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Biochar: Important Role In Agriculture

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  3. 3. Content……..  Introduction  Conversion efficiency  Method of biochar preparation  Chemical property of different type of biochar  Effects of biochar on soil health  Method of biochar application  Rate of biochar application  Crop productivity through biochar  Critical factor for biochar  Benefits of biochar 3
  4. 4.  Biochar is pyrolized biomass  Called black gold of agriculture  Enhances plant growth which absorbs more CO2 from the atmosphere. 4  Biochar is a fine-grained, carbon-rich, porous product remaining after plant biomass has been subjected to thermo-chemical conversion process (pyrolysis) at temperatures ~350–600°C in an environment with little or no oxygen (Amonette and Joseph, 2009).
  5. 5.  Used as a soil amendment 5  Incorporating biochar into soil reduces nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and increases methane (CH4) uptake from soil.  Agricultural crop residues form a major source of biomass in India and annually about 69.7 million tonnes  Crop residues is highest in Uttar Pradesh (60 Mt) followed by Punjab (51 Mt).
  6. 6. Conversion efficiency  Average recovery about 54% Type of waste Conversion efficiency (%) Rice husk 69-78 Red gram 36- 39 Maize 32-35 Cotton 38-46 6 Kannan et al. 2012
  7. 7. Methods of biochar preparation  Thermal decomposition usually achieved from pyrolysis or gasification  Mainly three method of biochar preparation A. Heap method  It is a traditional method 7
  8. 8. B. Drum Method Venkatesh et al. (2010) develop this method at CRIDA, Hyderabad. 200L Drum A view of bottom side of the charring kiln Upper view At bottom side about 36 holes are made about 4 cm2 cover about 20% of total surface area 8
  9. 9. C. Biochar stove method  Two basic types of stoves A. Top-Lit Updraft Gasifier (TLUD) B. The Anila stove. TLUD Gasifier Anila stove 9
  10. 10.  Dr. Thomas B. Reed and Paal Wendelbo independently developed the working idea of a TLUD gasifier in the 1990s.  TLUD is a micro-kiln used to produce charcoal, especially biochar, and heat for cooking.  Modern Anila stove was developed by U.N. Ravi Kumar  The key aims of the design are to reduce the indoor air pollution  The stove is made from steel and weighs about 10 kg. 10
  11. 11. Biochar PH EC (dS m-1) OC (g/kg) Total N (%) Total P (%) Total K (%) Total Na (%) Prosopis 8.4-9.7 0.63-0.95 25-32 0.70-1.23 0.05-0.26 0.2-0.5 0.34-0.51 Rice husk 7.9-8.1 0.22-.52 34-57 0.63-1.78 0.07-23 0.1-0.2 1.3-2.4 Maize 9.9-10.0 0.95-2.29 21-76 0.43-2.06 0.08-0.84 0.3-0.8 0.09-1.2 Cotton 9.81-10.6 0.28-0.75 24-76 0.31-0.67 0.15-0.39 1.1-1.4 0.63-0.75 Red gram 9.4-10.8 0.83-1.4 17-67 0.53-1.65 0.18-0.46 0.8-2.5 0.71-0.81 Fodder sorghum 10.0-11.8 1.3-2.2 8-11 0.32-1.02 0.16-0.24 1.1-3.9 0.71-0.78 11
  12. 12. Effects of biochar on soil health  Influence of biochar on soil physical properties soil physical parameters such as wettability of soil, water infiltration, water retention, macro-aggregation and soil stability are critical importance in tropical environments in combating erosion, mitigating drought and nutrient loss and in general to enhance groundwater quality.  Influence of biochar on soil chemical properties Observed Significant changes in soil quality, including PH increase, organic carbon and exchangeable cations were observed at higher rates of biochar application. 12
  13. 13.  Influence on nutrient use efficiency Longer-term benefits of biochar application on nutrient availability mainly due to a greater stabilization of organic matter, concurrent slower nutrient release from added organic matter and better retention of all cations due to a greater cation exchange capacity.  Influence of biochar on soil microbial activity Biochar provides a suitable habitat for a large and diverse group of soil microorganisms. Symbiosis between effective microbes and plant root through the medium of charcoal, that promotes the growth of plants 13
