Ip cchapter2 thornock

15 de Mar de 2015

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Ip cchapter2 thornock

  1. Chapter 2 The Development of Self Definition: •The self arises in communication with others. •Who we are or aren’t is determined by interactions with others from the beginning to end of our life's. •As we interact with others we internalize their perspectives and perceptions.
  2. The Development of Self Family members are generally the first influence on the development of the self. Most Influential is: - Perspective of particular others (family members, day-care providers, relatives, religious leaders, teachers) - Perspective of the generalized other (cultural aspects)
  3. The Development of the Self Concept – Particular Others 1) Direct definition 2) Reflected appraisal 3) Identity scripts 4) Attachment styles
  4. The Development of Self 1)Direct Definitions: Communication that tells us explicitly who we are -- what is value by others, becomes what we value in ourselves. (Woods 40 to 43) •Labeling us and our behaviors. (You’re smart; You’re impossible) •Positive messages enhance the self. (This promotes high self esteem, pride, motivation, and high emotional intelligence) •Negative messages demolish sense of self. (This promotes low self esteem, lack of pride and motivation, and empathy for others is difficult.) Andrew Vachss, children’s activist, “Emotional abuse is just as damaging as verbal abuse.”
  5. The Development of Self 2) Reflected appraisal – Our perception of another’s view of us. (Woods 42 to 44) Particular others provide a mirror for us – We will often act how people act toward us. If others communicate we are smart, we are likely to reflect appraisal in how we act and think of ourselves. Teachers, bosses, co-workers and peers - if we are close to to them, their appraisal will affect how we see ourselves. Summary of reflected and direct definitions: Expressed view of us can elevate or lower our self concept. Positive interactions with family and friends can help us be our best. If no support, will experience challenges that may require counseling, etc. Often a supportive relationship can help heal.
  6. The Development of Self 1.Uppers communicate positively about us and reflect positive appraisals of our value as individuals. (accept us for who we are.) 2.Downers communicate negative evaluation of us and our self worth. Focus on our flaws, problems, and put down our dreams and goals. 3. Vultures are extreme downers. (Beyond negative evaluations and attacks on self worth) They attack and tear us down – prey on our weaknesses (like a true vulture) – We have a choices!
  7. The Development of Self 3) Identity Scripts - Rules for living and identity. Scripts define our roles, how are to play & relate to others. Psychologists believe that basic identity scripts for our lives are formed by age five. Child unconsciously internalize the scripts others write. Religion and culture can have a profound influence on scripts. Examples: Our family supports itself We live by God’s word We are responsible people We don’t relate to others who are different The Development of Self
  8. What is your script? • It starts with your values learned from childhood to adulthood. • It starts with the attitudes, behaviors, communication etc., you hear, see and feel. • Values exercise • Script exercise
  9. The Development of Self 4) Attachment Styles – Patterns of caregiving that teach us who are and others are, and how to approach relationships.
  10. • The first bond shapes the child's expectations for later relationships. • Caregivers communicate respect, love, acceptance and this affects how we feel about ourselves in relations to others. • Caregivers also affect how secure or not secure we feel in relationships with others. • Research conducted in the U.S. The Development of Self
  11. 1) Secure attachment style  Care taker is consistent in providing attention/love.  Child develops a positive sense of self. ( I am loveable.)  Child develops a positive sense of others. (People are loving and can be trusted.)  Child can engage in intimacy with others without depending on the relationship for self worth. Most successful relationship are couples with a secure attachment style. The Development of Self
  12. The Development of Self 2) Fearful attachment style First bond Caregiver is unavailable/negative, rejecting, and/or abusive. Child sees self as unworthy of love. Child sees others as rejecting. As adults, tend to be apprehensive about being too close to others. Adults may avoid others or feel insecure in relationships. May have less hope, disclose less, and have less satisfaction in relationships.
  13. The Development of Self 3) Dismissive attachment style •Caregivers who are disinterested and/or rejecting. •Child develops self as loveable, and rejects caregivers of them as unlovable. •Child will often reject others as unworthy. •Will often develop a defensive view of relationships and regard them as unnecessary or undesirable.
