focusing on the sixteen primary personality traits instead of condensing them into a smaller number
of global personality factors, the 16PF offers a range of information regarding individual disposition, also
making it ideal for personal development within an occupational setting.
• The 16PF (16 Personality Factors Test) has 160 questions in total, 10 questions relating to each
The 16 personality traits include
1. Warmth, which is considered to indicate friendliness towards others and
willingness to participate.
2. Reasoning, which is thought to be indicative of cognitive ability and intellect;
3. Emotional Stability, which refers to the candidate’s ability to adapt while under
stress and whether they are easily upset.
4. Dominance, which ascertains to levels of aggression, assertiveness and co-
5. Liveliness, which tends to indicate whether the candidate is likely to be cheerful
or expressive as opposed to introverted or serious.
6. Rule-Consciousness, which generally conveys attitudes towards authority and
likelihood of obedience.
7. Social Boldness, which refers to whether an individual is likely to be timid or shy
as opposed to being uninhibited or out-going.
8. Sensitivity, which considers whether the candidate is compassionate and
sympathetic to others or if they tend to be more objective.
9. Vigilance, which specifies how trusting, accepting or suspicious the individual may be
10. Abstractedness, which can refer to being imaginative or solution orientated but at the
higher level can also suggest being impractical.
11. Privateness, which can indicate how forthright or non-disclosing an individual might
12. Apprehension, which is descriptive of whether someone may be more self-assured or
13. Openness to Change, which is regarded as flexibility and a liberal attitude as opposed
to being attached to the familiar.
14. Self-Reliance, which identifies how self-sufficient or group orientated an individual
15. Perfectionism, which refers to self-discipline and precision as opposed to
16. Tension, which conveys the likelihood of being time driven or impatient instead of
being relaxed and patient
Big Five personality traits
• The Big Five personality traits, also known as the five factor model (FFM), is a model based on common
language descriptors of personality.
• When factor analysis (a statistical technique) is applied to personality survey data, some words used to
describe aspects of personality are often applied to the same person.
• For example, someone described as "conscientious" is more likely to be described as "always prepared"
rather than "messy".
• This theory is based on the association between words but not on neuropsychological experiments.
• This theory uses descriptors of common language and therefore suggests five broad dimensions
commonly used to describe the human personality and psyche.
• For example, extraversion is said to include such related qualities as gregariousness, assertiveness,
excitement seeking, warmth, activity, and positive emotions.
• the five factors grew out of decades of personality research, growing from the foundations of Cattell’s 16
factors and becoming the most accepted model of personality to date. This model has been translated
into several languages and applied in dozens of cultures, resulting in research that not only confirms its
validity as a theory of personality but also establishes its validity on an international level.
• These five factors do not provide completely exhaustive explanations of
personality, but they are known as the “Big Five” because they encompass a large
portion of personality-related terms.
• Lewis Goldberg may be the most prominent researcher in the field of personality
psychology. His groundbreaking work whittled down Raymond Cattell’s 16
“fundamental factors” of personality into five primary factors, similar to the five
factors found by fellow psychology researchers in the 1960s.
• five factor model caught the attention of two other renowned personality
researchers, Paul Costa and Robert McCrae, who confirmed the validity of this
• This model was termed the “Big Five” and launched thousands of explorations of
personality within its framework, across multiple continents and cultures and
with a wide variety of populations.
• The five factors have been defined as openness to
experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism,
often represented by the acronyms OCEAN or CANOE. Beneath each proposed
global factor, a number of correlated and more specific primary factors are
1. Openness to experience: (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious).
• Appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of experience.
• Openness reflects the degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity and a preference for novelty and variety
a person has.
• It is also described as the extent to which a person is imaginative or independent and depicts a personal
preference for a variety of activities over a strict routine.
• High openness can be perceived as unpredictability or lack of focus.
