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  2. 2. A. Dosage forms indicating the disease to cure. 1. Amavata-modaka -used in treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis 2.Jwarantaka-vati -used in treatment of childbirth fever AYURVEDIC DOSAGE FORMS
  3. 3. B. Dosage forms indicating the property of the preparation. 1. Mritsanjivani-sura -used in treating insomnia 2. Mahasugandhi-taila -scented oil, used for beautiful hair 3. Kaameshwara-modaka -prescribed in sexual debility 4. Amrita-taila -used in treatment of osteoarthritis
  4. 4. C. Dosage forms indicating the drug contained. 1. Shatavari-taila -useful in neuro-muscular disorders 2. Draksha-asava -improves digestion and respiratory functions 3. Haritaki-avaleha -treatment for hay fever 4. Lasuna-ghrita -used in treatment of joints pain and intestinal tumor
  5. 5. D. Dosage forms indicating the name of god, goddess or rishi. 1. Bhaskara-churna -It is carminative and gastric stimulant 2. Vaidyanath-vati -used in treating fever 3. Dhanvantri-ghrita -used in Diabetes, urinary complaints, boils, anaemia, abcess, spleen enlagement and oedema 4. Narayana-taila -recommended for consumption rheumatism and as an enema in dysentery and anal fistulae
  6. 6. EXTRACTION 1. Simple expressions 2. Infusion 3. Decoction (Kwatha) 4. Digestion or Pachana 5. Soft extract or Avaleha 6. Maceration or Bhawana 7. Hot extraction or Putapaka 8. Milk decoction or Kshirapaka 9. Medicated oils and clarified butter
  7. 7. 1. Simple expressions Drug taken in motar and pestle Strained through muslin cloth Swarasa
  8. 8. 2. Infusion Infusing drug either in cold or hot water Strained after 12 hours
  9. 9. 3. Decoction (Kwatha) 1 part of drug 16 parts of water Reduced to 1/4th of its bulk
  10. 10. 4. Digestion or Pachana It is similar to decoction process however it is continued for much longer time
  11. 11. 5. Soft extract or Avaleha It is a process of concentration of a decoction till an extract of soft consistency is obtained
  12. 12. 6. Maceration or Bhawana Powdered drug Macerated with fresh juice of drug or several drugs Kept till the fluid is soaked into the solid
  13. 13. 7. Hot extraction or Putapaka Drug pulp Wrapped in Jambolan leaves and sealed with clay Roasted into fire of cow-dung cakes Partially dried pulp is expressed out for juice
  14. 14. 8. Milk decoction or Kshirapaka 1 part drug 8 parts of milk 32 parts of water Boiled till water gets evaporated
  15. 15. 9. Medicated oils and clarified butter Digesting the drug or juices with oil or ghee Medicated oil
  16. 16. FERMENTATION 1. Acetous fermentation 2. Spiritous fermentation 3. Confection or khandapaka making 4. Gruel or yavagu
  17. 17. 1. Acetous fermentation Paddy Soaked in 4 times its weight of water for a fortnight Clear and transparent liquid is strained,preserved as Kanjika
  18. 18. 2. Spiritous fermentation Powdered drug Water Honey Earthen vat for fermentation process
  19. 19. 3. Confection or khandapaka making Digesting powdered drug with syrup Powdered drug Sugar syrup
  20. 20. 4. Gruel or yavagu Mixture of powdered drug and rice Boiled in water Thick pasty mass
  21. 21. APPARATUS AND PROCEDURES 1. Dolayantram 2. Svedaniyantram 3. Dhupayantram 4. Patanayantram 5. Adhaspatanayantram 6. Tiryakapathanyantram 7. Vidyadharyantram 8. Putas 9. Mahaputa 10. Musha 11. Hamspakayantram
  22. 22. drug under treatment containing in a cloth bag glass rod (for hanging cloth bag) Inverted vessel (2nd vessel) Vessel partially filled with water or other liquid (1st vessel) 1. Dolayantram
  23. 23. Inverted vessel (2nd vessel) Vessel containing water (1st vessel) Drug placed on a piece of cloth, which is tied over the mouth of 1st vessel 2. Svedaniyantram
  24. 24. 3. Dhupayantram Inverted vessel (2nd vessel) Gold or silver leaves placed on iron bar lattice Mixture of gold or silver leaves and sulphur placed in 1st vessel
  25. 25. Gold leaf Silver Leaf
  26. 26. 4. Patanayantram Inverted vessel (2nd vessel) for collecting vapours Vessel containing drug, to undergo sublimation Joint sealed with mixture of lime, sugar, iron rust and milk
  27. 27. 5. Adhaspatanayantram ( Bhudharayantram ) Cow-dung cakes to supply heat Inner surface of the vessel is plastered with medicinal substance Underground vessel containing water
  28. 28. Adhaspatanayantram 1 2 3 4 5 6
  29. 29. 6. Tiryakapathanyantram Bamboo pipe Still Receiver Mouths of vessels are closed with earthen dishes and and sealed with clay or flour
  30. 30. 7. Vidyadharyantram Upper vessel containing water, to offer cold surface, for subliming mercury Lower vessel containing Cinnabar
  31. 31. 8. Putas It is a type of furnace used for roasting or incineration or ashing or calcinations. A puta is a cubicle pit dug in the ground and charred mostly with cow-dung cakes and sometimes with charcoal and paddy husk, etc. When the puta is half filled with the fuel, the crucible containing the roasting material and covered with either a lid or another inverted crucible, is placed in it. The remaining upper half is filled with cow-dung cakes and fire is set to the fuel and the heating begins.
