TCHCH TCHAPTER NINECHAPTER NINE
RRAY OPTICS ANAND OO ALPTICAL I TTNSTRUMENTS
999.19.1 Introduction 309
99.2 Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors 310
99.3 Refraction 316
99.4 Total Internal Reflection 319
99.5 Refraction at Spherical Surfaces and by Lenses 323
99.6 Refraction through a Prism 330
99.7 Dispersion by a Prism 332
99.899.8 Some Natural Phenomena due to Sunlight 333
99.9 Optical Instruments 335
AC RCHAPTER TEN
WWAVAVE OP IPTICS
110.1 Introduction 351
110.2 Huygens Principle 353
110.3 Refraction and reflection of plane waves using Huygens Principle 355
1110.410.4 Coherent and Incoherent Addition of Waves 360
1110.510.5 Interference of Light Waves and Young’s Experiment 362
110.6110.6 Diffraction 367
110.7 Polarisation 376
AC EVCHAPTER ELEVEN
DDUAL NN RATURE OF R TA OADIATION ANAND M TATTER
111.1 Introduction 386
111.2 Electron Emission 387
111.3 Photoelectric Effect 388
111.4111.4 Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect 389
111.5 Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light 393
111.6 Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation 393
111.7 Particle Nature of Light: The Photon 395
111.8 Wave Nature of Matter 398
111.9 Davisson and Germer Experiment 403
3. AC R EC A R ECHAPTER TWELVECHAPTER TWELVE
1212.1 Introduction 414
1212.2 Alpha-particle Scattering and Rutherford’s Nuclear Model of Atom 415
1212.3 Atomic Spectra 420
1212.4 Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 422
1212.5 The Line Spectra of the Hydrogen Atom 428
1212.6 DE Broglie’s Explanation of Bohr’s Second Postulate of Quantisation 430
C ACHAPTER THIRTEEN
1313.1 Introduction 438
131313.213.2 Atomic Masses and Composition of Nucleus 438
131313.313.3 Size of the Nucleus 441
1313.5 Nuclear Force 445
1313.6 Radioactivity 446
1313.7 Nuclear Energy 451
A RC RCHAPTER FOURTEEN
SS IEMICONDUCTOR EE NLECTRONICSS: MATERIALS, DEVICES AAND PSIMPLE CR UCIRCUITS
1414.1 Introduction 467
1414.2 Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors 468
1414.3 Intrinsic Semiconductor 472
1414.4 Extrinsic Semiconductor 474
141414.514.5 p-n Junction 478
1414.61414.6 Semiconductor diode 479
1414.7 Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier 483
1414.8 Special Purpose p-n Junction Diodes 485
1414.9 Junction Transistor 490
114.10 Digital Electronics and Logic Gates 501
114.11 Integrated Circuits 505
A IF NC TEECHAPTER FIFTEEN
CCCC IOMMUNICATIONIOMMUNICATION SSSSY EYSTEMSY EYSTEMS
1515.1 Introduction 513
1515.2 Elements of a Communication System 513
1515.3 Basic Terminology Used in Electronic Communication Systems 515
151515.415.4 Bandwidth of Signals 517
151515.515.5 Bandwidth of Transmission Medium 518
1515.61515.6 Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves 519
4. 115.7 Modulation and its Necessity 522
115.8 Amplitude Modulation 524
115.9 Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave 525
1115.1015.10 Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave 526
A ITIO MA NADDITIONAL INFORMATIONIOA IT MA NADDITIONAL INFORMATION 528
C SA I EAPPENDICES 532
WA SANSWERS 534
5. Chapter Nine
Nature has endowed the human eye (retina) with the sensitivity to detect
electromagnetic waves within a small range of the electromagnetic
spectrum. Electromagnetic radiation belonging to this region of the
spectrum (wavelength of about 400 nm to 750 nm) is called light. It is
mainly through light and the sense of vision that we know and interpret
the world around us.
There are two things that we can intuitively mention about light from
common experience. First, that it travels with enormous speed and second,
that it travels in a straight line. It took some time for people to realise that
the speed of light is finite and measurable. Its presently accepted value
in vacuum is c = 2.99792458 × 108
. For many purposes, it suffices
to take c = 3 × 108
. The speed of light in vacuum is the highest
speed attainable in nature.
The intuitive notion that light travels in a straight line seems to
contradict what we have learnt in Chapter 8, that light is an
electromagnetic wave of wavelength belonging to the visible part of the
spectrum. How to reconcile the two facts? The answer is that the
wavelength of light is very small compared to the size of ordinary objects
that we encounter commonly (generally of the order of a few cm or larger).
In this situation, as you will learn in Chapter 10, a light wave can be
considered to travel from one point to another, along a straight line joining
them. The path is called a ray of light, and a bundle of such rays
constitutes a beam of light.
In this chapter, we consider the phenomena of reflection, refraction
and dispersion of light, using the ray picture of light. Using the basic
laws of reflection and refraction, we shall study the image formation by
plane and spherical reflecting and refracting surfaces. We then go on to
describe the construction and working of some important optical
instruments, including the human eye.
PARTICLE MODEL OF LIGHT
Newton’s fundamental contributions to mathematics, mechanics, and gravitation often blind
us to his deep experimental and theoretical study of light. He made pioneering contributions
in the field of optics. He further developed the corpuscular model of light proposed by
Descartes. It presumes that light energy is concentrated in tiny particles called corpuscles.
He further assumed that corpuscles of light were massless elastic particles. With his
understanding of mechanics, he could come up with a simple model of reflection and
refraction. It is a common observation that a ball bouncing from a smooth plane surface
obeys the laws of reflection. When this is an elastic collision, the magnitude of the velocity
remains the same. As the surface is smooth, there is no force acting parallel to the surface,
so the component of momentum in this direction also remains the same. Only the component
perpendicular to the surface, i.e., the normal component of the momentum, gets reversed
in reflection. Newton argued that smooth surfaces like mirrors reflect the corpuscles in a
In order to explain the phenomena of refraction, Newton postulated that the speed of
the corpuscles was greater in water or glass than in air. However, later on it was discovered
that the speed of light is less in water or glass than in air.
In the field of optics, Newton – the experimenter, was greater than Newton – the theorist.
He himself observed many phenomena, which were difficult to understand in terms of
particle nature of light. For example, the colours observed due to a thin film of oil on water.
Property of partial reflection of light is yet another such example. Everyone who has looked
into the water in a pond sees image of the face in it, but also sees the bottom of the pond.
Newton argued that some of the corpuscles, which fall on the water, get reflected and some
get transmitted. But what property could distinguish these two kinds of corpuscles? Newton
had to postulate some kind of unpredictable, chance phenomenon, which decided whether
an individual corpuscle would be reflected or not. In explaining other phenomena, however,
the corpuscles were presumed to behave as if they are identical. Such a dilemma does not
occur in the wave picture of light. An incoming wave can be divided into two weaker waves
at the boundary between air and water.
9.2 REFLECTION OF LIGHT BY SPHERICAL MIRRORS
We are familiar with the laws of reflection. The angle of reflection (i.e., the
angle between reflected ray and the normal to the reflecting surface or
the mirror) equals the angle of incidence (angle between incident ray and
the normal). Also that the incident ray, reflected ray and the normal to
the reflecting surface at the point of incidence lie in the same plane
(Fig. 9.1). These laws are valid at each point on any reflecting surface
whether plane or curved. However, we shall restrict our discussion to the
special case of curved surfaces, that is, spherical surfaces. The normal in
7. Ray Optics and
this case is to be taken as normal to the tangent
to surface at the point of incidence. That is, the
normal is along the radius, the line joining the
centre of curvature of the mirror to the point of
We have already studied that the geometric
centre of a spherical mirror is called its pole while
that of a spherical lens is called its optical centre.
