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Air pollution

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Air pollution

  1. 1. AIR POLLUTION, EFFECTS ON HEALTH AND ITS CONTROL MEASURES Sundeep Kumar Magar MPH, Third batch National Medical College Teaching Hospital Birgunj
  2. 2. Atmosphere as a Resource  Atmospheric Composition ◦ Nitrogen 78.08% ◦ Oxygen 20.95% ◦ Argon 0.93% ◦ Carbon dioxide 0.04%
  3. 3. Types and Sources of Air Pollution  Air Pollution ◦ Chemicals added to the atmosphere by natural events or human activities in high enough concentrations to be harmful  Two categories ◦ Primary Air Pollutant  Harmful substance that is emitted directly into the atmosphere ◦ Secondary Air Pollutant  Harmful substance formed in the atmosphere when a primary air pollutant reacts with substances normally found in the atmosphere or with other air pollutants
  4. 4.  5 Major Pollutants:  1..) Carbon Monoxide  2.) Sulfur Dioxide  3.) Nitrogen Dioxide  4.) Particulate Matter  5.) Ground Level Ozone SMOG
  5. 5. Carbon Monoxide •colorless, odorless •produced when carbon does not burn in fossil fuels •present in car exhaust •deprives body of CO causing headaches, fatigue, and impaired vision
  6. 6. Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxides  Nitrogen Oxides ◦ Gases produced by the chemical interactions between atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen at high temperature ◦ Problems  Greenhouse gases  Cause difficulty breathing  Sulfur Oxides ◦ Gases produced by the chemical interactions between sulfur and oxygen ◦ Causes acid precipitation
  7. 7. Particulate Material  Thousands of different solid or liquid particles suspended in air ◦ Includes: soil particles, soot, lead, asbestos, sea salt, and sulfuric acid droplets  Dangerous for 2 reasons ◦ May contain materials with toxic or carcinogenic effects ◦ Extremely small particles can become lodged in lungs
  8. 8. Ozone  Tropospheric Ozone ◦ Man- made pollutant in the lower atmosphere ◦ Secondary air pollutant ◦ Component of photochemical smog (Photochemical Smog) Brownish-orange haze formed by chemical reactions involving sunlight, nitrogen oxide, and hydrocarbons  Stratospheric Ozone ◦ Essential component that screens out UV radiation in the upper atmosphere ◦ Man- made pollutants (example: CFCs) can destroy it
  9. 9. Air Pollution Around the World  Air quality is deteriorating rapidly in developing countries Residents only see sunlight a few weeks each year  Developing countries have older cars Still use leaded gasoline  5 worst cities in world Beijing, China; Mexico City, Mexico; Shanghai, China; Tehran, Iran; and Calcutta, India
  10. 10.  World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 3 million people die each year due to air pollution in the world (World Bank 2003, ‘Health Impacts of Outdoor Air Pollution’. South Asia Urban Air Quality Management Briefing, paper No. 11).  According to the WHO, air pollution is responsible for increases in outpatient visits due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, hospital admissions and mortality.