  32. 32. 9.Mahaputa Mahaputa: It measures 2 cubits each in length, breadth and depth. It is charged with 1000 cow-dung cakes, that is 500 below and 500 above the crucible. Gajputa is only 30 angulies (fingers) in length, breadth and depth, whereas Kakkutaputa is 16 angulies in length, breadth and depth. Laghuputa is much smaller in size and is charged with 8 cow-dung cakes only.
  33. 33. 1 2 3 4 5 Putas
  34. 34. 10. Musha Musha means ‘a crucible’. Andha-musha means a blind crucible and is equivalent to a ‘crucible with lid’.
  35. 35. 11. Hamspakayantram Sand is contained in an earthen saucer over which is placed another earthen dish and gentle heat is applied to the lower saucer whereas the substance to be heated is kept in the upper dish.
  36. 36. 1. Asava and arista Asavas and Aristas are medicinal preparations made by soaking the drugs either in powder form or in the form of decoction (kasaya), in a solution of sugar or jaggery, for a specified period of time. VARIOUS AYURVEDIC DOSAGE FORMS
  37. 37. Kasaya or Infusion Powdered drug Fermentation vessel containing syrup made up of sugar, jaggery or honey and water The fluid is decanted and strained after 2-3 days When the fine suspended particles settle down,it is strained and bottled At room temp Arista Asava
  38. 38. Examples of commonly used Asavas and Aristas are: Asavas – Arvindasava - Useful in all types of Pediatric diseases in children. Also is an appetizer for the children Kumaryasava - Acts as aphrodisiac, relives pain and abdominal disorder, urinary disorder and hemorrhagic disorder Aristas – Balarista - It is salutary as a general tonic and more useful in thin individuals than obese persons, suffering from vata diseases due to tissue depletion. Dasmularista - given for treatment of childbirth fever.
  39. 39. Arka is a liquid preparation obtained by distillation of certain liquids or drugs soaked in water using any convenient distillation apparatus. 2. Arka
  40. 40. Method of preparation The drugs are cleaned & powdered. Some quantity of water is add to the drugs for soaking and kept over-night. Softened the drugs upon boiling removes the essential volatile principles. The following morning it is poured into the distillation apparatus and the remaining water is added and boiled. The vapours condensed and collected in a receiver.
  41. 41. Commonly used Arkas include  Ajamodarka – Used as appetizer, digestive etc.  Karpuradyarka - Used in treatment of Rheumatism and carbuncle.
  42. 42. Avaleha is a semi-solid preparation of drugs prepared with the addition of jaggery or sugar-candy and boiled with prescribed drug juice or decoction. 3. Avaleha
  43. 43. Kasaya or other liquids Jaggery, sugar or sugar-candy Method of Preparation Boiled to make a syrup + = To this syrup Powdered drug is added in small quantities & stirred continuosly and vigoruosly Ghee or oil is added, if required Honey is added when the preparation is cool and mixed well
  44. 44. Examples of commonly used Avaleha are  Draksavaleha - Hyper Acidity, Dyspepsia, Heart Burn  Kutajavaleha - Used in diarrhea, dysentery, colitis and bleeding problems.
  45. 45. Syrup Preparation + = Kasaya Sugar Syrup
  46. 46. Syrup Powdered drug Honey
  47. 47. Ghritas are preparations in which ghee is boiled with prescribed kasayas (decoction) and kalkas of drugs according to the formula. 4. Ghrita
  48. 48. 1 Part Kalka 4 parts Sneha 16 parts Drava-dravya Method of Preparation
  49. 49. Commonly used ghritas includes ♣ Amrita Ghrita - useful in gout and skin disorders. ♣ Triphala Ghrita - Eye disorders like night blindness, irritation in eye, growth in eye and provides nutrition to eye
  50. 50. Churna is a fine powder of drug or drugs. Drugs mentioned in the Yoga are cleaned and dried properly. They are finely powdered and sieved. If more than one drug are present then each one is separately powdered, sieved, accurately weighed and then all mixed together. 5. Churna
  51. 51. 80 mesh sieve Churna General method of preparation
  52. 52. Commonly examples of churna include Bhramhi Churna - Promotes Memory, Increases Body Resistance & Relives from Tension. Stopaladi Churna - Useful in cough and respiratory disorders .