  14. The Development of Self 4) The Anxious/ambivalent Preoccupied – Common when caretaker/parent is an addict, depressed, or has some other psychological or physical challenge. •Most complex – as not consistent as those above – (Loving one day, angry or ignoring the next day.) Causes anxiousness. Person believes they are unlovable, or the source of any problem. •As adults, will reflect this approach – Invite affection – reject closeness.
  15. How can we Modify our attachment style by challenging disconfirming self-perceptions. •Say “no” to bullying from “others”. •Get help (Talk to someone older, utilize campus counseling.) •Form or focus on relationships with others who are uppers, healthy, and supportive. •Romantic partners affect our attachment style. (Often we will pick partners who reflect the caregivers approach.)
  16. Positive Self Talk “Whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable, whatever is excellent, or worthy of praise, think of THESE things.” •Positive thinking will not make lives perfect or make all of our problems disappear, but… •You are not stuck with a ‘script’ unless it fits your life in a positive way.
  17. Flip Your Attitude • Attitude makes all the difference in how successful we are in life. • When a negative thought pops into your mind, flip the script and find some gratitude and remind yourself of all your blessings. • Look for the good in your family, partner, classes, instructors, friends, work, and most importantly, yourself.
  18. Generalized Others • How does a self arise? George Herbert Mead, philosopher, introduces, the generalized other. • When children or adults take roles (These roles are in dyads) • Children play games, which requires a complex sets of behaviors required to participate. (Later for “life” as adults.) • In the latter, we are required to learn not only the responses of specific others, but behaviors associated with every position on the field. (Like baseball.) • These can be internalized, and when we succeed in doing so we come to “view” our own behaviors from the perspective of the game as a whole, which is a system of organized actions. The organized community or social group which gives to the individual his unity of self may be called “the generalized other.”
  19. Generalized Others 1) We learn/develop our self concept as (we interact with others, who have internalized cultural values and pass them on to us.) 2) We learn them (through media and institutions that reflect cultural values.) 3) The institutions that organize our society (communicate them the values they expect us uphold.)
  20. Questions  Sexism  How many women have been wolf-howled, whistled at, or have been yelled at “hey baby?” • How many men have felt suppressed from their vulnerability (such as crying or expressing softer emotions)? Racism • Have you ever been a victim of racial profiling for example being stopped by an authoritative figure because of your skin color or ethnicity? • How many people have someone in their family who prejudice towards certain groups of people? • How many of you have made sexist or racist comments or told sexist and/or racist jokes? Heterosexism • How many people have witnessed someone who used a derogatory term such gay, queer, faggot, etc? • How many people know someone who is from the LGBTQIA community?
  21. Social View of “Others” - Race Race is considered a primary aspect of personal identity. In the United States, Caucasians, have been privileged. The history of how minorities, including Native Americans, have been treated has not and is not positive. Much progress has been made toward racial equality, but more work needs to be done. Q: Does your race influence your self concept?
  22. Demographics of America
  23. How do you identify yourself?  Me – Heinz 57 – Because of all the different ethnic backgrounds my family encompasses.  Cablinasian – A term made up by Tiger Woods – It is a portmanteau (combination of two more words) Caucasian, Black, American-Indian, and Asian, which is his ethnic make-up of a quarter Chinese, a quarter Thai, a quarter Black, an eighth Native American and an eighth Dutch.
  24. Social View of “Others” - Racism • Racism in the United States would not have thrived if institutions hadn’t perpetuated discrimination against people of color for centuries. • Racism has touched every institution in the United States - (The armed forces, business, medicine, public schools and universities and, yes, even the church.) • After the civil rights movement, a number of religious denominations began to racially integrate. In the 21st century, several Christian factions have apologized for their role in supporting slavery, segregation and other forms of racial injustice.
  25. Racism in health care Racism has influenced U.S. health care in the past and continues to do so today. •U.S. government funding studies that allowed poor black men in Alabama to succumb to syphilis or Guatemalan prison inmates, mental health patients and soldiers to be afflicted with the disease and other sexually transmitted infections. •Government agencies also played a role in sterilizing black women in North Carolina, Puerto Rican women and Native American women. •Today, health care organizations appear to be taking steps to reach out to minority groups, such as the Kaiser Family Foundation’s landmark survey of black women in 2011.
