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Design for 
Extreme 
Affordability
Ruby
Tiina
Rahul
Otto
A low cost lighting solution for children in developing nations
Only 40% of Nepal's population has
access to electricity. Load shedding up
to 16-18 hours/day.
Around 28 % of electricity ...
http://www.geni.org/globalenergy/library/
national_energy_grid/nepal/index.shtml 5
Current Electricity Grid 
About 5% of r...
•  Nepal relies heavily on traditional energy resource
_ Ghee lamps
_ Jharro sticks (resin soaked pine woodstick)
_ Crop r...
Ongoing lighting initiatives location
in Nepal
7
8
Available
Lighting
Solution
Village Lighting Project, Lamjung
 Light Up The World - Chauganphaya and Kholsi, Humla Annap...
9

 Why do they need light? 
    
 Not connected to grid    
 

 Gives a sense of security
    
 Warding off wild animals
...
10

 Perimeter of Ambition 

 Accessible/affordable light 

 Low maintenance

 Replace kerosene

 Build a sustainable ecos...
Nepalese landscape primarily terraced rice fields
Prelim. Brief 
Supporting day-to-day living activities in rural and urba...
Market Research
Technology

 Versions of Circuit Boards

 Tech. spec. evolution
Tests
Simplicity
Prototyping
15
•  Solar panel: 0.7 Watts
•  Batteries: AA rechargeable
•  LED: 1 Watt, 70 lumens, warm white
•  Switch: 12...
Material Design

 Different Containers For Components

Diffusion
Handmade
18
Cardboard
Pringles
Prototypes

 0.1

 .

 .

 .

 0.6
20
0.1
21
0.2
22
0.3
23
0.4
Molding

 CNC

 Vacuum molding

 3D Modeling
25
Carving
Out
26
150º
Vacuum
Mold
28
0.5
INSTRUCTION

 Instructions
0.5
Dummy
Users
Field Test – Nairobi, Kenya

 Usability test

Price-point gauge

Product Feedback
1.  The lamp was tested by 9-15 year old
Kenyan children. 
2.  About 20 children participated in the
testing. 
3.  The chi...
34
“ We have power cuts continuously. During the rainy season we have
them more often ”
Misheck, 15 years
“ We do our homework in the living room. I spend about one hour
doing my homework. During a power cut we use candles to do...
“We have one kerosene lamp at home. I am not able to use it
because it is needed in the kitchen.”
Sara, 11 years
“I have never used a solar lamp before,
but I would be interested in using one.”
“I use candles at home, but they are bad
...
Feedback
•  Additional stand for the product
•  Built-in handle, easier to carry
•  Replace rubber bands with a more durab...
Business Model

 Stakeholders

 Biz. Model

 Distribution Channel

 Cost Model
•  User – Children, Families
•  Design Team
•  Collaborators – Aditya
•  Aalto Design Factory
•  Organizations
a)  Kepug
b...
41
Future Collaborators
•  Local Schools

 Focusing on the requirements of young
children and help them study at home in t...
FORWARD / FUTURE
-SECOND PROTOTYPE
-FIELD TEST NEPAL

 Future Forward

 Product 2.0
46
Ideation
Workshop
47
2.0
48
2.0
:)
Low Cost Lighting Solution - Design for Extreme Affordability Course
Low Cost Lighting Solution - Design for Extreme Affordability Course
Low Cost Lighting Solution - Design for Extreme Affordability Course
Low Cost Lighting Solution - Design for Extreme Affordability Course
Low Cost Lighting Solution - Design for Extreme Affordability Course
Low Cost Lighting Solution - Design for Extreme Affordability Course
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Low Cost Lighting Solution - Design for Extreme Affordability Course

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Low Cost Lighting Solution - Design for Extreme Affordability Course