  14. 14. Effect of biochar on soil Factor Impact Source Cation exchange capacity 50% increase (Glaser et al., 2002) Fertilizer use efficiency 10-30 % increase (Gaunt and Cowie, 2009) Liming agent 1 point pH increase (Lehman and Rondon, 2006) Soil moisture retention Up to 18 % increase (Tryon, 1948) Crop productivity 20-120% increase (Lehman and Rondon, 2006) Methane emission 100% decrease (Rondon et al, 2005) Nitrous oxide emissions 50 % decrease (Yanai et al., 2007) Bulk density Soil dependent (Laird, 2008) Mycorrhizal fungi 40 % increase (Warnock et al., 2007) Biological nitrogen fixation 50-72% increase (Lehman and Rondon, 2006) NICRA Bulletin 1/2013 14
  15. 15. Experimental view of biochar application  Biochar prepared from different feedstocks (pigeonpea, castor and cotton) was evaluated for its effect on pigeonpea yield at CRIDA, Hyderabad 15 Pigeon pea stalk at 6 t/ha + RDF Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) Unamended control
  16. 16. Methods of biochar application Biochar can be applied to soil by different methods including broadcasting, spot placement, deep banding etc. But method of biochar application in soil depends on the farming system, available machinery and labor. Biochar by hand application is well known, but is not viable on large-scale because of labor intensity and human health concerns Mixing of biochar with composts and manures 16
  17. 17. Rate of biochar application  Experiments have found that rates between 5-50 t/ha (0.5-5 kg/m2) have often been used successfully.  In the case of piggery and poultry manure biochar, the biochar works both as an organic fertilizer and soil conditioner with agronomic benefits observed at low application rates (10 t/ha)  Application of biochar to soils in a legume-based (e.g. peanut and maize) rotational cropping system, clovers and lucernes is more beneficial 17
  18. 18. Critical factors for biochar 1. Quality of feedstock biomass  Different types of biomass can be used for producing biochar  But, all types of feedstock biomasses are not equally good for various types of soils.  Nutrient types and amounts vary with the biomass used. 2. Optimum temperature for biochar production  Higher the temperatures of the pyrolysis, the greater are the CEC and surface area of biochar. But, 1) low carbon levels; and 2) additional handling costs of small-sized biochar  The optimum temperature for biochar production is around 500°C 18
  19. 19. 3. Soil types and Soil moisture  In dry countries such as Australia and India, where water quantity and quality is extremely variable, this would be a significant benefit.  Biochar soil water benefits are maximized in sandy soils than loam and clay soil. Effects of biomass derived char on percentage of Available moisture in soils on a volume basis Soil 0% biochar 15% biochar 30% biochar 45% biochar Sand 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 Loam 10.6 10.6 10.6 10.6 Clay 17.8 16.6 15.4 14.2 Source: Glaser et al. (2002) 4. Soil pH and soil contamination 19
  20. 20. Benefits of biochar  Soil enhancement that lasts a lifetime  Enhanced plant growth  Increases soil water holding capacity Increases cation exchange capacity  Supports soil microbial life and biodiversity  Helps plants resist diseases and pathogens  Stimulated symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes  Reduces soil acidity: raises soil pH increased soil aggregation due to increased fungal hyphae Reduced leaching of nutrients 20
  21. 21. Conclusion  Biochar called black gold is a pyrolized biomass.  Used as a soil amendment and as a nutrient source.  Different type of feed stock has different type of biochar.  It affect soil as different way for enhancing the condition of soil.  Method of application has different type that variance occur on different condition.  Benefits of biochar varies on different fector. 21
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