India is 'The Oyster' of the global dairy industry.
Ranks 1st in respect of buffalo (57%)(82.8 m), 2ndin cattle(20%)(180.5
m), and goats (9.2 m), 3rd in sheep (4 m), 4th in ducks, 5th in chickens and
6th in camel population in the world. -2015
world milk production declined by 2 % but in India increased by 4% in
the last 3 years. - FAO
The milk production in India accounts about 146.3 million tones i.e
18.5% of the total world output and >57% of total Asia's production.
Per capita aval. of milk in India is 322g per day. Per capita aval. Of milk
in world is average 294 g per day(2014-2015) 3
S.N State Amount(00
1. Uttar Pradesh 25198
2. Rajasthan 16934
3. Gujarat 11691
4. Madhya Pradesh 10779
5. Punjab 10351
Source- department of animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Ministry of
S.N Country Amount Of
1. India 146.31
2. USA 93.5
3. China 45
4. Pakistan 42
5. Brazil 35.7
Top five milk exporter country in world in 2015
S.N Country Percentage of total
1. Germany 17.4%
2. France 9.8%
3. Belgium 8.6%
4. Netherlands 6.8%
5. Austria 4.8%
Top five milk importer country in world in 2008
S.N Country Import in US$’ 000
1. Italy 1,251,983
2. Germany 1,203,911
3. France 695,232
4. Spain 619,916
5. Neatherlands 522,006
Source-FAO Statistical Yearbook 2010
Top five milk processing country in world-1.USA 2. Germany 3. China
4.France 5. India.
India about 46% of the total milk produced is consumed in liquid form and
47% is converted into traditional products like cottage butter, ghee, paneer,
khoya, curd, malai, etc. Only 7% of the milk goes into the production of
western products like milk powders, processed butter and processed
Presently only 12% of the milk market is represented by packaged and
branded pasteurized milk, valued at about Rs. 8,000 crores.
Cheese is an ancient food.
No conclusive evidence indicating where cheese making originated.
Asia are believed to have brought the art of cheese making to Europe.
Their styles, textures and flavors depend on different things such as-
origin of the milk (including the animal's diet), the butterfat content, the
bacteria and mold, the processing, and aging.
Derived from milk by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
The yellow to red color of many cheeses is produced by adding annatto.
(Annatto is extracted from achiote tree (Bixa Orellana) seed.
A specialist seller of cheese is sometimes known as a cheesemonger.
About 40 % of total world milk production converted in to cheese. But
European union United states accounted for more then 50% .
In 2013, world production of cheese was 21.3 million tonnes.
Per capita consumption even among the cheese-consuming households
is a poor 2.4kg as compared to over 20kg in USA.
Rank Country Name Production(Metric Tonne)
1 United States 5,163,564
2 Germany 2,047,453
3 France 1,942,375
4 Italy 1,133,756
5 Netherland 746,263
TOP FIVE CHEESE PRODUCING COUNTRY 2015
S.N Country Cheese Exports %world Tot.
1. Germany US $ 3.8 billion 14.4%
2. France $ 3.3 billion 12.7%
3. Netherlands $ 3.1 billion 12%
4. Italy $2.5 billion 9.6%
5. United states $1.4 billion 5.3%
50. India $ 18.5 billion 0.1%
TOP FIVE CHEESE EXPORTER COUNTRY 2015
S.N Name Of
Country Kind Of Cheese
2. Emmental Switzerland hard
4. Stilton Cheese England Semi-soft
5. Nettle Cheese England
TOP FIVE BEST CHEESE IN WORLD
1. Soft cheese
This type of cheese does not undergo any heating or processing.
Moisture level varies between 50%-60% and fat less then 20%
A penicillium fungus gives it furry white rind.
Not usually used in cooking. soft cheese are used to spread on bread or
Examples of soft cheese are camembert, feta, celtic etc.
2. Semi soft cheese
This type of cheese does not undergo any heating or pressing.
Moisture level varies between 45%-50% and fat less then 45%
The rind is rinsed and brshed with a solution of salt water enriched with a
specific bacteria , which encourages orange coloured fungi to appear.
Ideal for snacking or deserts, some semi soft cheese may be used for
cooking if they stand up to heat well enough.
Examples are gouda, port soft, muenster etc
Gouda Cheese Port soft Cheese
3. Hard cheese
A hard cheese needs to have less water content (30% to 48% ) in the end
product than a soft cheese ( which has 50% to 70%)
Fat – Less then 48%
Packed into moulds , firmly pressed and stored for long periods ( up to two
years ) they bocome hard and more pungent over time
Examples aged manchego, mimolette, tuscano, pelorina etc
Manchego Cheese Tuscano Cheese
4. Semi- Hard Cheese
These cheese onces transformed into curds are heated pressed, moulded
and left to ferment .
This is how the famous holes appear in cheese that is stored in cellars
(such as emmental ).
very rich in calcium and fat less then 70%
Maturing can take from three to nine months or even longer.
Examples are cheddar, Edam, cantal etc.
Edam Cheese Cheddar Cheese
5. Fresh cheese
• Examples are cottage , mozzarella and fromage frains
This is fresh cheese with 80% water content.
Milk is curdled an drained but little other processing takes place and there is no
Eaten with fruits or in salad.