  26. The Military and Race World War II marked both racial advancements and setbacks in United States. •It gave underrepresented groups such as blacks, Asians and Native Americans the opportunity to serve in the military. •Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor led the government to evacuate Japanese Americans from the West Coast into internment camps for fear were loyal to the Japanese empire. •Years later the U.S. government issued a formal apology for its treatment of Japanese Americans. (Not one Japanese American was found to have engaged in espionage during World War II. )
  27. Racial Profiling • Everyday untold numbers of Americans are the targets of racial profiling because of their ethnic background. • People of Middle Eastern (especially after 9/11) and South Asian descent report being routinely profiled at the nation’s airports. • Black and Latino men have been disproportionately targeted by the New York City Police Department’s stop and frisk program. • In Ferguson, MO, Black men were targeted for traffic tickets that earned money for the city of Ferguson. • Arizona have faced criticism and boycotts for passing anti-immigrant legislation that civil rights activists say has led to racial profiling of Hispanics.
  28. Racism and Native Americans
  29. Racism and Native Americans • I once wondered why we indigenous peoples of North America must break it down when it comes to why something is anti-Native American. • On the whole, people can recognize what's anti-black, anti- gay, anti-Latino, anti-Asian, and so on: But when it comes to racism directed at Native Americans, we, the first peoples of this continent, are left having to explain why Indian mascots and painting your face red at a Cleveland Indians game denigrate us. • Years of studying and observing this situation have led me to an unfortunate conclusion: People have been conditioned to ignore racism directed at Native Americans.
  30. What can be done about Racism? 1) Join the NAACP – Stop the Hate Campaign. READ THE PLEDGE • I believe all Americans have equal rights and equal value. • I cherish the diverse cultures, beliefs, and values of America. • I believe we can disagree without being disagreeable. • I repudiate all acts of racism and hate, both in words and action. • I have faith in the promise of America – a promise built on mutual respect, common civility, and hope for a better tomorrow. • I commit to building that better America by participating actively and peacefully in the democratic process. • We are one people. We are one nation. I’m an NAACP American
  31. How to stop Racism? 2) Self-assess – Take stock of your thoughts about people from different races and ethnic cultures. (What are your triggers? Be empathic.) 3) Research the topic – Inform yourself of the science of the minority experience in our nation. (Movies, books, and television programs, mostly on PBS about the American Experience, including all immigrants coming to the U.S.) Books: The Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison, To Kill a Mockingbird • Movies: Belle, The Butler, 12 Years a Slave, Cesar Chavez, Selma, Dances with Wolves, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, Smoke Signals, etc.
  32. How to stop Racism? 4) Stop using racial slurs and or telling jokes – (Sometimes have been integrated into our vocabulary.) Examples: Indian-giver, oriental, cotton-picker, words to describe other races, such as the “N-word” or others. (University of WA fraternity members yelling slurs at Black Lives Matter protest; Fraternity members at University of Oklahoma singing racist word songs.)
  33. How to stop Racism? 5) Avoid cultural appropriations (Don’t treat others identities as costumes or fashion accessories.) Examples: Halloween, t-shirts, etc.
  34. How to stop Racism? 6) Talk about Race – Talking to young children and adults about race can increase racial tolerance. •Share your experiences. •Treat other people of other races as individuals, not as representatives of their race. •Work in a student group or other organization that promotes tolerance.