  1. 1. Design for Extreme Affordability Ruby Tiina Rahul Otto
  2. 2. A low cost lighting solution for children in developing nations
  3. 3. Only 40% of Nepal's population has access to electricity. Load shedding up to 16-18 hours/day. Around 28 % of electricity produced in Nepal in the year 2005 was consumed in the Katmandu valley alone.
  4. 4. http://www.geni.org/globalenergy/library/ national_energy_grid/nepal/index.shtml 5 Current Electricity Grid About 5% of rural areas have electricity, which also is very expensive due to the topographical conditions. At the same time the purchasing power of the consumers very low.
  5. 5. •  Nepal relies heavily on traditional energy resource _ Ghee lamps _ Jharro sticks (resin soaked pine woodstick) _ Crop residues _ Animal manure _ Kerosene – $ 4-6 per household per month •  These solutions are not sustainable _ Health setbacks Asthma, respiratory diseases, blindness, heart disease, low life expectancy for women _ Deforestation - 20-40 kg firewood/ day •  Non-traditional/commercial energy sources _ Rentable, rechargeable battery _ Hydroelectricity sources: Alex Zahnd, Rids,The Himalayan (newspaper) 6 Background
  6. 6. Ongoing lighting initiatives location in Nepal 7
  7. 7. 8 Available Lighting Solution Village Lighting Project, Lamjung Light Up The World - Chauganphaya and Kholsi, Humla Annapurna Rural Integrated Development Service - Humla Lumina Project - Kathmandu Luxtreks – Morung Barefoot Power - Kathmandu
  8. 8. 9 Why do they need light?     Not connected to grid    Gives a sense of security     Warding off wild animals     Night schools in Nepal use lamplight      Manual cottage industry (also by night) To study in the evening Limits social activities Household chores  
  9. 9. 10 Perimeter of Ambition Accessible/affordable light Low maintenance Replace kerosene Build a sustainable ecosystem
  10. 10. Nepalese landscape primarily terraced rice fields Prelim. Brief Supporting day-to-day living activities in rural and urban areas of Nepal through a low cost lighting solution. Additionally formulating a rapidly adoptable and sustainable business model.  
  11. 11. Market Research
  12. 12. Technology Versions of Circuit Boards Tech. spec. evolution
  13. 13. Tests Simplicity
  14. 14. Prototyping 15 •  Solar panel: 0.7 Watts •  Batteries: AA rechargeable •  LED: 1 Watt, 70 lumens, warm white •  Switch: 12 V •  Joule thief: included to regulate voltage and control charging Technical Specifications
  15. 15. Material Design Different Containers For Components

  16. 16. Diffusion Handmade
  17. 17. 18 Cardboard Pringles
  18. 18. Prototypes 0.1 . . . 0.6
  19. 19. 20 0.1
  20. 20. 21 0.2
  21. 21. 22 0.3
  22. 22. 23 0.4
  23. 23. Molding CNC Vacuum molding 3D Modeling
  24. 24. 25 Carving Out
  25. 25. 26 150º Vacuum Mold
  26. 26. 28 0.5
  27. 27. INSTRUCTION Instructions
  28. 28. 0.5 Dummy Users
  29. 29. Field Test – Nairobi, Kenya Usability test
 Price-point gauge
 Product Feedback
  30. 30. 1.  The lamp was tested by 9-15 year old Kenyan children. 2.  About 20 children participated in the testing. 3.  The children are from poor families, mainly from slum areas, where power cuts are frequent and many do not have access to electricity at all. 4.  Testing was done with children from Children Garden Home School
  31. 31. 34 “ We have power cuts continuously. During the rainy season we have them more often ” Misheck, 15 years
  32. 32. “ We do our homework in the living room. I spend about one hour doing my homework. During a power cut we use candles to do our homework and read storybooks” Regina, 11 years
  33. 33. “We have one kerosene lamp at home. I am not able to use it because it is needed in the kitchen.” Sara, 11 years
  34. 34. “I have never used a solar lamp before, but I would be interested in using one.” “I use candles at home, but they are bad because they illuminate such a small area”
  35. 35. Feedback •  Additional stand for the product •  Built-in handle, easier to carry •  Replace rubber bands with a more durable closing mechanism •  Clearer instructions •  Removable part of the switch can be swallowed •  Attach removable parts so they do not fall out •  Brighter LED •  In Kenya, yellow is the color of the Kamba tribe. The students found this fun and amusing. Many asked for blue, red and brown colors. •  The price people were be willing to pay for the lamp is 100-300 shillings. (€ 0.92 – 3) •  If the lamp reaches the Kenyan market at some point, the school would be interested in purchasing some of them.
  36. 36. Business Model Stakeholders Biz. Model Distribution Channel Cost Model
  37. 37. •  User – Children, Families •  Design Team •  Collaborators – Aditya •  Aalto Design Factory •  Organizations a)  Kepug b)  Nepal Polytechnic Institute c)  Lumivia – Solar panel provider Stakeholder
  38. 38. 41 Future Collaborators •  Local Schools Focusing on the requirements of young children and help them study at home in the evening/sunset. •  Youth Self Help Groups Focus on collection of child/youth issues, and finding ways to minimize them. •  Woman Entrepreneurship in Small and Cottage Industry Cottage industry workers can can utilize the LED lighting in the evening to increase effective work hours. •  Community Healthworkers Village health workers (VHW), Maternal child health worker (MCHW), Female community health volunteers (FCHV).
  39. 39. FORWARD / FUTURE -SECOND PROTOTYPE -FIELD TEST NEPAL Future Forward Product 2.0
  40. 40. 46 Ideation Workshop
  41. 41. 47 2.0
  42. 42. 48 2.0
  43. 43. :)

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