The line joining the pole and the centre of curvature
of the spherical mirror is known as the principal
axis. In the case of spherical lenses, the principal
axis is the line joining the optical centre with its
principal focus as you will see later.
9.2.1 Sign convention
To derive the relevant formulae for reflection by spherical mirrors and
refraction by spherical lenses, we must first adopt a sign convention for
measuring distances. In this book, we shall follow the Cartesian sign
convention. According to this
convention, all distances are measured
from the pole of the mirror or the optical
centre of the lens. The distances
measured in the same direction as the
incident light are taken as positive and
those measured in the direction
opposite to the direction of incident
light are taken as negative (Fig. 9.2).
The heights measured upwards with
respect to x-axis and normal to the
principal axis (x-axis) of the mirror/
lens are taken as positive (Fig. 9.2). The
heights measured downwards are
taken as negative.
With a common accepted convention, it turns out that a single formula
for spherical mirrors and a single formula for spherical lenses can handle
all different cases.
9.2.2 Focal length of spherical mirrors
Figure 9.3 shows what happens when a parallel beam of light is incident
on (a) a concave mirror, and (b) a convex mirror. We assume that the rays
are paraxial, i.e., they are incident at points close to the pole P of the mirror
and make small angles with the principal axis. The reflected rays converge
at a point F on the principal axis of a concave mirror [Fig. 9.3(a)].
For a convex mirror, the reflected rays appear to diverge from a point F
on its principal axis [Fig. 9.3(b)]. The point F is called the principal focus
of the mirror. If the parallel paraxial beam of light were incident, making
some angle with the principal axis, the reflected rays would converge (or
appear to diverge) from a point in a plane through F normal to the principal
axis. This is called the focal plane of the mirror [Fig. 9.3(c)].
FIGURE 9.1 The incident ray, reflected ray
and the normal to the reflecting surface lie
in the same plane.
FIGURE 9.2 The Cartesian Sign Convention.
The distance between the focus F and the pole P of the mirror is called
the focal length of the mirror, denoted by f. We now show that f = R/2,
where R is the radius of curvature of the mirror. The geometry
of reflection of an incident ray is shown in Fig. 9.4.
Let C be the centre of curvature of the mirror. Consider a
ray parallel to the principal axis striking the mirror at M. Then
CM will be perpendicular to the mirror at M. Let T be the angle
of incidence, and MD be the perpendicular from M on the
principal axis. Then,
‘MCP = T and ‘MFP = 2T
and tan 2T
For small T, which is true for paraxial rays, tanT | T
tan 2T | 2T Therefore, Eq. (9.1) gives
or, FD =
Now, for small T, the point D is very close to the point P.
Therefore, FD = f and CD = R. Equation (9.2) then gives
f = R/2 (9.3)
9.2.3 The mirror equation
If rays emanating from a point actually meet at another point after
reflection and/or refraction, that point is called the image of the first
point. The image is real if the rays actually converge to the point; it is
FIGURE 9.3 Focus of a concave and convex mirror.
FIGURE 9.4 Geometry of
reflection of an incident ray on
(a) concave spherical mirror,
and (b) convex spherical mirror.
9. Ray Optics and
virtual if the rays do not actually meet but appear
to diverge from the point when produced
backwards. An image is thus a point-to-point
correspondence with the object established
through reflection and/or refraction.
In principle, we can take any two rays
emanating from a point on an object, trace their
paths, find their point of intersection and thus,
obtain the image of the point due to reflection at a
spherical mirror. In practice, however, it is
convenient to choose any two of the following rays:
(i) The ray from the point which is parallel to the
principal axis. The reflected ray goes through
the focus of the mirror.
(ii) The ray passing through the centre of
curvature of a concave mirror or appearing to pass through it for a
convex mirror. The reflected ray simply retraces the path.
(iii) The ray passing through (or directed towards) the focus of the concave
mirror or appearing to pass through (or directed towards) the focus
of a convex mirror. The reflected ray is parallel to the principal axis.
(iv) The ray incident at any angle at the pole. The reflected ray follows
laws of reflection.
Figure 9.5 shows the ray diagram considering three rays. It shows
the image AcBc (in this case, real) of an object AB formed by a concave
mirror. It does not mean that only three rays emanate from the point A.
An infinite number of rays emanate from any source, in all directions.
Thus, point Ac is image point of A if every ray originating at point A and
falling on the concave mirror after reflection passes through the point Ac.
We now derive the mirror equation or the relation between the object
distance (u), image distance (v) and the focal length ( f ).
From Fig. 9.5, the two right-angled triangles AcBcF and MPF are
similar. (For paraxial rays, MP can be considered to be a straight line
perpendicular to CP.) Therefore,
B A B F
c c c
B A B F
c c c
('PM = AB) (9.4)
Since ‘ APB = ‘ AcPBc, the right angled triangles AcBcP and ABP are
also similar. Therefore,
B A B P
B A B P
c c c
Comparing Eqs. (9.4) and (9.5), we get
B P – FPB F B P
FP FP BP
Equation (9.6) is a relation involving magnitude of distances. We now
apply the sign convention. We note that light travels from the object to
the mirror MPN. Hence this is taken as the positive direction. To reach
FIGURE 9.5 Ray diagram for image
formation by a concave mirror.
the object AB, image AcBc as well as the focus F from the pole P, we have
to travel opposite to the direction of incident light. Hence, all the three
will have negative signs. Thus,
Bc P = –v, FP = –f, BP = –u
Using these in Eq. (9.6), we get
v f v
–v f v
1 1 1
v u f
This relation is known as the mirror equation.
The size of the image relative to the size of the object is another
important quantity to consider. We define linear magnification (m) as the
ratio of the height of the image (hc) to the height of the object (h):
h and hc will be taken positive or negative in accordance with the accepted
sign convention. In triangles AcBcP and ABP, we have,
B A B P
c c c
With the sign convention, this becomes
– –h v
m = –
We have derived here the mirror equation, Eq. (9.7), and the
magnification formula, Eq. (9.9), for the case of real, inverted image formed
by a concave mirror. With the proper use of sign convention, these are,
in fact, valid for all the cases of reflection by a spherical mirror (concave
or convex) whether the image formed is real or virtual. Figure 9.6 shows
the ray diagrams for virtual image formed by a concave and convex mirror.
You should verify that Eqs. (9.7) and (9.9) are valid for these cases
FIGURE 9.6 Image formation by (a) a concave mirror with object between
P and F, and (b) a convex mirror.
11. Ray Optics and
Example 9.1 Suppose that the lower half of the concave mirror’s
reflecting surface in Fig. 9.5 is covered with an opaque (non-reflective)
material. What effect will this have on the image of an object placed
in front of the mirror?
Solution You may think that the image will now show only half of the
object, but taking the laws of reflection to be true for all points of the
remaining part of the mirror, the image will be that of the whole object.
However, as the area of the reflecting surface has been reduced, the
intensity of the image will be low (in this case, half).
Example 9.2 A mobile phone lies along the principal axis of a concave
mirror, as shown in Fig. 9.7. Show by suitable diagram, the formation
of its image. Explain why the magnification is not uniform. Will the
distortion of image depend on the location of the phone with respect
to the mirror?
The ray diagram for the formation of the image of the phone is shown
in Fig. 9.7. The image of the part which is on the plane perpendicular
to principal axis will be on the same plane. It will be of the same size,
i.e., BcC = BC. You can yourself realise why the image is distorted.