  53. 53. Tailas are preparations in which tail (oil) is boiled with prescribed kasayas and kalkas of drugs according to the formula. General method of preparation Tailas are preparad by a method similar to that of Ghritas. 6. Taila
  54. 54. Method of Preparation
  55. 55. Examples of commonly used tailas include Narayana Taila - Used in Rheumatism,itching etc Mahanarayana taila - For Massage in skeleto-muscular disorders
  56. 56. Medicines in the form of a paste used for external application are called lepas. Method of preparation The drugs are made into a fine powder. Before use on the body, it is mixed with some liquid or other medium indicated in each preparation and med into a soft paste. 7. Lepa
  57. 57. Commonly used lepas include Dasanga Lepa - apply externally over the affected joint (sprain). Pathyadi Lepa – used for treating kustha (leprosy).
  58. 58. Medicines prepared in the form of tablets or pills are known as vati and gutika. These are made from one or more drugs of plant, animal or mineral origin. 8.Vati and Gutika
  59. 59. Method of Preparation Kajjali Powdered drug Vehicle
  60. 60. Common examples of vati and gutika include  Gandhaka Vakti - Blood purifier, useful in skin disease & allergy.  Chitrakadi gutika - Useful in sprue, poor appetite, indigestion.
  61. 61. Bhasma is the powder of a substance obtained by calcinations. It is applied to the metals and mineral products which are prepared by special processes in closed crucibles in pits and with cow dung cakes (puta). 9. Bhasma
  62. 62. First stage (sodhana) Bhasmas are prepared from minerals, metals, marine and animal products. In Ayurveda, the process of purification is called ‘sodhana’ which is of two types Samanya sodhana which is applicable to a large number of metals or minerals, as heating the thin sheets of the metals and immersing them in taila, takra, gomutra, etc; Visesa sodhana which is applicable only to certain drugs and in certain preparations. Method of preparation
  63. 63. The second stage is the preparation of Bhasma. The purified drug is put into a khalya (stone mortar and pestle) and ground with juices of the specified plants of kasayas of drugs. Then small cakes (cakrikas) are made. These cakes are dried well under sunlight and place in one single layer in a shallow earthen plate (sarava) and closed with another plate. A pit is dug in an open space. Half of the pit is filled with cow dung cakes. The sealed earthen container is placed in it and the remaining space is filled with more cow dung cakes.
  64. 64. The earthen container is removed, the seal is opened and the contents taken out. The medicine is ground into fine powder in khalva. Fire is put in all four sides and the middle of the pit. When the burning is over, it is allowed to cool completely.
  65. 65. 1 2 3 4 5 6
  66. 66. 7 8 9 10 11 12
  67. 67. 13 14 15 16 17
  68. 68. Examples of commonly used bhasmas include Abhraka Bhasma - Used in diabetes, purifies blood, restorative . Svarna Bhasma - Used for restoration and aphrodisiac.
  69. 69. These are semi-solid or soft preparations acting chiefly as local anodynes and sedatives, for local application for various lesions, containing active drug mixed with ghee, Vaseline, beeswax, coconut oil etc. either alone or in combination form. The bases for all ointments strict precaution should be taken to protect the eyes from these ointments as these cause irritation. Similarly, contamination of ointment with soiled and dirty fingers should be avoided during application. 10. Malamas (Ointments)
  70. 70. The lesion where one particular ointment is intended to be applied should first be cleaned with an antiseptic lotion or soap and the part dried with clean and sterilized linen. Ointment just sufficient for one application should be taken separately and carefully applied to the part. Strict cleanliness is in itself the first essential measure towards recovery.
  71. 71. Method of Preparation Beeswax Powdered drug is mixed with melted beeswax and mixed vigorously
  72. 72. Examples of commonly used Malamas include Nagarjunanjan- Used in treatment of cataract and scleral diseases. Nayanmritanjan- Used in eye diseases.
  73. 73. 1 Ratti or Gunja 12 mg 8 Ratti or Gunja 1 masa 1 g 12 masas 1 kasra (1 tola) 12 g 2 kasras (tolas) 1 sukthi 24 g 2 sukthis (4 tolas) 1 pal 48 g 2 pals 1 prasrti 96 g 2 prasrtis 1 kudava 192 g 2 kudavas 1 manika 384 g 2 manikas 1 prastha 768 g 4 prasthas 1 adhaka 3 kg 73g 4 adhakas 1 drona 12 kg 288 g 4 dronas 1 surpa 24 kg 576 g 2 surpas 1 droni 49 kg 152 g 4 dronis 1 khari 192 kg 60 g WEIGHTS AND MEASURES APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENT DOSES IN INDIAN AND METRIC SYSTEMS
  74. 74. REFERENCE : Handa, S S, & Kapoor, V K, “Textbook of Pharmacognosy”, Published by Vallabh Publications/Prakashan, Page No. 327-344 Mhatre, P R, “Principles of Integrated Medicine”, Published by Tata McGraw-Hill, Page No. 143-146. Revised by Nadharni, A K, “The Indian Materia Medica”,Published by Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd., Vol. 2 Page No. 489-506.