• Moreover, individuals with high openness are said to pursue self-actualization specifically by seeking
out intense, euphoric experiences. Conversely, those with low openness seek to gain fulfillment through
perseverance and are characterized as pragmatic and data-driven—sometimes even perceived to be
dogmatic and closed-minded.
• Sample items:
• I have excellent ideas.
• I am quick to understand things.
• I use difficult words.
• I am full of ideas.
• I am not interested in abstractions. (reversed)
• I do not have a good imagination. (reversed)
• I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas. (reversed)
• Conscientiousness: (efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless).
• A tendency to be organized and dependable, show self-discipline, act dutifully, aim for
achievement, and prefer planned rather than spontaneous behavior.
• High conscientiousness is often perceived as stubbornness and obsession.
• Low conscientiousness is associated with flexibility and spontaneity, but can also appear as
sloppiness and lack of reliability.
• Sample items:
• I am always prepared.
• I pay attention to details.
• I get chores done right away.
• I like order.
• I follow a schedule.
• I am exacting in my work.
• I leave my belongings around. (reversed)
• I make a mess of things. (reversed)
• I often forget to put things back in their proper place. (reversed)
• I shirk my duties. (reversed)
Extraversion: (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved).
• Energy, positive emotions, assertiveness, sociability and the tendency to
seek stimulation in the company of others, and talkativeness.
• High extraversion is often perceived as attention-seeking, and domineering.
• Low extraversion causes a reserved, reflective personality, which can be perceived as
aloof or self-absorbed.
• Sample items:
• I am the life of the party.
• I don't mind being the center of attention.
• I feel comfortable around people.
• I start conversations.
• I talk to a lot of different people at parties.
• I don't talk a lot. (reversed)
• I think a lot before I speak or act. (reversed)
• I don't like to draw attention to myself. (reversed)
• I am quiet around strangers. (reversed)
• I have no intention of talking in large crowds. (reversed)
• Agreeableness: (friendly/compassionate vs. challenging/detached).
• A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards
• It is also a measure of one's trusting and helpful nature, and whether a person is generally well-
tempered or not.
• High agreeableness is often seen as naive or submissive.
• Low agreeableness personalities are often competitive or challenging people, which can be seen as
argumentativeness or untrustworthiness.
• Sample items
• I am interested in people.
• I sympathize with others' feelings.
• I have a soft heart.
• I take time out for others.
• I feel others' emotions.
• I make people feel at ease.
• I am not really interested in others. (reversed)
• I insult people. (reversed)
• I am not interested in other people's problems. (reversed)
• I feel little concern for others. (reversed)
• Neuroticism: (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident).
• The tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression,
• Neuroticism also refers to the degree of emotional stability and impulse control and is
sometimes referred to by its low pole, "emotional stability".
• A high need for stability manifests itself as a stable and calm personality, but can be seen as
uninspiring and unconcerned.
• A low need for stability causes a reactive and excitable personality, often very dynamic
individuals, but they can be perceived as unstable or insecure.
• Sample items
• I get irritated easily.
• I get stressed out easily.
• I get upset easily.
• I have frequent mood swings.
• I worry about things.
• I am much more anxious than most people.
• I am relaxed most of the time. (reversed)
• I seldom feel blue. (reversed)
Critical evaluation of Big Five personality traits
• methodologies in administering personality tests in big five are inadequate in length and
provide insufficient detail to truly evaluate personality.
• longer, more detailed questions will give a more accurate portrayal of personality.
• The five factor structure has been replicated in peer reports.
• However, many of the substantive findings rely on self-reports.
• Much of the evidence on the measures of the Big 5 relies on self-report questionnaires, which
makes self-report bias and falsification of responses difficult to deal with and account for.
• It has been argued that the Big Five tests do not create an accurate personality profile because
the responses given on these tests are not true in all cases. For example, questionnaires are
answered by potential employees who might choose answers that paint them in the best light.