Example 9.3 An object is placed at (i) 10 cm, (ii) 5 cm in front of a
concave mirror of radius of curvature 15 cm. Find the position, nature,
and magnification of the image in each case.
The focal length f = –15/2 cm = –7.5 cm
(i) The object distance u = –10 cm. Then Eq. (9.7) gives
1 1 1
10 7 5v
10 7 5
= = – 30 cm
The image is 30 cm from the mirror on the same side as the object.
Also, magnification m =
– – – 3
The image is magnified, real and inverted.
5 7 5
7 5 5
This image is formed at 15 cm behind the mirror. It is a virtual image.
Magnification m =
– – 3
The image is magnified, virtual and erect.
Example 9.4 Suppose while sitting in a parked car, you notice a
jogger approaching towards you in the side view mirror of R = 2 m. If
the jogger is running at a speed of 5 m s–1
, how fast the image of the
jogger appear to move when the jogger is (a) 39 m, (b) 29 m, (c) 19 m,
and (d) 9 m away.
From the mirror equation, Eq. (9.7), we get
For convex mirror, since R = 2 m, f = 1 m. Then
for u = –39 m,
( 39) 1 39
39 1 40
Since the jogger moves at a constant speed of 5 m s–1
, after 1 s the
position of the image v (for u = –39 + 5 = –34) is (34/35 )m.
The shift in the position of image in 1 s is
1365 136039 34 5 1
40 35 1400 1400 280
Therefore, the average speed of the image when the jogger is between
39 m and 34 m from the mirror, is (1/280) m s–1
Similarly, it can be seen that for u = –29 m, –19 m and –9 m, the
speed with which the image appears to move is
–1 –1 –11 1 1
m s , m s and m s ,
150 60 10
Although the jogger has been moving with a constant speed, the speed
of his/her image appears to increase substantially as he/she moves
closer to the mirror. This phenomenon can be noticed by any person
sitting in a stationary car or a bus. In case of moving vehicles, a
similar phenomenon could be observed if the vehicle in the rear is
moving closer with a constant speed.
When a beam of light encounters another transparent medium, a part of
light gets reflected back into the first medium while the rest enters the
other. A ray of light represents a beam. The direction of propagation of
an obliquely incident ray of light that enters the other medium, changes
14. Ray Optics and
at the interface of the two media. This
phenomenon is called refraction of light. Snell
experimentally obtained the following laws of
(i) The incident ray, the refracted ray and the
normal to the interface at the point of
incidence, all lie in the same plane.
(ii) The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence
to the sine of angle of refraction is constant.
Remember that the angles of incidence (i ) and
refraction (r ) are the angles that the incident
and its refracted ray make with the normal,
respectively. We have
is a constant, called the refractive index of the second medium
with respect to the first medium Equation (9.10) is the well-known Snell’s
law of refraction. We note that n21
is a characteristic of the pair of media
(and also depends on the wavelength of light), but is independent of the
angle of incidence
From Eq. (9.10), if n21
1, r i, i.e., the refracted ray bends towards
the normal. In such a case medium 2 is said to be optically denser (or
denser, in short) than medium 1 On the other hand, if n21
1, r i, the
refracted ray bends away from the normal. This is the case when incident
ray in a denser medium refracts into a rarer medium.
Note: Optical density should not be confused with mass density,
which is mass per unit volume. It is possible that mass density of
an optically denser medium may be less than that of an optically
rarer medium (optical density is the ratio of the speed of light in
two media). For example, turpentine and water. Mass density of
turpentine is less than that of water but its optical density is higher.
is the refractive index of medium 2
with respect to medium 1 and n12
index of medium 1 with respect to medium 2,
then it should be clear that
It also follows that if n32
is the refractive
index of medium 3 with respect to medium 2
, where n31
is the refractive
index of medium 3 with respect to medium 1.
Some elementary results based on the laws
of refraction follow immediately. For a
rectangular slab, refraction takes place at two
interfaces (air-glass and glass-air). It is easily seen from Fig. 9.9 that
, i.e., the emergent ray is parallel to the incident ray—there is no
FIGURE 9.8 Refraction and reflection of light.
FIGURE 9.9 Lateral shift of a ray refracted
through a parallel-sided slab.
deviation, but it does suffer lateral displacement/
shift with respect to the incident ray. Another familiar
observation is that the bottom of a tank filled with
water appears to be raised (Fig. 9.10). For viewing
near the normal direction, it can be shown that the
apparent depth, (h1
) is real depth (h2
) divided by
the refractive index of the medium (water).
The refraction of light through the atmosphere
is responsible for many interesting phenomena. For
example, the sun is visible a little before the actual
sunrise and until a little after the actual sunset
due to refraction of light through the atmosphere
(Fig. 9.11). By actual sunrise we mean the actual
crossing of the horizon by the sun. Figure 9.11
shows the actual and apparent positions of the sun
with respect to the horizon. The figure is highly
exaggerated to show the effect. The refractive index
of air with respect to vacuum is 1.00029. Due to
this, the apparent shift in the direction of the sun
is by about half a degree and the corresponding
time difference between actual sunset and apparent
sunset is about 2 minutes (see Example 9.5). The
apparent flattening (oval shape) of the sun at sunset
and sunrise is also due to the same phenomenon.
FIGURE 9.10 Apparent depth for
(a) normal, and (b) oblique viewing.
FIGURE 9.11 Advance sunrise and delayed sunset due to
Example 9.5 The earth takes 24 h to rotate once about its axis. How
much time does the sun take to shift by 1º when viewed from
Time taken for 360° shift = 24 h
Time taken for 1° shift = 24/360 h = 4 min.
16. Ray Optics and
9.4 TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
When light travels from an optically denser medium to a rarer medium
at the interface, it is partly reflected back into the same medium and
partly refracted to the second medium. This reflection is called the internal
When a ray of light enters from a denser medium to a rarer medium,
it bends away from the normal, for example, the ray AO1
B in Fig. 9.12.
The incident ray AO1
is partially reflected (O1
C) and partially transmitted
B) or refracted, the angle of refraction (r) being larger than the angle of
incidence (i). As the angle of incidence increases, so does the angle of
refraction, till for the ray AO3
, the angle of refraction is S/2 The refracted
ray is bent so much away from the normal that it grazes the surface at
the interface between the two media. This is shown by the ray AO3
Fig. 9.12. If the angle of incidence is increased still further (e.g., the ray
), refraction is not possible, and the incident ray is totally reflected.
THE DROWNING CHILD, LIFEGUARD AND SNELL’S LAW
Consider a rectangular swimming pool PQSR; see figure here. A lifeguard sitting at G
outside the pool notices a child drowning at a point C. The guard wants to reach the
child in the shortest possible time. Let SR be the
side of the pool between G and C. Should he/she
take a straight line path GAC between G and C or
GBC in which the path BC in water would be the
shortest, or some other path GXC? The guard knows
that his/her running speed v1
on ground is higher
than his/her swimming speed v2
Suppose the guard enters water at X. Let GX =l1
and XC =l2
. Then the time taken to reach from G to
C would be
To make this time minimum, one has to
differentiate it (with respect to the coordinate of X ) and find the point X when t is a
minimum. On doing all this algebra (which we skip here), we find that the guard should
enter water at a point where Snell’s law is satisfied. To understand this, draw a
perpendicular LM to side SR at X. Let ‘GXM = i and ‘CXL = r. Then it can be seen that t
is minimum when
In the case of light v1
, the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuum to that in the
medium, is the refractive index n of the medium.
