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Contemporary Architecture in Delhi (1955 1970)

  1. A Presentation on… Contemporary Architecture Delhi 1955-1970 Group Members Priyanshu Singh Rishabh Jain Rishi Agrawal A Presentation on…
  2. Architectural Style Architects Period Architecture of New Delhi Architecture Before Independence Edward Lutyens Herbert Baker Neo-Classical Indo- Saracenic Towards Independence Ganesh Deolaikar Shridhar Joglekar R.I. Gehlota Heavily by Edward Lutyens Herbert Baker After Independence Habib Rehman Achyut Kanvinde International Style inspired by Walter Gropius Frank Lloyd Wright 1960-1980 Shiv Nath Prasad Joseph Allen Stein J.K. Chaudhary Inspired by Le Corbusier & Louis Kahn 1980-Till Now Charles Correa Kuldeep Singh Raj Rewal Romi Khosla Free from any Master’s influence, based on social and ecological solution Architects & Their Style of Different Period in Delhi
  3. Leaders & their Ideologies in Architecture Features Period Model of Architecture Architecture Of India Gandhi Simple in form and space, propogation minimal and frugal lifestyle Tagore Nationalism in spirit, reflecting aristocratic folk paradigm Nehru Based on Industrial development, free spirit, without any refrence to past
  4. The Background till Independence 1. New Delhi : Making of a Capital New Delhi was Born at 2 o’clock on 12th December 1911 as King George V proclaimed it to be India’s new capital at his Grand Coronation Durbar. 3.BuildingsoftheEra Agreement between The Secretary of State in Council of India & Edwin Landseer Lutyens and Herbert Baker On 11th November 1913 2. The Agreement 5. Major Architects of the Era  Edwin Landseer Lutyens  Herbert Baker  W.H. Nicholls  R.T. Russell  John Wood ParliamentHouse These buildings used Cream And Red Dholpur Sandstone From Rajasthan, With The Red Sandstone Forming The Base. These buildings were based on Imperial Style 4. Materials ConnaughtPlace Rastrapati Bhawan India Gate King George V Memorial 1929-1933 1967-1974 1936 10st Feb 1921- 12th Feb 1931 1921-1929 Central Secretariat
  5. From Traditional to Global image From Government led development to Private developers From Nehru Place to Corporate parks From Housing colonies to Apartment blocks From sandstone and Dholpur to Glass facades From the Mughal to the British Imperial to the present Individual statements in Architecture 1931- New Delhi Inaugurat ed At India Gate 1937- Delhi Improve ment Trust Established 1947- Influx Of 500,000 Refugees To The Capital City 1950- Birla Committee Appointed 1957- DDA Established 1962- Master Plan For DDA Approved 1982- 9th Asian Games Held. Six New Stadia And Seven Flyovers Constructed 1987- Master Plan For Delhi Updat ed Upto The Year 2001 Timeline of major events in Delhi The Tracking of Post-Independence Developments
  6. Many buildings were added in the central part of New Delhi in by Habib Rahman, which gave central Delhi it’s present character. Some of them are -  The Post And Telegraph Building (1954),  The Auditor And General Controller’s Office,  The Indraprastha Bhavan,  The WHO Building (1962)  The Multi Storey Flats At RK Puram (1964) &  The Patel Bhavan (1972-73) Gropius And The International Style overwhelmingly influenced the younger architects of the period the influence of the international style began to be widely evident in houses. Walter Sykes George (1881-1962) was an English architect in the post Independence era. His major works are-  St Stephens College (1941)  Tuberculosis Association Building The establishment of D.D.A. in 1957 involved in the design of public buildings and large-scale housing developments. The design efforts of the Architects of the CPWD in New Delhi have made a major impression on the city. Some of the buildings are -  Vayu Bhavan  Krishi Bhavan,  Udyog Bhavan,  Rail Bhavan  Vigyan Bhavan The Supreme Court was designed by Deolalikar in an Indo British Architectural Style as it is located in Lutyen's complex. The plain cubical mass of a government conference hall, the Vigyan Bhawan, designed by RI Geholote of the CPWD for large international conferences, uses elements from Buddhist, Hindu and Mughal architecture. Architecture in 50’s (includes major Architects & their works during this period) Habib Rahman  The Post And Telegraph Building (1954),  The Auditor And General Controller’s Office,  The Indraprastha Bhavan,  The WHO Building (1962)  The Multi Storey Flats At RK Puram (1964) &  The Patel Bhavan (1972-73) Gropius And The International Style Walter Sykes George  St Stephens College (1941)  Tuberculosis Association Building The establishment of D.D.A. In 1957 The design efforts of the Architects of the CPWD in New Delhi  Vayu Bhavan  Krishi Bhavan,  Udyog Bhavan,  Rail Bhavan  Vigyan Bhavan The Supreme Court Deolalikar Indo British Architectural Style Vigyan Bhawan RI Geholote