• Research suggests that a relative-scored Big Five measure in which respondents had to make
repeated choices between equally desirable personality descriptors may be a potential
alternative to traditional Big Five measures in accurately assessing personality traits
• Big Five does not explain all of human personality. Some psychologists have dissented from the
model precisely because they feel it neglects other domains of personality, such
as religiosity, manipulativeness , honesty,
seductiveness, thriftiness, conservativeness, masculinity/femininity, snobbishness/egotism, se
nse of humour etc.
The Social Cognitive Theory
• Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) started as the Social Learning Theory
(SLT) in the 1960s by Albert Bandura.
• It developed into the SCT in 1986 and posits that learning occurs in a
social context with a dynamic and reciprocal interaction of the person, environment, and
• The unique feature of SCT is the emphasis on social influence and its emphasis on
external and internal social reinforcement.
• SCT considers the unique way in which individuals acquire and maintain behavior, while
also considering the social environment in which individuals perform the behavior.
• The theory takes into account a person's past experiences, which factor into whether
behavioral action will occur. These past experiences influences reinforcements,
expectations, and expectancies, all of which shape whether a person will engage in a
specific behavior and the reasons why a person engages in that behavior.
• The goal of SCT is to explain how people regulate their behavior through control and
reinforcement to achieve goal-directed behavior that can be maintained over time.
• Social Cognitive Theory considers many levels of the social ecological model in
addressing behavior change of individuals.
• SCT has been widely used in health promotion given the emphasis on the
individual and the environment, the latter of which has become a major point of
focus in recent years for health promotion activities.
• SCT of personality emphasize the role of cognitive processes, such as thinking and
judging, in the development of personality.
• Albert Bandura is a behavioral psychologist who came up with the concept of
reciprocal determinism, in which cognitive processes, behavior, and context all
interact with and influence each other.
• This theory was significant because it moved away from the idea that
environment alone affects an individual’s behavior. Instead, Bandura
hypothesized that the relationship between behavior and environment was bi-
directional, meaning that both factors can influence each other.
• In this theory, humans are actively involved in molding the environment that
influences their own development and growth.
Constructs of SCT
• The first five constructs were developed as part of the SLT; the construct of self-efficacy
was added when the theory evolved into SCT.
• Reciprocal Determinism - This is the central concept of SCT. This refers to the dynamic
and reciprocal interaction of person (individual with a set of learned experiences),
environment (external social context), and behavior (responses to stimuli to achieve
• Behavioral Capability - This refers to a person's actual ability to perform a behavior
through essential knowledge and skills. In order to successfully perform a behavior, a
person must know what to do and how to do it. People learn from the consequences of
their behavior, which also affects the environment in which they live.
• Observational Learning - This asserts that people can witness and observe a behavior
conducted by others, and then reproduce those actions. This is often exhibited through
"modeling" of behaviors. If individuals see successful demonstration of a behavior,
they can also complete the behavior successfully.
• Reinforcements - This refers to the internal or external responses to a person's behavior that
affect the likelihood of continuing or discontinuing the behavior. Reinforcements can be self-
initiated or in the environment, and reinforcements can be positive or negative. This is the
construct of SCT that most closely ties to the reciprocal relationship between behavior and
• Expectations - This refers to the anticipated consequences of a person's behavior. Outcome
expectations can be health-related or not health-related. People anticipate the consequences
of their actions before engaging in the behavior, and these anticipated consequences can
influence successful completion of the behavior. Expectations derive largely from previous
experience. While expectancies also derive from previous experience, expectancies focus on
the value that is placed on the outcome and are subjective to the individual. To learn a
particular behaviour, people must understand what the potential outcome is if they repeat that
• Self-efficacy - This refers to the level of a person's confidence in his or her ability to successfully
perform a behavior. Self-efficacy is unique to SCT although other theories have added this
construct at later dates, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior. Self-efficacy is influenced by a
person's specific capabilities and other individual factors, as well as by environmental factors
(barriers and facilitators). According to Bandura, self-efficacy is "the belief in one's capabilities
to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations".