In short, whether it is a wave or a particle or a human being, whenever two mediums
and two velocities are involved, one must follow Snell’s law if one wants to take the
This is called total internal reflection. When
light gets reflected by a surface, normally
some fraction of it gets transmitted. The
reflected ray, therefore, is always less intense
than the incident ray, howsoever smooth the
reflecting surface may be. In total internal
reflection, on the other hand, no
transmission of light takes place.
The angle of incidence corresponding to
an angle of refraction 90º, say ‘AO3
called the critical angle (ic
) for the given pair
of media. We see from Snell’s law [Eq. (9.10)]
that if the relative refractive index is less
than one then, since the maximum value
of sin r is unity, there is an upper limit
to the value of sin i for which the law can be satisfied, that is, i = ic
For values of i larger than ic
, Snell’s law of refraction cannot be
satisfied, and hence no refraction is possible.
The refractive index of denser medium 2 with respect to rarer medium
1 will be n12
. Some typical critical angles are listed in Table 9.1.
FIGURE 9.12 Refraction and internal reflection
of rays from a point A in the denser medium
(water) incident at different angles at the interface
with a rarer medium (air).
A demonstration for total internal reflection
All optical phenomena can be demonstrated very easily with the use of a
laser torch or pointer, which is easily available nowadays. Take a glass
beaker with clear water in it. Stir the water a few times with a piece of
soap, so that it becomes a little turbid. Take a laser pointer and shine its
beam through the turbid water. You will find that the path of the beam
inside the water shines brightly.
Shine the beam from below the beaker such that it strikes at the
upper water surface at the other end. Do you find that it undergoes partial
reflection (which is seen as a spot on the table below) and partial refraction
[which comes out in the air and is seen as a spot on the roof; Fig. 9.13(a)]?
Now direct the laser beam from one side of the beaker such that it strikes
the upper surface of water more obliquely [Fig. 9.13(b)]. Adjust the
direction of laser beam until you find the angle for which the refraction
TABLE 9.1 CRITICAL ANGLE OF SOME TRANSPARENT MEDIA
Substance medium Refractive index Critical angle
Water 1.33 48.75°
Crown glass 1.52 41.14°
Dense flint glass 1.62 37.31°
Diamond 2.42 24.41°
18. Ray Optics and
above the water surface is totally absent and the beam is totally reflected
back to water. This is total internal reflection at its simplest.
Pour this water in a long test tube and shine the laser light from top,
as shown in Fig. 9.13(c). Adjust the direction of the laser beam such that
it is totally internally reflected every time it strikes the walls of the tube.
This is similar to what happens in optical fibres.
Take care not to look into the laser beam directly and not to point it
at anybody’s face.
9.4.1 Total internal reflection in nature and
its technological applications
(i) Mirage: On hot summer days, the air near the ground becomes hotter
than the air at higher levels. The refractive index of air increases with
its density. Hotter air is less dense, and has smaller refractive index
than the cooler air If the air currents are small, that is, the air is still,
the optical density at different layers of air increases with height. As a
result, light from a tall object such as a tree, passes through a medium
whose refractive index decreases towards the ground. Thus, a ray of
light from such an object successively bends away from the normal
and undergoes total internal reflection, if the angle of incidence for
the air near the ground exceeds the critical angle. This is shown in
Fig. 9.14(b). To a distant observer, the light appears to be coming
from somewhere below the ground. The observer naturally assumes
that light is being reflected from the ground, say, by a pool of water
near the tall object. Such inverted images of distant tall objects cause
an optical illusion to the observer. This phenomenon is called mirage.
This type of mirage is especially common in hot deserts. Some of you
might have noticed that while moving in a bus or a car during a hot
summer day, a distant patch of road, especially on a highway, appears
to be wet. But, you do not find any evidence of wetness when you
reach that spot. This is also due to mirage.
internal reflection in
water with a laser
beam (refraction due
to glass of beaker
neglected being very
FIGURE 9.14 (a) A tree is seen by an observer at its place when the air above the ground is
at uniform temperature, (b) When the layers of air close to the ground have varying
temperature with hottest layers near the ground, light from a distant tree may
undergo total internal reflection, and the apparent image of the tree may create
an illusion to the observer that the tree is near a pool of water.
(ii) Diamond: Diamonds are known for their
spectacular brilliance. Their brilliance
is mainly due to the total internal
reflection of light inside them. The critical
angle for diamond-air interface (# 24.4°)
is very small, therefore once light enters
a diamond, it is very likely to undergo
total internal reflection inside it.
Diamonds found in nature rarely exhibit
the brilliance for which they are known.
It is the technical skill of a diamond
cutter which makes diamonds to
sparkle so brilliantly. By cutting the
diamond suitably, multiple total
internal reflections can be made
(iii)Prism: Prisms designed to bend light by
90º or by 180º make use of total internal
reflection [Fig. 9.15(a) and (b)]. Such a
prism is also used to invert images
without changing their size [Fig. 9.15(c)].
In the first two cases, the critical angle ic
for the material of the prism
must be less than 45º. We see from Table 9.1 that this is true for both
crown glass and dense flint glass.
(iv) Optical fibres: Now-a-days optical fibres are extensively used for
transmitting audio and video signals through long distances. Optical
fibres too make use of the phenomenon of total internal reflection.
Optical fibres are fabricated with high quality composite glass/quartz
fibres. Each fibre consists of a core and cladding. The refractive index
of the material of the core is higher than that of the cladding.
When a signal in the form of light is
directed at one end of the fibre at a suitable
angle, it undergoes repeated total internal
reflections along the length of the fibre and
finally comes out at the other end (Fig. 9.16).
Since light undergoes total internal reflection
at each stage, there is no appreciable loss in
the intensity of the light signal. Optical fibres
are fabricated such that light reflected at one
side of inner surface strikes the other at an
angle larger than the critical angle. Even if the
fibre is bent, light can easily travel along its
length. Thus, an optical fibre can be used to act as an optical pipe.
A bundle of optical fibres can be put to several uses. Optical fibres
are extensively used for transmitting and receiving electrical signals which
are converted to light by suitable transducers. Obviously, optical fibres
can also be used for transmission of optical signals. For example, these
are used as a ‘light pipe’ to facilitate visual examination of internal organs
like esophagus, stomach and intestines. You might have seen a commonly
FIGURE 9.15 Prisms designed to bend rays by
90º and 180º or to invert image without changing
its size make use of total internal reflection.
FIGURE 9.16 Light undergoes successive total
internal reflections as it moves through an
20. Ray Optics and
available decorative lamp with fine plastic fibres with their free ends
forming a fountain like structure. The other end of the fibres is fixed over
an electric lamp. When the lamp is switched on, the light travels from the
bottom of each fibre and appears at the tip of its free end as a dot of light.
The fibres in such decorative lamps are optical fibres.
The main requirement in fabricating optical fibres is that there should
be very little absorption of light as it travels for long distances inside
them. This has been achieved by purification and special preparation of
materials such as quartz. In silica glass fibres, it is possible to transmit
more than 95% of the light over a fibre length of 1 km. (Compare with
what you expect for a block of ordinary window glass 1 km thick.)
9.5 REFRACTION AT SPHERICAL SURFACES
AND BY LENSES
We have so far considered refraction at a plane interface. We shall now
consider refraction at a spherical interface between two transparent media.
An infinitesimal part of a spherical surface can be regarded as planar
and the same laws of refraction can be applied at every point on the
surface. Just as for reflection by a spherical mirror, the normal at the
point of incidence is perpendicular to the tangent plane to the spherical
surface at that point and, therefore, passes through its centre of curvature.
