2. 1.1 Need Analysis
2.1 Articulating Beliefs
(Language Description and
Theories of Learning)
3.1 Developing the
3. 1.1 Need Analysis
Needs analysis consisted in
assessing the communicative
needs of the learners and the
techniques of achieving specific
It aims at collecting
information about the learners
and at defining the target
situation and environment of
4. According to Duddley-Evans and
St. John(2009) there are
eight components in today’s
concept of needs analysis which
have been grouped into five
broad areas including:
1. Target situation analysis and
objective needs analysis.
2. linguistic analysis, discourse
analysis, genre analysis.
3. Subjective needs analysis
4. Present situation analysis
5. Means analysis
5. Because ESP courses are based on
needs analysis, the learning
objectives are obvious and it can be
assumed that students will be more
highly motivated in learning about
topics and texts which are related to
their study or work areas.
6. In conclusion, the results of the needs
analysis help us as teachers to identify
the students’ prospective professional
needs, the students’ needs in terms of
language skills and the students’
deficiencies in the area of language
skills. Only after analyzing the students’
needs and determining the objectives
of the language course, we can select a
material that meets the needs of the
7. 2.1 Articulating Beliefs (Language Description and Theories
a. Language Description
1. Classical or Traditional Grammar
Grammars of the classical language, Greek and
8. 2. Structural Linguistics
Technique for analysing sentences structures.
Under the slot-and-filler method a number of
functional slots are identified, and then the words
and phrases that can fill them (i.e.fillers) are
9. 3. Transformational Generative (TG) Grammar
An approach to the study of syntax, especially of a natural
language, that has been developed in the Noam Chomsky
tradition ofphrase structure grammars. Additionally,
transformational grammar is the tradition that gives rise to
specific transformational grammars.
2 levels of meaning :
1). Deep level : concern with the organization of
2). Surface level : thoughts are expressed through
the syntax of the language.
10. 4. Language Variation and Register Analysis
Language varies according to
thecontext of use that enables us to
distinguish formal from informal,
written from spoken, self-sufficient
language from context-dependent.
5. Functional/Notional Grammar
- Functional : concerned with social
behaviour and represents the
intention of the speaker or writer.
- Notions : reflect the way the human
11. 6. Discourse (Rhetorical) Analysis
Looking at how meaning is generated
Can I go out to play?
It’s raining. Refusal of a request
Have you cut the grass yet?
It’s raining. Reason for an excuse
I think I’ll go out for a walk.
It’s raining. Advice or mild warning
12. 1. Behaviourism : Learning as Habit Formation
Second language learning should reflect andimitate
the perceived processes of mother tongue learning.
- Never translate.
- New language should always be dealt with in the
sequence : hear, speak, read, write.
- Frequent repetition isessential to effective
- All errors must be immediately corrected.
3. Theories of Learning
13. 2. Mentalism : Thinking as rule-governed activity
Learning consists not of forming habits but of
acquiring rules – a process in which individual
experiences are used by the mind to formulate a
3. Cognitive Code : Learners as thinking beings
- Takes the learner to be an active processor of
- Learners learn by thinking about and trying to make
sense of what wesee, feel, and hear.
14. 4. The affective factor : learners
The learners will learn easily
when he or she is actively
thinking about of what they are
5. Learning and acquisition
The conscious and
subconscious way of learning.
15. 3.1 Developing the Curriculum
a. Focusing the course
Wide- and narrow-angled course designs
The term 'wide angled' is used to refer
to courses for learners targeting a broad
work place, professional or academic field.
The term 'narrow angled' is used to refer
to courses for learners targeting one
particular work place, professional or
17. b. Determining course content
Real and carrier content
Real content denotes pedagogical aims, such as
the features of language the learners will
hopefully become more aware of or be better
able to produce or the language skills they gain
Carrier content denotes, as its name suggests,
the means of delivering the real content. These
means include the use of texts or activities.
19. Planning the syllabus
A major consideration in planning a
syllabus is the question of what
content should be included in the
course. The following discussion
considers the selection of ‘real’
content and how findings from
needs analysis can be brought to
bear in this task. Owe the course
has been focused impacts on what
will be included in the syllabus.
• types of units
• items in the units
20. c. Developing materials
Authentic and non-authentic texts
The term ‘authentic’ denotes that the
texts were written for purposes other
than language teaching and learning.
Non-Authentic Materials: refers to
textbook and other specially developed
21. d. Evaluating courses and
In deciding whether to revise
a course, the developer first
needs to know how effective
the present version of the
course is. One key source of
information is student course