Individual's self-efficacy plays a major role in how goals, tasks, and challenges are approached.
Individuals with high self-efficacy are more likely to believe they can master challenging
problems and they can recover quickly from setbacks and disappointments. Individuals with
low self-efficacy tend to be less confident and don't believe they can perform well, which leads
them to avoid challenging tasks.
Limitation of Social Cognitive Theory
• There are several limitations of SCT, which should be considered when using this
theory in public health. Limitations of the model include the following:
• The theory assumes that changes in the environment will automatically lead to
changes in the person, when this may not always be true.
• The theory is loosely organized, based solely on the dynamic interplay between
person, behavior, and environment. It is unclear the extent to which each of
these factors into actual behavior and if one is more influential than another.
• The theory heavily focuses on processes of learning and in doing so disregards
biological and hormonal predispositions that may influence behaviors, regardless
of past experience and expectations.
• The theory does not focus on emotion or motivation, other than through
reference to past experience. There is minimal attention on these factors.
• The theory can be broad-reaching, so can be difficult to operationalize in entirety.
THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH
• Humanistic approach of personality incorporates Holism, this is seeing the whole person
rather than only certain aspects and the uniqueness of each individual.. Like behaviour
• Humanism rejects the behaviorist approach of the world via stimulus-response links,
rejects the view of determinism, and instead states than humans do possess free will.
• Humanistic approach rejects scientific methodology as a correct testing method to
psychology; they argue that laboratory conditions are unable to effectively test real-world
learning. As such most humanist research is Qualitative rather than quantitative
• humanist have also tried to find out causes of human motivation rather than the simple
response's highlighted in behaviorism study's like that of Maslow's study of human
motivation proposed in 1947.
• This approach assumes that for the main part humans are good creatures and that we all
strive to try to achieve self-actualization or the ideal self.
• Sometimes the humanistic approach is called phenomenological. This means that
personality is studied from the point of view of the individual’s subjective experience.
For Rogers the focus of psychology is not behavior (Skinner), the unconscious (Freud),
thinking (Wundt) or the human brain but how individuals perceive and interpret events.
Rogers is therefore important because he redirected psychology towards the study of the
• Humanism rejected the assumptions of the behaviorist perspective which is
characterized as deterministic, focused on reinforcement of stimulus-response
behavior and heavily dependent on animal research.
• Humanistic psychology also rejected the psychodynamic approach because it is
also deterministic, with unconscious irrational and instinctive forces determining
human thought and behavior. Both behaviorism and psychoanalysis are regarded
as dehumanizing by humanistic psychologists
• It offered a new set of values for approaching an understanding of human nature
and the human condition.
• It offered an expanded horizon of methods of inquiry in the study of human
• It offered a broader range of more effective methods in the professional practice
• This approach argue that people are basically good, and have an innate need to make
themselves and the world better.
• The humanistic approach emphasizes the personal worth of the individual, the
centrality of human values, and the creative, active nature of human beings.
• The approach is optimistic and focuses on noble human capacity to overcome
hardship, pain and despair.
• Both Rogers and Maslow regarded personal growth and fulfillment in life as a basic
human motive. This means that each person, in different ways, seeks to grow
psychologically and continuously enhance themselves. This has been captured by the
term self-actualization, which is about psychological growth, fulfillment and
satisfaction in life. However, Rogers and Maslow both describe different ways of how
self-actualization can be achieved.
• For Roger the most important aspect of personality is the congruence between the
self and reality.
• Humanism rejected comparative psychology (the study of animals) because it does
not tell us anything about the unique properties of human beings. Humanism views
human beings as fundamentally different from other animals, mainly because
humans are conscious beings capable of thought, reason and language. For
humanistic psychologists’ research on animals, such as rats, pigeons, or monkeys held
little value. Research on such animals can tell us, very little about human thought,
behavior and experience.
• A proper understanding of human behavior can only be achieved by studying humans -
• Psychology should study the individual case (idiographic) rather than the average
performance of groups (nomothetic).