We first consider refraction by a single spherical surface and follow it by
thin lenses. A thin lens is a transparent optical medium bounded by two
surfaces; at least one of which should be spherical. Applying the formula
for image formation by a single spherical surface successively at the two
surfaces of a lens, we shall obtain the lens maker’s formula and then the
9.5.1 Refraction at a spherical surface
Figure 9.17 shows the geometry of formation of image I of an object O on
the principal axis of a spherical surface with centre of curvature C, and
radius of curvature R. The rays are incident from a medium of refractive
, to another of refractive index n2
. As before, we take the aperture
(or the lateral size) of the surface to be small
compared to other distances involved, so that small
angle approximation can be made. In particular,
NM will be taken to be nearly equal to the length of
the perpendicular from the point N on the principal
axis. We have, for small angles,
tan ‘NOM =
tan ‘NCM =
tan ‘NIM =
FIGURE 9.17 Refraction at a spherical
surface separating two media.
Now, for 'NOC, i is the exterior angle. Therefore, i = ‘NOM + ‘NCM
r = ‘NCM – ‘NIM
i.e., r =
Now, by Snell’s law
sin i = n2
or for small angles
i = n2
LIGHT SOURCES AND PHOTOMETRY
It is known that a body above absolute zero temperature emits electromagnetic radiation.
The wavelength region in which the body emits the radiation depends on its absolute
temperature. Radiation emitted by a hot body, for example, a tungsten filament lamp
having temperature 2850 K are partly invisible and mostly in infrared (or heat) region.
As the temperature of the body increases radiation emitted by it is in visible region. The
sun with temperature of about 5500 K emits radiation whose energy versus wavelength
graph peaks approximately at 550 nm corresponding to green light and is almost in the
middle of the visible region. The energy versus wavelength distribution graph for a given
body peaks at some wavelength, which is inversely proportional to the absolute
temperature of that body.
The measurement of light as perceived by human eye is called photometry. Photometry
is measurement of a physiological phenomenon, being the stimulus of light as received
by the human eye, transmitted by the optic nerves and analysed by the brain. The main
physical quantities in photometry are (i) the luminous intensity of the source,
(ii) the luminous flux or flow of light from the source, and (iii) illuminance of the surface.
The SI unit of luminous intensity (I ) is candela (cd). The candela is the luminous intensity,
in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency
540 × 1012
Hz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian.
If a light source emits one candela of luminous intensity into a solid angle of one steradian,
the total luminous flux emitted into that solid angle is one lumen (lm). A standard
100 watt incadescent light bulb emits approximately 1700 lumens.
In photometry, the only parameter, which can be measured directly is illuminance. It
is defined as luminous flux incident per unit area on a surface (lm/m2
or lux). Most light
meters measure this quantity. The illuminance E, produced by a source of luminous
intensity I, is given by E = I/r2
, where r is the normal distance of the surface from the
source. A quantity named luminance (L), is used to characterise the brightness of emitting
or reflecting flat surfaces. Its unit is cd/m2
(sometimes called ‘nit’ in industry) . A good
LCD computer monitor has a brightness of about 250 nits.
22. Ray Optics and
Substituting i and r from Eqs. (9.13) and (9.14), we get
1 2 2 1
OM MI MC
n n n n
Here, OM, MI and MC represent magnitudes of distances. Applying the
Cartesian sign convention,
OM = –u, MI = +v, MC = +R
Substituting these in Eq. (9.15), we get
2 1 2 1n n n n
v u R
Equation (9.16) gives us a relation between object and image distance
in terms of refractive index of the medium and the radius of
curvature of the curved spherical surface. It holds for any curved
Example 9.6 Light from a point source in air falls on a spherical
glass surface (n = 1.5 and radius of curvature = 20 cm). The distance
of the light source from the glass surface is 100 cm. At what position
the image is formed?
We use the relation given by Eq. (9.16). Here
u = – 100 cm, v = ?, R = + 20 cm, n1
= 1, and n2
We then have
1.5 1 0.5
or v = +100 cm
The image is formed at a distance of 100 cm from the glass surface,
in the direction of incident light.
9.5.2 Refraction by a lens
Figure 9.18(a) shows the geometry of image formation by a double convex
lens. The image formation can be seen in terms of two steps:
(i) The first refracting surface forms the image I1
of the object O
[Fig. 9.18(b)]. The image I1
acts as a virtual object for the second surface
that forms the image at I [Fig. 9.18(c)]. Applying Eq. (9.15) to the first
interface ABC, we get
1 2 2 1
1 1OB BI BC
n n n n
A similar procedure applied to the second interface* ADC gives,
2 1 2 1
1 2DI DI DC
n n n n
* Note that now the refractive index of the medium on the right side of ADC is n1
while on its left it is n2
. Further DI1
is negative as the distance is measured
against the direction of incident light.
25. Ray Optics and
the laws of refraction and find the point where
the refracted rays meet (or appear to meet). In
practice, however, it is convenient to choose any
two of the following rays:
(i) A ray emanating from the object parallel to
the principal axis of the lens after refraction
passes through the second principal focus
Fc (in a convex lens) or appears to diverge (in
a concave lens) from the first principal focus F.
(ii) A ray of light, passing through the optical
centre of the lens, emerges without any
deviation after refraction.
(iii) A ray of light passing through the first
principal focus (for a convex lens) or
appearing to meet at it (for a concave lens)
emerges parallel to the principal axis after
Figures 9.19(a) and (b) illustrate these rules
for a convex and a concave lens, respectively.
You should practice drawing similar ray
diagrams for different positions of the object with
respect to the lens and also verify that the lens
formula, Eq. (9.23), holds good for all cases.
Here again it must be remembered that each
point on an object gives out infinite number of
rays. All these rays will pass through the same image point after refraction
at the lens.
Magnification (m) produced by a lens is defined, like that for a mirror,
as the ratio of the size of the image to that of the object. Proceeding in the
same way as for spherical mirrors, it is easily seen that for a lens
When we apply the sign convention, we see that, for erect (and virtual)
image formed by a convex or concave lens, m is positive, while for an
inverted (and real) image, m is negative.
Example 9.7 A magician during a show makes a glass lens with
n = 1.47 disappear in a trough of liquid. What is the refractive index
of the liquid? Could the liquid be water?
The refractive index of the liquid must be equal to 1.47 in order to
make the lens disappear. This means n1
. This gives 1/f =0 or
f o f. The lens in the liquid will act like a plane sheet of glass. No,
the liquid is not water. It could be glycerine.
9.5.3 Power of a lens
Power of a lens is a measure of the convergence or divergence, which a
lens introduces in the light falling on it. Clearly, a lens of shorter focal
FIGURE 9.19 Tracing rays through (a)
convex lens (b) concave lens.
27. Ray Optics and
the first lens A (Fig. 9.21). The first lens produces
an image at I1
. Since image I1
is real, it serves as a
virtual object for the second lens B, producing the
final image at I. It must, however, be borne in mind
that formation of image by the first lens is presumed
only to facilitate determination of the position of the
final image. In fact, the direction of rays emerging
from the first lens gets modified in accordance with
the angle at which they strike the second lens. Since
the lenses are thin, we assume the optical centres of the lenses to be
coincident. Let this central point be denoted by P.
