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COMMUNICATION MODELS BASED ON
THE THREE STAGES OF BUYING
The cognitive component deals with cognition,
or knowledge; it is the power of knowing,
perceiving or conceiving ideas about the
product. It is dealing with the basic information
that a consumer needs to know. A customer
needs to be exposed to the product and
understand its usage before he actually
The effective component deals with the
affections/emotions. For example, feelings of
likes or dislike towards objects are dealt on the
effective plane. It is at this stage that the
consumer will either have preference or liking
towards the product or he will develop a dislike.
This stage shows his attitude towards the
product, whether he is for or against the
This is the stage when the consumer, after
having the knowledge and developing the liking
or disliking towards the product, will ultimately
lead into a purchase of the product or rejection
of the product. He would first try the product
and develop loyalty towards it or he is
completely convinced that the product is good
and would purchase the product.
• The design and development of advertising follows the AIDA
formula. The effectiveness of advertising depends upon to what
extent the advertising message is received and accepted by the
• American advertising and sales pioneer, Elias St. Elmo Lewis, is
largely credited for developing the AIDA model.
• Research has identified that an advertisement to be effective has to
(i) Attract Attention
(ii) Secure Interest
(iii) Build Desire for the product and finally
(iv) Obtain Action.
• Most campaigns rely on a mix of visual stimuli
Typography , Color, Layout , Size , Celebrity , model etc.
• Text is then employed to further grab attention, enticing the
reader to continue reading in search of more information.
That is why the first paragraph of a sales letter, direct mail
piece or ad needs to be the strongest.
· Have you ever...? · Are you noticing...? · Can you see...?
• Presenting a shocking fact or statistic that identifies a
• Raise customer interest by focusing on and demonstrating advantages and
• Keep them engaged.
• Establish a need, create a bond .
• Being able to establish a need in the mind of a consumer is the
cornerstone of an effective ad campaign.
• A demonstration or illustration can help the recipients to further identify
with the problem and want to actively seek possible solutions
• Hinting at something special to keep their interest in what you have to say.
• This is the stage where you stoke the flames of their desire until
they are absolutely certain they have to have what you are selling.
• Convince customers that they want and desire the product or
service and that it will satisfy their needs.
• This is often accomplished through the problem-solution technique.
• Desire is like a fire, and can be stoked by many methods, such as:
(Scarcity principle), how other people approve of the item etc.
• There are certain barriers here - certain reservations in the mind of
customers. We have to overcome them. We have to convince by
giving evidence, testimonials, endorsements, and facts and figures
• You've attracted their attention, built their interest and
fanned their desire.
• Lead customers towards taking action and/or purchasing.
• A call to action should be in every single ad, regardless of
format. Whether it is a special offer, a free gift or time-limited
• Whether it's going to your website, picking up the phone or
sending an order, the last section of advertisement needs to
contain a powerful call to action.
Example: Film Industry
• Before the films are to be released, they start with airing their promos on
television. Later they use the outdoor and the press to create more
AWARENESS AND ATTENTION. The producers bank on the star cast,
music, locations and the crew of the film to catch the eyes of the public.
• To create INTEREST among the consumers, they then release the music
and also introduce the theme of the film. The purchase of the music
cassettes and CDs is an indication of the interest generated by their
• Later at the DESIRE stage, along with continuous promos on television,
press and hoardings, they have promotions through contests and movie
tickets as prizes. They also have interactive programs like the star cast of
the film visiting different music shops and creating desire among the
• After all these promos and activities, if the film is successful in creating
interest and desire among the people, there is immediate ACTION which is
seen through purchases of tickets at movie halls.
Reliance India Mobile campaign can
be used to explain this model better
• Awareness: The elaborate advertisement where Mukesh
Ambani spoke about the new project being introduced on his
father’s 70th birthday.
• Interest: Was generated as the company spokesperson
featured in the ad, as a representative of the company image
and also spoke about introducing a new technology – CDMA.
• Desire: Was created with various offers like free SMS, 40paise
STD calls, easy payment schemes, and discount coupons
worth Rs. 1 lakh.
• Action: Dhirubhai Ambani Pioneer offers induced people to go
for the product.