• A healthy mental attitude is dependent on taking personal responsibility, recognizing
the existence of free will, and striving towards personal growth and fulfilment.
• Rogers stated that the organism has one basic goal: self-actualization. He expressed his
extremely optimistic approach when he explained that all of us have the tendency to
grow until we reach “actualization”. According to him, we exist because we need to
gratify this need.
• Rogers described a “fully functioning person” as someone who is actively taking steps to
self-actualization. In relation to personality, this individual is open-minded and trusting
to their own feelings and their environment.
• People are naturally good, with the potential for personal growth if they are provided
with the appropriate circumstances.
• Acc. to Roger if in early life children receive unconditional positive regard they will
develop satisfactorily. However, if they experience conditions of worth, they are
prevented from realizing their potential and becoming self-actualized.
• People use distorted thinking to defend themselves, e.g., by rationalization, that is
distorting their real motives to fit in with their self-concept.
Maslow believed that our ultimate life goal is self-
Some characteristics of a self-actualized person are:
•Autonomous and independent
•Have accurate perceptions of reality
•Is able to accept himself, others and the society
•Often feels as one with nature
•Democratic and Appreciative
Critical Evaluation of humanistic approach
The humanistic approach has been applied to relatively few areas of psychology
compared to the other approaches. Therefore, its contributions are limited to areas such
as therapy, abnormality, motivation and personality
humanism deliberately adopts a non-scientific approach to studying humans. For
example their belief in free-will
Humanism ignores the unconscious mind.
humanistic theory falls short in its ability to help those with more sever personality or
mental health pathology
Critics also contend that the humanistic approach’s emphasis on selffulfillment may lead
some people to become self-indulgent and so absorbed with themselves that they
develop a lack of concern for others.
Even the concept of self-actualization poses challenges. For one thing, humanistic
psychologists consider self-actualization to be a drive that motivates behavior toward
higher purposes. Yet how do we know that this drive exists? If self-actualization means
different things to different people—one person may become self-actualized by pursuing
an interest in botany, another by becoming a skilled artisan—how can we ever measure
self-actualization in a standardized way? To this, humanistic psychologists might respond
that because people are unique, we should not expect to apply the same standard to
Measurement of personality
• .Measurment means to describe any thing or trait in quantitative value
• measurement is the process of obtaining a numerical description of the degree to
which an individual possesses a particular characteristic. (Answers the question “How
• Personality is measured to used to evaluate or measure aspects of personality, such as
factors (dimensions) and traits
Personality is measured to:
• Determine workplace suitability
• To be used in conjunction with intelligence tests to make decisions about school
• To assist in diagnosis (identifying the nature) of a mental illness
• To be used to court by forensic (relating to) psychologists to determine personality of a
• Sport psychologists: to help understand their clients
• As part of a research study or to develop tests
• Generally used for diagnostic purposes
• A self-report inventory is a type of psychological test often used in personality assessment.
• This type of test is often presented in a paper-and-pencil format or may even be administered
on a computer.
• A typical self-report inventory presents a number of questions or statements that may or may
not describe certain qualities or characteristics of the test subject.
• Such questionnaires are often seen in doctors’ offices, in on-line personality tests, and in
market research surveys.
• Even the fun quizzes you often see shared on Facebook are examples of self-report inventories.
While this is an example of these inventories being used in an informal and entertaining way,
such survey can and do serve much more serious goals in collecting data and helping to
identify potential problems.
• This type of survey can be used to look at current behaviors, past behaviors and possible
behaviors in hypothetical situations.
• Most self-report personality instruments typically use questions or items. Usually these items
have been subjected to psychometric analyses, and have been shown to have adequate
reliability and validity. Self-report instruments for measuring various personality characteristics
abound, although some are used more widely than others.
• Examples of Self-Report Inventories are Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).