For the image formed by the first lens A, we get
1 1 1
v u f
For the image formed by the second lens B, we get
1 1 1
v v f
Adding Eqs. (9.27) and (9.28), we get
1 1 1 1
v u f f
If the two lens-system is regarded as equivalent to a single lens of
focal length f, we have
1 1 1
v u f
so that we get
1 1 1
f f f
The derivation is valid for any number of thin lenses in contact. If
several thin lenses of focal length f1
,... are in contact, the effective
focal length of their combination is given by
1 2 3
1 1 1 1
f f f f
In terms of power, Eq. (9.31) can be written as
P = P1
+ … (9.32)
where P is the net power of the lens combination. Note that the sum in
Eq. (9.32) is an algebraic sum of individual powers, so some of the terms
on the right side may be positive (for convex lenses) and some negative
(for concave lenses). Combination of lenses helps to obtain diverging or
converging lenses of desired magnification. It also enhances sharpness
of the image. Since the image formed by the first lens becomes the object
for the second, Eq. (9.25) implies that the total magnification m of the
combination is a product of magnification (m1
,...) of individual
m = m1
FIGURE 9.21 Image formation by a
combination of two thin lenses in contact.
Such a system of combination of lenses is commonly used in designing
lenses for cameras, microscopes, telescopes and other optical instruments.
Example 9.9 Find the position of the image formed by the lens
combination given in the Fig. 9.22.
Solution Image formed by the first lens
1 1 1
1 1 1
v u f
1 1 1
= 15 cm
The image formed by the first lens serves as the object for the second
This is at a distance of (15 – 5) cm = 10 cm to the right of the second
lens. Though the image is real, it serves as a virtual object for the
second lens, which means that the rays appear to come from it for
the second lens.
1 1 1
The virtual image is formed at an infinite distance to the left of the
second lens. This acts as an object for the third lens.
3 3 3
1 1 1
v u f
1 1 1
= 30 cm
The final image is formed 30 cm to the right of the third lens.
9.6 REFRACTION THROUGH A PRISM
Figure 9.23 shows the passage of light through a triangular prism ABC.
The angles of incidence and refraction at the first face AB are i and r1
while the angle of incidence (from glass to air) at the second face AC is r
and the angle of refraction or emergence e. The angle between the
emergent ray RS and the direction of the incident ray PQ is called the
angle of deviation, G.
29. Ray Optics and
In the quadrilateral AQNR, two of the angles
(at the vertices Q and R) are right angles.
Therefore, the sum of the other angles of the
quadrilateral is 180º.
‘A + ‘QNR = 180º
From the triangle QNR,
+ ‘QNR = 180º
Comparing these two equations, we get
= A (9.34)
The total deviation G is the sum of deviations
at the two faces,
G = (i – r1
) + (e – r
G = i + e – A (9.35)
Thus, the angle of deviation depends on the angle of incidence. A plot
between the angle of deviation and angle of incidence is shown in
Fig. 9.24. You can see that, in general, any given value of G except for
i = e corresponds to two values i and hence of e. This, in fact, is expected
from the symmetry of i and e in Eq. (9.35), i.e., G remains the same if i
and e are interchanged. Physically, this is related
to the fact that the path of ray in Fig. 9.23 can be
traced back, resulting in the same angle of
deviation. At the minimum deviation Dm
refracted ray inside the prism becomes parallel
to its base. We have
G = Dm
, i = e which implies r1
Equation (9.34) gives
2r = A or r =
In the same way, Eq. (9.35) gives
= 2i – A, or i = (A + Dm
The refractive index of the prism is
The angles A and Dm
can be measured
experimentally. Equation (9.38) thus provides a
method of determining refractive index of the material of the prism.
For a small angle prism, i.e., a thin prism, Dm
is also very small, and
sin[ /2] /2
A DA D
It implies that, thin prisms do not deviate light much.
FIGURE 9.23 A ray of light passing through
a triangular glass prism.
FIGURE 9.24 Plot of angle of deviation (G)
versus angle of incidence (i) for a
9.7 DISPERSION BY A PRISM
It has been known for a long time that when a narrow beam of sunlight,
usually called white light, is incident on a glass prism, the emergent
light is seen to be consisting of several colours. There is actually a
continuous variation of colour, but broadly, the different component
colours that appear in sequence are:
violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange
and red (given by the acronym
VIBGYOR). The red light bends the
least, while the violet light bends the most
The phenomenon of splitting of light
into its component colours is known as
dispersion. The pattern of colour
components of light is called the spectrum
of light. The word spectrum is now used
in a much more general sense: we
discussed in Chapter 8 the electro-
magnetic spectrum over the large range
of wavelengths, from J-rays to radio
waves, of which the spectrum of light
(visible spectrum) is only a small part.
Though the reason for appearance of
spectrum is now common knowledge, it was a matter of much debate in
the history of physics. Does the prism itself create colour in some way or
does it only separate the colours already present in white light?
In a classic experiment known for its simplicity but great significance,
Isaac Newton settled the issue once for all. He put another similar prism,
but in an inverted position, and let the emergent beam from the first
prism fall on the second prism (Fig. 9.26). The resulting emergent beam
was found to be white light. The explanation was clear— the first prism
splits the white light into its component colours, while the inverted prism
recombines them to give white light. Thus, white
light itself consists of light of different colours,
which are separated by the prism.
It must be understood here that a ray of light,
as defined mathematically, does not exist. An
actual ray is really a beam of many rays of light.
Each ray splits into component colours when it
enters the glass prism. When those coloured rays
come out on the other side, they again produce a
We now know that colour is associated with
wavelength of light. In the visible spectrum, red
light is at the long wavelength end (~700 nm) while
the violet light is at the short wavelength end
(~ 400 nm). Dispersion takes place because the refractive index of medium
for different wavelengths (colours) is different. For example, the bending
FIGURE 9.25 Dispersion of sunlight or white light
on passing through a glass prism. The relative
deviation of different colours shown is highly
FIGURE 9.26 Schematic diagram of
Newton’s classic experiment on
dispersion of white light.
32. Ray Optics and
of red component of white light is least while it is most for the violet.
Equivalently, red light travels faster than violet light in a glass prism.
Table 9.2 gives the refractive indices for different wavelength for crown
glass and flint glass. Thick lenses could be assumed as made of many
prisms, therefore, thick lenses show chromatic aberration due to
dispersion of light.
TABLE 9.2 REFRACTIVE INDICES FOR DIFFERENT WAVELENGTHS
Colour Wavelength (nm) Crown glass Flint glass
Violet 396.9 1.533 1.663
Blue 486.1 1.523 1.639
Yellow 589.3 1.517 1.627
Red 656.3 1.515 1.622
The variation of refractive index with wavelength may be more
pronounced in some media than the other. In vacuum, of course, the
speed of light is independent of wavelength. Thus, vacuum (or air
approximately) is a non-dispersive medium in which all colours travel
with the same speed. This also follows from the fact that sunlight reaches
us in the form of white light and not as its components. On the other
hand, glass is a dispersive medium.
9.8 SOME NATURAL PHENOMENA DUE TO SUNLIGHT
The interplay of light with things around us gives rise to several beautiful
phenomena. The spectacle of colour that we see around us all the time is
possible only due to sunlight. The blue of the sky, white clouds, the red-
hue at sunrise and sunset, the rainbow, the brilliant colours of some
pearls, shells, and wings of birds, are just a few of the natural wonders
we are used to. We describe some of them here from the point of view
9.8.1 The rainbow
The rainbow is an example of the dispersion of sunlight by the water
drops in the atmosphere. This is a phenomenon due to combined effect
of dispersion, refraction and reflection of sunlight by spherical water
droplets of rain. The conditions for observing a rainbow are that the sun
should be shining in one part of the sky (say near western horizon) while
it is raining in the opposite part of the sky (say eastern horizon).