  7. Thus, the modern style of architecture designed by Joseph Allen Stein adapted to varying geological and climatic conditions.  Stein believed in using building materials in their original form — like he never covered stone with plaster.  There is a strong relationship and harmony between the immediate environment and the buildings. Design Features  Interrelationships of site with landscape, structure and materials; sun and shade.  Horizontal and vertical Garden.  Use of local material.  Use of jali  Use of courtyard. Blend of built and garden that makes the space extended.  Use of modern construction techniques.  Shell geometries – Dome, Vault and factory roof system Joseph Allen Stein 10th April 1912–6th October 2001 The 60’s brought about the presence of Joseph Allen Stein onto the Architectural scene of Delhi. He was an American Architect. In 1952 he moved to India. He is noted for designing several important buildings in India, most notably in Lodhi Estate in Central Delhi, nicknamed "Steinabad" after him. ‘Joseph Stein Lane’, is the only road in Delhi named after an Architect. His works were based on American Empiricist tradition Architecture from 1955-70
  8. American International School Ford Foundation Center Indian International Center Triveni Kala Sangam Indian Habitat Center Mapping Stein’s Buildings Steinabad Australian High Commission Akshara Theatre
  9. Design Concept- Factors affecting Building layout-  Large number of functions to be handled on a small site.  A high degree of flexibility provided for various functions.  Perfectly synchronized interior & outdoor spaces having provision with the clarity in the functioning of each and every space Music Rooms Dance Rooms Art Galleries Open Landscaped Courtyard Cafeteria Semi-open Art Gallery Triveni Kala Sangam 1955-1976
  10. Audi Entry Main Entry Service Entry Galleries 4 Different Galleries-  Triveni Kala Sangam House  The Shridharni Gallery  Triveni Gallery  Sculpture Court & Art Heritage
  11. Clad reinforced concrete frame structure with several infill materials –  Jaali panels along the classroom block, corridor and stairs,  Concrete block with a plastered finish and  Rough-cut stone facing presented to the street. Materials
  12. Design Concept- Dr. Deshmukh invited Joseph Allen Stein to be the architect of the Centre’s building. What Stein created here is best expressed in his own words – ‘There was an attempt to create something which depended upon simplicity and relationships rather than things. So this is not a five-star appearance in marble and granite. But it is a place where a certain kind of relationship exists—between the garden and the building and the water and the earth and the sky, and the learning and activities that take place and the things that happen...’  IIC facilities for a variety of artistic and scholarly activities, conference and symposia organized by nation and international groups.  The center's 18600 square meter (4.6 acres) site at Lodi estate was designed.  so that The grounds of the IIC and adjacent Lodi gardens could function as one entity. Indian International Center 1959-1962
  13. The Centre is composed of Stein’s characteristically individually Articulated blocks –  46 guest rooms,loungeand dinning room in one,  Programmed blocks of library and offices,  Domed Auditorium are all grouped around two great courts,  Connected by porticoes and ground level and rooftop verandahs. Planning
  14. Courtyards & Building Details View From The Rear Gardens To The Centre Court Verandah Under The Guestrooms ‘Delhi’ blue glazed ceramic jaalis between guest rooms Jaali screening guestrooms at entry court- fireclay tile and steel pipe jaalis facing out Accordion Window Wall Steel framed accordion window wall which when folded away transforms the whole space and its balcony extension into a deep verandah.