The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire etc.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Self-Report
• Cheaper and less time consuming: Self-report inventories are often a good solution
when researchers need to administer a large number of tests in relatively short space of
time. Many self-report inventories can be completed very quickly, often in as little as 15
minutes. This type of questionnaire is an affordable option for researchers faced with
• Reliable and valid: Another strength is that the results of self-report inventories are
generally much more reliable and valid than projective tests. Scoring of the tests a
standardized and based on norms that have been previously established.
• Criticized as falsifiable. For example, while many tests implement strategies to prevent
"faking good" or "faking bad" (essentially pretending to be better or worse that one
really is), research has shown that people are able to exercise deception while taking
self-report tests .
• Another weakness is that some tests are very long and tedious. For example, the MMPI
takes approximately 3 hours to complete. In some cases, test respondents may simply
lose interest and not answer questions accurately. Additionally, people are sometimes
not the best judges of their own behavior. Some individuals may try to hide their own
feelings, thoughts, and attitudes
• projective test is a personality test designed to let a person respond to
ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal
conflicts projected by the person into the test.
• This is sometimes contrasted with a so-called "objective test" or "self-report
test" in which responses are analyzed according to a presumed universal
standard (for example, a multiple choice exam), and are limited to the content
of the test.
• The responses to projective tests are content analyzed for meaning rather than
being based on presuppositions about meaning, as is the case with objective
• Projective tests have their origins in psychoanalytic psychology, which argues
that humans have conscious and unconscious attitudes and motivations that
are beyond or hidden from conscious awareness.
• The general theoretical position behind such a practice is that whenever you ask
a "question", all you get in response is an "answer"; and, this approach stress
that the ambiguity of the stimuli presented within the tests allow subjects to
opening their inner thoughts. It allows the subject to externalize whatever may
be operating beneath their conscious awareness is often nullified by the testers'
beliefs that certain responses have universally standard "meanings".
• a projective test starts with an ambiguous image such as the one above. When
you look at this colorful image, it is possible to see any number of things.
According to the theory behind these kinds of tests, and because the image is
open to interpretation, what you see is a reflection of your personality or your
• it attempts to measure personality using your unconscious reactions to the
image. Theoretically, this allows the examiner to see things about you that
you may be unaware of, or may be reluctant to talk about. In short, a
projective test seeks to find the 'real you' and not the person you try to be.
• The projective tests are done under the assumption that humans have
conscious and unconscious motivation and attitudes
• The test affirms that an individual has various needs which can be both
conscious and unconscious. These needs can be understood using the
• The need of the person comes out spontaneously and there is no editing in
these needs. It is the actual picture about the thought process of a person
• The test does not depend on the verbal details of the person who is getting
tested in which people present their nonverbal communication and that
might depend upon behavior, reaction and attitude.
There are various types of projective tests which are carried out on the individuals depending
upon the needs of the person.
1. Rorschach test:
The Rorschach inkblot test is very frequently used by the experts for the purpose of projective
tests. In this test there are various ink blots which are plotted symmetrically, but in an irregular
position. The person is then asked what they are seeing in these blots. They get various
responses from this test – the response is then analyzed keeping in mind various parameters.
The experts check what time was taken to respond, what the person said about the ink blots,
which was the most important aspect that was touched upon.
Example – If the respondent sees fearful images, then they assume that the person is suffering
2. Holtzman Inkblot test:
The Holtzman test is a variation of the Rorschach test. Here the images used for the respondent
is much more as compared to the above test. The major difference between the two tests is that
in this particular test the objective scoring is more important – the experts actually check the
reaction time of the individual during the inkblot test.
3. Thematic apperception test:
This test is another well-known test – it is more popularly known as the TAT test. In this type of
test the individual is asked to look at various scenes which are ambiguous. The respondent is
given time to analyze the scenes and also to understand different aspects of the picture or scene.
4. Behavioral test:
The respondent will be asked to provide information about what type of a picture is
shown – what are the characters present; what are the emotions present in these
characters or what will happen further. The experts check these responses and come to a
conclusion and thus understand the frame of mind of the person.