An observer can therefore see a rainbow only when his back is towards
In order to understand the formation of rainbows, consider
Fig. (9.27(a). Sunlight is first refracted as it enters a raindrop, which
causes the different wavelengths (colours) of white light to separate.
Longer wangelength of light (red) are bent the least while the shorter
wavelength (violet) are bent the most. Next, these component rays strike
the inner surface of the water drop and get internally reflected if the angle
between the refracted ray and normal to the drop surface is greater then
the critical angle (48º, in this case). The reflected light is refracted again
as it comes out of the drop as shown in the figure. It is found that the
violet light emerges at an angle of 40º related to the incoming sunlight
and red light emerges at an angle of 42º. For other colours, angles lie in
between these two values.
FIGURE 9.27 Rainbow: (a) The sun rays incident on a water drop get refracted twice
and reflected internally by a drop; (b) Enlarge view of internal reflection and
refraction of a ray of light inside a drop form primary rainbow; and
(c) secondary rainbow is formed by rays
undergoing internal reflection twice
inside the drop.
34. Ray Optics and
Figure 9.27(b) explains the formation of primary rainbow. We see
that red light from drop 1 and violet light from drop 2 reach the observers
eye. The violet from drop 1 and red light from drop 2 are directed at level
above or below the observer. Thus the observer sees a rainbow with
red colour on the top and violet on the bottom. Thus, the primary
rainbow is a result of three-step process, that is, refraction, reflection
When light rays undergoes two internal reflections inside a raindrop,
instead of one as in the primary rainbow, a secondary rainbow is formed
as shown in Fig. 9.27(c). It is due to four-step process. The intensity of
light is reduced at the second reflection and hence the secondary rainbow
is fainter than the primary rainbow. Further, the order of the colours is
reversed in it as is clear from Fig. 9.27(c).
9.8.2 Scattering of light
As sunlight travels through the earth’s atmosphere, it gets scattered
(changes its direction) by the atmospheric particles. Light of shorter
wavelengths is scattered much more than light of longer wavelengths.
(The amount of scattering is inversely proportional to the fourth power
of the wavelength. This is known as Rayleigh scattering). Hence, the bluish
colour predominates in a clear sky, since blue has a shorter wave-
length than red and is scattered much more strongly. In fact, violet
gets scattered even more than blue, having a shorter wavelength.
But since our eyes are more sensitive to blue than violet, we see the
Large particles like dust and water
droplets present in the atmosphere
behave differently. The relevant quantity
here is the relative size of the wavelength
of light O, and the scatterer (of typical size,
say, a). For a O, one has Rayleigh
scattering which is proportional to (1/O)4
For a O, i.e., large scattering objects
(for example, raindrops, large dust or ice
particles) this is not true; all wavelengths
are scattered nearly equally. Thus, clouds
which have droplets of water with a O
are generally white.
At sunset or sunrise, the sun’s rays
have to pass through a larger distance in the atmosphere (Fig. 9.28).
Most of the blue and other shorter wavelengths are removed by scattering.
The least scattered light reaching our eyes, therefore, the sun looks
reddish. This explains the reddish appearance of the sun and full moon
near the horizon.
9.9 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
A number of optical devices and instruments have been designed utilising
reflecting and refracting properties of mirrors, lenses and prisms.
Periscope, kaleidoscope, binoculars, telescopes, microscopes are some
FIGURE 9.28 Sunlight travels through a longer
distance in the atmosphere at sunset and sunrise.
examples of optical devices and instruments that are in common use.
Our eye is, of course, one of the most important optical device the nature
has endowed us with. Starting with the eye, we then go on to describe
the principles of working of the microscope and the telescope.
9.9.1 The eye
Figure 9.29 (a) shows the eye. Light enters the eye through a curved
front surface, the cornea. It passes through the pupil which is the central
hole in the iris. The size of the pupil can change under control of muscles.
The light is further focussed by the eye lens on the retina. The retina is a
film of nerve fibres covering the curved back surface of the eye. The retina
contains rods and cones which sense light intensity and colour,
respectively, and transmit electrical signals via the optic nerve to the brain
which finally processes this information. The shape (curvature) and
therefore the focal length of the lens can be modified somewhat by the
ciliary muscles. For example, when the muscle is relaxed, the focal length
is about 2.5 cm and objects at infinity are in sharp focus on the retina.
When the object is brought closer to the eye, in order to maintain the
same image-lens distance (# 2.5 cm), the focal length of the eye lens
becomes shorter by the action of the ciliary muscles. This property of the
eye is called accommodation. If the object is too close to the eye, the lens
cannot curve enough to focus the image on to the retina, and the image
is blurred. The closest distance for which the lens can focus light on the
retina is called the least distance of distinct vision, or the near point.
The standard value for normal vision is taken as 25 cm. (Often the near
point is given the symbol D.) This distance increases with age, because
of the decreasing effectiveness of the ciliary muscle and the loss of
flexibility of the lens. The near point may be as close as about 7 to 8 cm
in a child ten years of age, and may increase to as much as 200 cm at 60
years of age. Thus, if an elderly person tries to read a book at about 25 cm
from the eye, the image appears blurred. This condition (defect of the eye)
is called presbyopia. It is corrected by using a converging lens for reading.
Thus, our eyes are marvellous organs that have the capability to
interpret incoming electromagnetic waves as images through a complex
process. These are our greatest assets and we must take proper care to
protect them. Imagine the world without a pair of functional eyes. Yet
many amongst us bravely face this challenge by effectively overcoming
their limitations to lead a normal life. They deserve our appreciation for
their courage and conviction.
In spite of all precautions and proactive action, our eyes may develop
some defects due to various reasons. We shall restrict our discussion to
some common optical defects of the eye. For example, the light from a
distant object arriving at the eye-lens may get converged at a point in
front of the retina. This type of defect is called nearsightedness or myopia.
This means that the eye is producing too much convergence in the incident
beam. To compensate this, we interpose a concave lens between the eye
and the object, with the diverging effect desired to get the image focussed
on the retina [Fig. 9.29(b)].
36. Ray Optics and
Similarly, if the eye-lens focusses the incoming light at a point behind
the retina, a convergent lens is needed to compensate for the defect in vision.
This defect is called farsightedness or hypermetropia [Fig. 9.29(c)].
Another common defect of vision is called astigmatism. This occurs
when the cornea is not spherical in shape. For example, the cornea could
have a larger curvature in the vertical plane than in the horizontal plane
or vice-versa. If a person with such a defect in eye-lens looks at a wire
mesh or a grid of lines, focussing in either the vertical or the horizontal
plane may not be as sharp as in the other plane. Astigmatism results in
lines in one direction being well focussed while those in a perpendicular
direction may appear distorted [Fig. 9.29(d)]. Astigmatism can be
corrected by using a cylindrical lens of desired radius of curvature with
an appropriately directed axis. This defect can occur along with myopia
Example 9.10 What focal length should the reading spectacles have
for a person for whom the least distance of distinct vision is 50 cm?
Solution The distance of normal vision is 25 cm. So if a book is at
u = –25 cm, its image should be formed at v = –50 cm. Therefore, the
desired focal length is given by
1 1 1
f v u
1 1 1 1
–50 – 25 50f
orf = + 50 cm (convex lens).
FIGURE 9.29 (a) The structure of the eye; (b) shortsighted or myopic eye and its correction;
(c) farsighted or hypermetropic eye and its correction; and (d) astigmatic eye and its correction.
(a) The far point of a myopic person is 80 cm in front of the eye. What
is the power of the lens required to enable him to see very distant
(b) In what way does the corrective lens help the above person? Does
the lens magnify very distant objects? Explain carefully.