  15. Ford Foundation Headquarters 1968  The Ford Foundation Established An Office In India In 1952 At The Invitation Of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.  It Was The Foundation's First Office Outside The United States And Remains One Of The Largest Of The International Field Operations Originally built for to house the Ford Foundation Headquarters in India, the building is currently used by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). It is part of a complex of buildings designed by American Architect Joseph Allen Stein on the Lodi Estate.
  16. Australian High Commission, Later in 50’s Using local materials and with an understanding of the harsh Delhi climate, this house relates to the lush green landscape in which it sits. Open stone jalis or perforated screens, combine with large expanses of glass in a way that respected both traditional knowledge and modernist principles. Akshara Theatre, 1972 Designed By Poet, Director Gopal Sharman Built By Stein. Human Scale Of The Buildings, Makes It Best For Bringing Human Environment - J.A. Stein View of Australian High Commission
  17. American International School 1962 Conical Steel Lattices At Classroom The Folded Shell Of The Steel Lattice Vaulting At The Classroom The American International School in Chanayakyapuri, India, is an independent, co-educational day school which offers an educational program from prekindergarten through Grade 12. The school was founded in 1962. American International School (1962-68) comes more out of the American Empiricist tradition than the European Rationalist and its concern for orthogonal geometry particularly in the sitting of buildings.
  18. Industrial Building For Escorts Limited , 1988 The Building features four different shell configurations- • Barrel vault lattice shell, Escorts plant I (1962) • Hyperbolic parabolic lattice shell, for Escorts II plant (1964) • Concrete domes for storage facilities (1965) • Octagonal steel lattice domes, For plant at Surajpur (1988)
  19. “A building becomes architecture when it not only works effectively but moves human soul.” H. Rahman H. Rahman 1953-1974
  20. Dak Tar Bhawan Sardar Patel Bhavan Rabindra Bhawan WHO Headquarters R.K. Puram Flats Mapping Habbib’s Buildings Steinabad Indraprastha Bhawan Vikas Minar DDA Headquarter AGCR Building
  21. Rabindra Bhawan  Rabindra Bhawan Is Designed With Great Harmony Of Distinct Architectural Style And Aesthetics; All Came Together At One Place.  Each Block Of The Bhawan Is Distinct In Form, Layout And Articulation, Most Appropriate For Its Individual Functions.  For Rabindra Bhawan, Rahman Moved Out Of The Bauhaus Style And Its Severe Rationalist Mould. Instead He Created And Interconnect Structure Free From Groupies' Box Shapes And The Bauhaus Factory Aesthetics.  Rahman Described His Building In The Interview Of Inside Outside Magazine In Year 1987 By Saying ”Rabindra Bawan Was The First Building Where I Could Free Myself From The Influence Of Walter Gropius And Oscar Niemeyer. This Building Belonged To India. Here I Used Traditional Indian Element Such As Chhajjas, Jaalis And Overhanging Roofs. It Was The First Functional Building That Gave Me Aesthetic Satisfaction. Maybe It Was Rabindranath’s Artistic Genius That Inspired Me To Give An Emotionally Moving Quality To The Building.”
  22.  Basic layout of the building having service core in the centre and functional space around.  Grid system for structure with moulds of 12ft in longer span and 25ft in shorter span.  The building is divided in three major blocks; Administrative Building, Exhibition Gallery And Theatre.  Administrative Block, which is the biggest of all, is chosen in ‘y’ shape to cover the most area on the site.  Other two blocks are placed according to interrelation with the respective wing of the Admin Block.  Huge landscape has been provided between the Theatre and Administrative Block. Planning
  23. Material  A combination of concrete dome and jaali is used to cover the central shaft of the lift and staircase.  Use of composite structure for the construction of the admin block.  He has used brick masonry load bearing walls with the combination of R.C.C. Column, beam and slab.  ‘End wall of each wing is constructed out of rubble stonework with concrete jaali in the middle of the wall.  The windows area made out of steel frame and glass filters, chajjas and dome above the central core are built out of reinforced concrete.
  24. R. K. Puram Housing  In the time of 60’s, the necessity for multi- storied dwelling arose from rapid urbanization of Delhi due to population explosion.  Sector-13 consist of two type of apartment named type-V and type-VI.  Type-V block are ‘T’ shaped and type-VI blocks are ‘Y’ shaped in plan so as to allow maximum radial bifurcation of each wing and at the same time to enable all wings to be served by common lifts, staircase and service shaft.  Each apartment tilted in relation to the existing road to give the best possible non- obstructive view to maximum number of rooms in each block, a feeling of openness with good air and light with considerable privacy fo each flat.  Pure geometry is used in building forms.