It has been proved by various studies that handwriting of a person can reveal many
things. Graphology is a skill of handwriting through which the experts can understand
person’s nature and physical characteristics. When the respondents write, the experts
can easily understand the state of mind in which the person is at present; besides this
they can also analyze the personality traits of the person. Even though there have been
many controversies about graphology it is still used for projective tests and they have
6. Sentence completion test:
This test as the name suggests needs the respondent to complete certain sentences. This
has to be done in their own words – when the respondent completes the sentences it
reveals the conscious and unconscious attitudes of the person, beliefs and motivation.
The person could be in any state of mind while completing the sentences – this will show
in this test – thus providing the expertise to evaluate the nature and state of mind of the
Advantages of Projective Tests
• The projective tests are used in qualitative marketing research – it helps to
identify the potential customers and associations.
• The benefit of using projective tests in advertisements is that the companies
can know the responses of their products and services from their customers
• It is important for any business to conquer the market and in order to do
this they should have a correct assessment about their customers
• Because of these projective tests the person is not aware about what they
are disclosing during the projective tests. And it can be considered as one of
the major benefits for all the respondents
• Each and every response given by the respondent explains the benefits of
Disadvantages of Projective Tests
•It need highly qualified and experienced professionals:
•It is expensive:
•Risk of interpretation bias:
•Respondents engage in unusual behavior:
•While processing these tests one can understand all the
unplanned and unexpected situations. And it is quite
possible that at the end one can clearly come out of
such unstructured techniques.
• Behavioral assessment is a method used in the field of psychology to observe, describe,
explain, predict and sometimes correct behavior. Behavioral assessment can be useful
in clinical, educational and corporate settings.
• Behavioral assessment involves observing or measuring a person’s actual behavior—in
other words, what they actually do—in one or more settings where the person is
experiencing some sort of behavioral difficulty. Once the behavior is defined and
measured, careful consideration is given to different factors that may be reinforcing and
maintaining the behavior.
• Behavioural assessment, for example, analyses the unique behavioural preferences that
each person has within themselves, by assessing the drive or ‘urge’ of that person to
behave in a specific way.
• For example, Kamala is five-year-old girl who has started getting into trouble at school.
She has been sent to the office three times in one week and is now crying and refusing
to go to school. What could be going on with Sara? A behavioral assessment might be
the next step toward answering this question.
• A behavioural assessment can also measure how that person will typically respond to
external stimulus, like pressure, uncertainty, authority, change etc., and ultimately gives
us a picture of how this person is driven or ‘wants’ to act in a workplace environment.
• Behavioral assessment typically involves one or more interviews and observations, and
may involve various formal and informal assessment measures as needed.
• Behavioral Assessments provide a thorough assessment of an
identified behavior, including analysis of the interrelatedness of
antecedent “triggers,” components of the behavior itself, and
consequences of the behavior. Reinforcing factors are identified and
recommendations are made for behavior change.
• Behavioral assessment generally falls within two broad categories:
clinical behavioral assessment, and functional behavioral assessment
• Clinical behavioral assessment is usually conducted for problems
exhibited in home, school, work, or other settings, and is usually
produced to provide a clear intervention plan for therapists, case
managers, family members, or others who work with the person being
• Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is a variation on procedures
originally developed to ascertain the purpose or reason for behaviors
displayed by individuals with severe cognitive or communication
disabilities (e.g., individuals with mental retardation or autism). Because
these individuals were unable to fully explain why they were displaying
certain inappropriate behaviors, methods were developed to determine
why they demonstrated such actions.
• FBA is the process of gathering and analyzing information about the
student's behavior and accompanying circumstances in order to determine
the purpose or intent of the actions.
• -FBA helps to :
-determine the appropriateness of placement and services
-identify positive interventions to reduce the undesirable behavior
-develop appropriate behaviors to be substituted in replacement of the