  11. 11. Rescent studies have shown that global average temperature has increased by 0.74°C during the period of 1906-2005 2,323 glacier lake have so far been identified in Nepal. Out of these, 20 lakes are considered to be in danger of bursting their banks(mool et. al 2001)
  12. 12. Scientists predicts that earth’s mean surface temperature will rise by between 1.5 – 4.5°C by 2050 if green house gas continue to rise at the present rate. Carbon dioxide 62% Methane 20% Nitrous oxide4% CFCs 12% HCFCs and HFCs 2%
  13. 13. Ozone Depletion in Stratosphere  Ozone thinning/hole ◦ First identified in 1985 over Antarctica  Caused by ◦ human-produced bromine and chlorine containing chemicals ◦ Example: CFCs
  14. 14. Effects of Ozone Depletion  Higher levels of UV- radiation hitting the earth ◦ Eye cataracts ◦ Skin cancer ◦ Weakened immunity  May disrupt ecosystems  May damage crops and forests
  15. 15. Recovery of Ozone Layer  Montreal Protocol (1987) ◦ Reduction of CFCs ◦ Started using HCFCs (greenhouse gas)  Phase out of all ozone destroying chemicals is underway globally  Full recovery will not occur until 2050
  16. 16. Health Effects of Air Pollution  Sulfur Dioxide and Particulate material ◦ Irritate respiratory tract and impair ability of lungs to exchange gases  Nitrogen Dioxides ◦ Causes airway restriction  Carbon monoxide ◦ Binds with iron in blood hemoglobin ◦ Causes headache, fatigue, drowsiness, death  Ozone ◦ Causes burning eyes, coughing, and chest discomfort
  17. 17. Children and Air Pollution  Greater health threat to children than adults ◦ Air pollution can restrict lung development ◦ Children breath more often than adults  Children who live in high ozone areas are more likely to develop asthma
  18. 18. Cost of air pollution can be evaluated in following ways:  Medical care of health due to ARI, dermatitis, cancer etc.  Pollution control involves money, manpower, etc for disposal of pollutants and for control device development  Damage of crop production  Corrosion of metals and soiling of buildings.
  19. 19. National indoor air quality standard and implementation guidelines 4/4/2009 by GoN POLLUTANTS MAXIMUM CONCENTRATION AVERAGING TIME (PM10) 120 mg/m3 200 mg/m3 24 hrs 1 hrs (PM2.5) 60 mg/m3 100 mg/m3 24 hrs 1 hrs CO 9 ppm mg/m3 35 ppm mg/m3 8 hrs 1 hrs CO2 1000 ppm mg/m3 8 hrs
  20. 20. Measures of pollution control 1. Legislation  The vehicle and transport management act, 2049(1993) This includes  Mechanical control of the vehicle  Amount of pollution discharged by the vehicle  Life span of the vehicle  Appearance of the vehicle
  21. 21. Contd…  In January 1998, HMG, Nepal specified standards for petrol and diesel engine vehicles as follows:  for petrol engines vehicles 4.5 percent carbon monoxide by volume and  for diesel engines 65 HSU (Hartridge Smoke Unit) for vehicles manufactured before 1994  and 75 HSU for vehicles manufactured after 1994
  22. 22. International legislations  Montreal protocol on substance that Deplete ozone layer(16th september 1987) – Nepal signed 6 July 1994  Kyoto protocol, 1997 : it introduce the concept of clean development mechanism and emission trading.  Copenhagen Summit,2009 Bella center in Copenhagen Denmark between 7-18th dec (REDD) reduce emissions from deforestration and degradations.
  23. 23. 2. Containment Containment achieved by engineering measures like enclosures, ventilation and air cleaning
  24. 24. 3 Replacement.  Use of electricity instead of coal.  Using eco friendly vehicles instead of diesel or petrol engines.
  25. 25. Some practical steps;  Modification of industrial process, wherever possible in order to minimize harmful chemicals.  Use of electricity and natural gases in place of wood, coal  Discontinuous use of insecticides and pesticides.
  26. 26.  Traffic management and reduction of pollution through proper turning of the vehicles  Establishment of green belts between residental and industrial areas  Health education on public about methods of control like provision of chimney.
  27. 27. Speaking critically  Lack of a strategic air quality monitoring policy, infrastructure and technology.  Air Quality Management System (AQMS) is absent from the national policy.  • Similarly, there is no Air Quality Information system (AQMS) and  This has limited the scope for comprehensive presentation of the state of the atmospheric environment.  • No ambient air quality standards.  • No organization responsible for air quality monitoring.  • Lack of scientific data on human health impact, since URBAIR-1996 report.
  28. 28. For the better air quality:  establishment of air quality monitoring system  mass public awareness and education programmes  studies on impact of air pollution on the health of people  on the basis of above, air quality standards to be established and maintained.
  29. 29. •http://edugreen.teri.in/explore/air.htm •http://www.oneworld.net/penguin/pollution/pollution_ home.html •http://www.rcc.org/oem/aqindex.html •URBAIR-1996 report.
  30. 30. THANKYOU