  25.  Large distance between the blocks to get the enough privacy.  Basic layout consist of service core in the centre and three wing around. For the individual apartment transitional space in the middle and rooms on both the side.  Grid system for building structure, where dimension of the grid is according to the functional requirement.  Arrangement of the function according to the position of the Sun throughout the day.  Layering and allotment of the functions according to the hierarchical order.  Use of R.C.C. in the framework of the structure and use of brick as filler walls.  Use of jaalies and chhajjas as the means of weather protector. Planning & Material
  26. Akbar Bhawan (Ministry of External Affairs) Shri Ram Towers Mapping Prasad’s Buildings Steinabad
  27. Shivnath Prasad Like many young Architects during India's independence, Shivnath Prasad was keen to change the language of Architecture to reflect the emerging nation. Along with Le Corbusier’s presence, Modernism manifested in India and the works of Prasad found centre stage. His work was climatically sympathetic with a strong Modern aesthetic of bare- faced concrete with deep recesses to handle the Indian environment. Influence of Le Corbusier He was a complete Corbusier without ever having met or studied with Corbusier. On the contrary some sources say that he has assisted Le Corbusier in Chandigarh before he started to work in Delhi. Shri Ram Tower Akbar Hotel
  28. Akbar Hotel Surviving examples of Prasad’s work includes Akbar Hotel (1965-69). now offices of the Ministry of External Affairs, and renamed Akbar Bhavan.  Akbar Hotel was heavily drawn on the layout of Unite de Habitation at Marseilles (1952) & Secretariat building Chandigarh (1953).  It’s a thirteen storey concrete slab building. Design of this building is drawn heavily on the layout of Corbusier’s Unite de Habitation Marseilles and also it resembles to secretariat building of Chandigarh. This building can be referred as the typical example of brutalism architecture of Le Corbusier with very linear, fortress like and blockish form. Unite de Habitation Marseilles Akbar Hotel
  29.  Heavy massing  Sculptural use of concrete can be spotted.  A service floor in the hotel building echoes that of a shopping floor for Unite de Habit which divides the bedroom area above from the common rooms below.  A two storey curvilinear block juts out at the base , echoing the form of the Millowners Building in Ahmedabad.  It houses restaurants and lounges and other recreational spaces.  Like the Unite de habitation, the roof has "communal facilities"- in this case, a restaurant, garden and small open air theatre. Akbar Hotel Millowners Building in Ahmedabad Planning & Material
  30. The Shri Ram Centre, which Prasad designed almost at the same time as Akbar Hotel was for a private trust that promotes dance, drama and theatre. It can be regarded as an example of work resulting from the second phase of Le Corbusier’s influence.  This building expresses, through Architectural form, the variety of functions the building is to house.  For instance, the theatre is in a cylindrical form and the rehearsal spaces are in the form of a rectangular mass.  The building is unique in its architecture: Its base is shaped like a cylinder on top of which sits a horizontal rectangle.  The ground floor and first floor are within the cylindrical half of the building. Shri Ram Center Shri Ram Tower cross section
  31.  Its auditorium on the first floor - The Shankar Lal Murli Dhar Auditorium - is designed for theatre music performances.  The auditorium, which boasts of a proscenium stage, has a seating capacity of about 556 people at two levels.  The main hall seats around 403 and the balcony seats around 153 people.  There are two cylindrical blocks (canteen and some offices) placed on the left side rising up to a lower height than auditorium.  Green rooms are in a separate block placed to the backside of the main building connected to stage via staircase. It can be regarded as an example of second phase of Le Corbusier's influence, rather than copying design patterns of masters work. In a true rationalist manner Prasad explored the use of pure geometric forms cylinder and cuboid to create a piece of sculpture. Planning & Concept
  32. References  Volume 18 - Issue 23, Nov. 10 - 23, 2001, India's National Magazine from the publishers of “THE HINDU”  New Delhi: Making of a Capital by Malvika Singh & Rudrangshu Mukhrjee.   