  35. How to stop Racism? 7) Seek out culturally diverse experiences. •Attend festivals (Chinese and Vietnamese New Year, Dias de los muetros, Armenian Independence Day, Bangladesh Day Parade and Festival) •Visit museums - Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust or The Los Angeles Tolerance museums. •Visit cultural areas in LA (Olvera Street, China Town, Watts Tower, etc.) •Music, food, movies, etc. Los-Angeles.htm;;
  36. How to stop Racism? 8) Attend a conference, join an anti-racism group, attend a LAVC celebration day or join an ASU (Associated Student Union) group or start your own. Upcoming CLUB DAYS for 2014-2015 •October 22nd (Latino Heritage Celebration) •February 25th (Black Heritage Celebration) •April 15th (Armenian Heritage Celebration) (For ASU clubs)
  37. Some Thoughts Martin Luther King …I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character… ~ I Have a Dream - August 28, 1963. Washington, D.C. Cesar E. Chavez • "Preservation of one's own culture does not require contempt or disrespect for other cultures.” Sources:;
  38. Social view of “others” Gender Some others have strong views of how males/females are supposed to act. Children usually identify themselves by their sex.  We learn to “act” in ways that are passed from our particular others, institutions, society, and media. It starts with the color of blanket.
  39. Sexism Definition: Negative attitudes and beliefs about a about a particular gender; prejudicial attitudes and beliefs about men or woman based on rigid beliefs about gender roles. Seen in: •Media/Social Media •Education •Workplace •Religion •Sexist language
  40. Examples of Stereotypes - Gender Women: • Submissive • Emotional • Quiet • Neat/Clean • Artsy • A Housewife • Child rearing • Good communicators • Caring • Supportive • Cooperative Q: When women assert themselves or are competitive what happens?
  41. The labels were found on shirts for the Indonesian Super League team Pusamania Borneo. After Salvo Sports Apparel received backlash about the controversial label, the company apologized on Twitter on March 8.
  42. Examples of Stereotypes - Gender Men: • Aggressive • No emotions • Loud • Messy • Athletic • Math and Science Oriented • CEO • Bad communicators Q: What happens if men go against their culture/family view of their gender?
  43. Words can kill! Unarmed People of Color Killed by Police, 1999-2014
  44. Breaking Stereotypes
  45. How to Reduce Sexism? • Stop the use of sex-role stereotyping.
  46. Stop Sexist Language • "Questions and criticisms of sexist language have emerged because of a concern that language is a powerful medium through which the world is both reflected and constructed. . . . Some have claimed that the use of generics (such as 'mankind' to refer to both men and women) reinforces a binary that sees the male and masculine as the norm and the female and feminine as the 'not norm.' . . .
  47. Gender Biased Language Eliminate the use of “man” generically for example words such as: •Fireman •Postman •Chairman •Freshman •Policeman What can you say instead?
  48. Sexist Language Words referring to the entire universe •Mankind Other •Manpower •Manmade lakes •“Oh, man, where did I leave my keys?” •“Manning” the table •You Guys! What can you say instead?
  49. Words that HURT and WHY
  50. Words can heal.
  51. Words that are nonsexist (handout) • Ancient man: ancient civilization, ancient people • Authoress: author, writer • Average housewife: average consumer, average household, average homemaker • Average man: average person • Average working man: average wage earner or taxpayer alternative-language-handbook-for-conscious-writers/
  52. Words that are nonsexist • Man’s best friend: a faithful dog • Man the booth: staff the booth • Man the phones: answer the phones • Manhood: adulthood, maturity • Man-hours: hours of labor, hours • Mankind: humanity, people, the human race • Man-made: synthetic, artificial • Manpower: labor, workforce, personnel, staff, human resources, labor, labor force or work force, human resources, personnel or staffing, combat personnel
  53. A Stereotype of Me (See handout) You thought you had me figured out Before you knew my name Cause you're you and you're not satisfied That I am not the same You'll never change the way I love And you can fight for you're dominion But I'm worth a million times the weight Of a dogmatist's opinion And I know that all that you can see Is a stereotype of me All that you thought I'd ever be Is a stereotype of me Did you ever think that you could see me Past the prejudice you hold Past the picture you created And all the things that you were told You're voice is long since dead to me I won't even be provoked When it hurt you to see me smile The things you said went up in smoke And I know that all that you can see Is a stereotype of me All that you thought I'd ever be Is a stereotype of me
  54. Socioeconomic Class is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. The socioeconomic class you are from can affects: •How much money you make, what neighborhood you are from or can afford to live in. •What schools you go to. •What restaurants you can afford. •What type of job you have, etc. Q: How doany of these things socioeconomic class affect your self concept? Social view of “others”
  55. Heterosexism Definition: Negative attitudes and beliefs about gay men and lesbians; the belief that all sexual behavior that is not heterosexual is unnatural and deserving of criticism and condemnation. •Heterosexism involves assuming all people are heterosexual, and also believing heterosexism is superior than other orientations. •Our society is believed to be predominantly heterosexual.