This cheese is obtained through kneading and stretching the curd until it reaches
the desired consistency
Mozzaella is often used in pizza and lesagine
This cheese is hardly drained or matured
Its milk proteins simply coagulate under the effect of lactic ferments
It can be eaten on its own or with added flavouring
6. Blue cheese
The production of this cheese involves inoculating it with fine long
skewers containing penicillium cultures which allow mould to develop
in the cheese
This is what produce the green or blue veins
The maximum moisture content about 46% and fat less then 75%
Examples are roquefort , gorgonzola , stilton etc
GORGONZOLA CHEESE STILTON CHEESE
7. Processed cheese (plastic Cheese)
Mixture of cheese , butter, cream and milk that is heated and emulsified.
Some varieties are flavoured or spiced.
Shelf life very long.
Classified as unriped if produced by single step fermentation or ripened if
addition growth is required during maturation of cheese to achive the desired
taste , texture and aroma.
Ripening involves additional enzymatic transformations after the formation of
Various fungi are also used in the ripening of different cheese.
Uniped cheese is inoculated with fungal spores.
Low Fat Content - 0-3g fat per 100g
eg.- Quark 0.2 g
Reduced Fat Cottage Cheese 2 g
Medium Fat Content 3-20g per 100g
eg.- Cottage Cheese 4g
High Fat Content More than 20g per 100g
eg.- Mozzarella 22g
Full fat cream cheese 47g
1. Cheddar cheese 2. Emmental Cheese
3. Processed Cheese and Cheese Spreads 4. Mozzarella Cheese
Note- Mozzarella Cheese: Mozzarella cheese is of two types (a) low-
moisture (45-54% moisture) part skim Mozzarella (referred to as pizza
cheese) and (b) full-fat Mozzarella cheese (high moisture – up to 60%). The
high demand for Mozzarella cheese is owing to its emergence as an integral
part of pizzas. It is kind of semi-soft cheese.
First step- Pasteurization
Regular HTST pasteurization at 72-730C for 15-20 seconds applied.
2nd Step - Standardization and Filtration
Casein-fat ratio - 0.68-0.7
Typically 60-630C is the temperature applied in Bactofugation.
A membrane filter with a pore size of approximately 0.2 micron is used.
3rd Step - Acidification and Coagulation
A starter culture is a microbiological culture which actually performs
fermentation. It change lactose (milk sugar) into lactic acid.
Mesophilic cultures - 20 and 40°C
Thermophilc cultures -45°C.
Production of low-fat cheese, and if legally permitted, Na2PO4, usually 10
– 20 g/kg.
Rennet- The active principle in rennet is an enzyme called chymosin.
The two major processes occurs after the addition of rennet are.
• 1. casein to paracasein under the influence of rennet.
• 2. Precipitation of paracasein in the presence of calcium ions.
Rennet is extracted from the stomachs of young calves and marketed in form
of a solution with a strength of 1:10000 to 1:15 000.
About 30 ml of rennet is enough for a 100 liters of milk, to yield 10 kg of
cheese and 90 L of whey. 20
Substitutes for animal rennet
• There are two main types of substitute coagulants
1. Coagulating enzymes from plants –
Enzymes from thistle or cynara are used in some traditional cheese
Phytic acid, derived from unfermented soybeans, or Fermentation-
Produced Chymosin (FPC) may also be used.
2. Coagulating enzymes from microorganisms
Today, the most widely used Fermentation-Produced Chymosin (FPC) is
produced either by the fungus Aspergillus niger or Kluyveromyces lactis
• Acid coagulation
Any soft cheeses are produced without use of rennet, by coagulating milk
with acid, such as citric acid or vinegar, or the lactic acid produced
by soured milk.
Cream cheese, paneer, and rubing are traditionally made this way.
• 4th Step Cutting:-
• 5th Step Stirring, Heating & Draining:-
• 6th Step - Salting
• 7th Step- Curd Manipulation
Stretching the curd
• 8th Step Shaping:
• 9th Step Ripening: Different cheeses required different temperatures and
humidity's, however in a small refrigerator temperature is kept at 55°F and
For some cheeses, ambient molds in the air give the cheese a distinct
flavour. Molds is introduced by spraying it on the cheese (brie) or injecting it
into the cheese (blue cheese). Some cheeses must be turned, some must be
brushed with oil, and some must be washed with brine or alcohol.
• High quality proteins and calcium .
Prevents the following health problems
A. Cavity Prevention
B. Cancer Prevention
C. Weight Gain
D. Bone Strength
• < 1% of total dairy products production.
• Cheese was first marketed under the brand name ‘Amul’ in the late 1970s.
• Growth rate is estimated at about 10-12% per year in terms of volume
and 16-17% per year in value terms.
• 60% of the market is dominated by processed cheese.
• Amul owns about 65% of the cheese market, Britannia has ~25% share.
• Amul has introduced a low calorie cheese called ‘slim cheese
• processed cheese market which contributes about 2,000 tonne a year is
dominated by Amul with a 75% share.
• The market for cheese in India is worth Rs 1,250 crore currently.
Organised cheese market ~ Rs 4.5 billion in which Processed cheese at
60% of the overall market is worth Rs 2.7 billion
• Future Scope For Cheese Production
• Market expected to grow nearly 18% during 2015-2020.
• When reducing the fat content, the body and texture of cheese tends to be tough.
• Research is continuing to reduce the rate of addition of both NaCl as well as the
emulsifying salts in processed cheese manufacture.
• for adult consumption as a high protein snack
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