  56. • Suicide and self-harming are higher for gay/bisexual men. 40.1% reported being physically harassed. • 4.6% of LGBT students reported being verbally harassed, • 18.8% reported being physically assaulted at school in the past year because of their sexual orientation. • 72.4% heard homophobic remarks, such as “gay” "faggot" or "dyke," frequently or often at school. • Nearly two-thirds (61.1%) of students reported that they felt unsafe in school because of their sexual orientation The above statistics are from the 2009 National School Climate Survey. Social view of “others”
  57. September 24, 2014 •Changing Attitudes on Gay Marriage •Public Opinion •In Pew Research polling in 2001, Americans opposed same-sex marriage by a 57% to 35% margin. •Since then, support for same-sex marriage has steadily grown. Today, a majority of Americans (52%) support same-sex marriage, compared with 40% who oppose it.
  58. WASHINGTON, March 5 (Reuters) - The U.S. Supreme Court on Thursday said it will hear oral arguments on April 28 on whether states can ban gay marriage, addressing a hot social issue in what promises to yield one of the justices' most important rulings of the year. •The court will decide whether same-sex marriage bans are prohibited by the U.S. Constitution's guarantee of equal protection under the law. A ruling is due by the end of June.
  59. How to reduce Heterosexism Generalizing •Assuming that one LGBT individual represents all of them. •Conversely, completely separating one LGBT individual you know personally by saying, "You're OK: you're not like the rest of them." Over asserting your Heterosexuality •Rushing to talk about your relationship when you meet an LGBT individual to make sure s/he knows you are heterosexual. •Avoiding behaviors or dress that might cause suspicion that you are not a "real man" or a "real woman." •Avoiding touching or close friendships with people of the same sex. •Excusing other heterosexual people's heterosexist jokes or comments.
  60. How to reduce Heterosexism Making Invisible •Assuming that everyone is heterosexual until proven otherwise. •Always asking women about boyfriends, and men about girlfriends. •Assuming that marriage is everyone's goal. •Keeping bisexuality/homosexuality invisible by not making it safe for people to be "out" or by excluding people who are "out" from visible positions where they might provide positive role models for younger LGBT individuals. •Denying that bisexuality exists. •Assuming that heterosexism doesn't exist because you can't see it. •Considering heterosexism less significant than other oppressions.
  61. Social view of “others” *Understand the LGTQIA community. Lesbian – A female who is attracted romantically, physically or emotionally to another female-identified person. Gay – A male-identified person who is attracted romantically, physically, and/or emotionally to another male-identified person. Bisexual – A person who is attracted romantically, physically, and/or emotionally to both men and women. Transgender – A person who is a member of a gender other than that expected based on anatomical sex. Queer – An umbrella term which embraces a variety of sexual preferences, orientations, and habits of those who do not adhere to the heterosexual majority. Intersex – Someone who’s physical sex characteristics are not categorized as exclusively male or female. Asexual – A person who is not attracted to anyone, or who person who do Ally – A person who does not identify as LGBTQIA, but supports the rights and safety of those who do. *Definitions from Tahoe SAFE Alliance. lgbtqia-mean/
  62. You Matter – Create a self improvement plan 1) Make a firm commitment to personal growth. 2) Gain and use knowledge to support personal growth  Learn to understand how your self-concept was formed.  How does your race, gender, socioeconomic class, sexual orientation affect your approach to relating to others?  Be more open with others. 3) Set goals that are realistic and fair for you. No self- sabotage. 4) Seek contexts that support personal change. 5) Be more empathic.(See handout)
  63. Self-Disclosure – Share more • Revealing information about ourselves that others are unlikely to discover on their own.
  64. I am Poem

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