(c) The above person prefers to remove his spectacles while reading
a book. Explain why?
(a) Solving as in the previous example, we find that the person should
use a concave lens of focal length = – 80 cm, i.e., of power = – 1.25
(b) No. The concave lens, in fact, reduces the size of the object, but
the angle subtended by the distant object at the eye is the same
as the angle subtended by the image (at the far point) at the eye.
The eye is able to see distant objects not because the corrective
lens magnifies the object, but because it brings the object (i.e., it
produces virtual image of the object) at the far point of the eye
which then can be focussed by the eye-lens on the retina.
(c) The myopic person may have a normal near point, i.e., about
25 cm (or even less). In order to read a book with the spectacles,
such a person must keep the book at a distance greater than
25 cm so that the image of the book by the concave lens is produced
not closer than 25 cm. The angular size of the book (or its image)
at the greater distance is evidently less than the angular size
when the book is placed at 25 cm and no spectacles are needed
Hence, the person prefers to remove the spectacles while reading.
Example 9.12 (a) The near point of a hypermetropic person is 75 cm
from the eye. What is the power of the lens required to enable the
person to read clearly a book held at 25 cm from the eye? (b) In what
way does the corrective lens help the above person? Does the lens
magnify objects held near the eye? (c) The above person prefers to
remove the spectacles while looking at the sky. Explain why?
(a) u = – 25 cm, v = – 75 cm
1/f = 1/25 – 1/75, i.e., f = 37.5 cm.
The corrective lens needs to have a converging power of +2.67
(b) The corrective lens produces a virtual image (at 75 cm) of an object
at 25 cm. The angular size of this image is the same as that of the
object. In this sense the lens does not magnify the object but merely
brings the object to the near point of the hypermetric eye, which
then gets focussed on the retina. However, the angular size is
greater than that of the same object at the near point (75 cm)
viewed without the spectacles.
(c) A hypermetropic eye may have normal far point i.e., it may have
enough converging power to focus parallel rays from infinity on
the retina of the shortened eyeball. Wearing spectacles of converging
lenses (used for near vision) will amount to more converging power
than needed for parallel rays. Hence the person prefers not to use
the spectacles for far objects.
Terrestrial telescopes have, in
addition, a pair of inverting lenses to
make the final image erect. Refracting
telescopes can be used both for
terrestrial and astronomical
observations. For example, consider
a telescope whose objective has a focal
length of 100 cm and the eyepiece a
focal length of 1 cm. The magnifying
power of this telescope is
m = 100/1 = 100.
Let us consider a pair of stars of
actual separation 1c (one minute of
arc). The stars appear as though they
are separated by an angle of 100 × 1c
= 100c =1.67º.
The main considerations with an astronomical telescope are its light
gathering power and its resolution or resolving power. The former clearly
depends on the area of the objective. With larger diameters, fainter objects
can be observed. The resolving power, or the ability to observe two objects
distinctly, which are in very nearly the same direction, also depends on
the diameter of the objective. So, the desirable aim in optical telescopes
is to make them with objective of large diameter. The largest lens objective
in use has a diameter of 40 inch (~1.02 m). It is at the Yerkes Observatory
in Wisconsin, USA. Such big lenses tend to be very heavy and therefore,
difficult to make and support by their edges. Further, it is rather difficult
and expensive to make such large sized lenses which form images that
are free from any kind of chromatic aberration and distortions.
For these reasons, modern telescopes use a concave mirror rather
than a lens for the objective. Telescopes with mirror objectives are called
reflecting telescopes. They have several advantages. First, there is no
chromatic aberration in a mirror. Second, if a parabolic reflecting surface
is chosen, spherical aberration is also removed. Mechanical support is
much less of a problem since a mirror weighs much less than a lens of
equivalent optical quality, and can be
supported over its entire back surface, not
just over its rim. One obvious problem with a
reflecting telescope is that the objective mirror
focusses light inside the telescope tube. One
must have an eyepiece and the observer right
there, obstructing some light (depending on
the size of the observer cage). This is what is
done in the very large 200 inch (~5.08 m)
diameters, Mt. Palomar telescope, California.
The viewer sits near the focal point of the
mirror, in a small cage. Another solution to
the problem is to deflect the light being
focussed by another mirror. One such
arrangement using a convex secondary mirror to focus the incident light,
which now passes through a hole in the objective primary mirror, is shown
FIGURE 9.32 A refracting telescope.
FIGURE 9.33 Schematic diagram of a reflecting
42. Ray Optics and
1. Reflection is governed by the equation ‘i = ‘rc and refraction by the
Snell’s law, sini/sinr = n, where the incident ray, reflected ray, refracted
ray and normal lie in the same plane. Angles of incidence, reflection
and refraction are i, r c and r, respectively.
2. The critical angle of incidence ic
for a ray incident from a denser to rarer
medium, is that angle for which the angle of refraction is 90°. For
, total internal reflection occurs. Multiple internal reflections in
# 24.4°), totally reflecting prisms and mirage, are some
examples of total internal reflection. Optical fibres consist of glass
fibres coated with a thin layer of material of lower refractive index.
Light incident at an angle at one end comes out at the other, after
multiple internal reflections, even if the fibre is bent.
3. Cartesian sign convention: Distances measured in the same direction
as the incident light are positive; those measured in the opposite
direction are negative. All distances are measured from the pole/optic
centre of the mirror/lens on the principal axis. The heights measured
upwards above x-axis and normal to the principal axis of the mirror/
lens are taken as positive. The heights measured downwards are taken
4. Mirror equation:
1 1 1
v u f
where u and v are object and image distances, respectively and f is the
focal length of the mirror. f is (approximately) half the radius of
curvature R. f is negative for concave mirror; f is positive for a convex
5. For a prism of the angle A, of refractive index n2
placed in a medium
of refractive index n1
ª º¬ ¼
is the angle of minimum deviation.
6. For refraction through a spherical interface (from medium 1 to 2 of
refractive index n1
2 1 2 1n n n n
v u R
Thin lens formula
1 1 1
v u f
in Fig. 9.33. This is known as a Cassegrain telescope, after its inventor.
It has the advantages of a large focal length in a short telescope. The
largest telescope in India is in Kavalur, Tamil Nadu. It is a 2.34 m diameter
reflecting telescope (Cassegrain). It was ground, polished, set up, and is
being used by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. The largest
reflecting telescopes in the world are the pair of Keck telescopes in Hawaii,
USA, with a reflector of 10 metre in diameter.
47. Ray Optics and
9.1 A small candle, 2.5 cm in size is placed at 27 cm in front of a concave
mirror of radius of curvature 36 cm. At what distance from the mirror
should a screen be placed in order to obtain a sharp image? Describe
the nature and size of the image. If the candle is moved closer to the
mirror, how would the screen have to be moved?
9.2 A 4.5 cm needle is placed 12 cm away from a convex mirror of focal
length 15 cm. Give the location of the image and the magnification.
Describe what happens as the needle is moved farther from the mirror.
9.3 A tank is filled with water to a height of 12.5 cm. The apparent
depth of a needle lying at the bottom of the tank is measured by a
microscope to be 9.4 cm. What is the refractive index of water? If
water is replaced by a liquid of refractive index 1.63 up to the same
height, by what distance would the microscope have to be moved to
focus on the needle again?
9.4 Figures 9.34(a) and (b) show refraction of a ray in air incident at 60°
with the normal to a glass-air and water-air interface, respectively.
Predict the angle of refraction in glass when the angle of incidence
in water is 45º with the normal to a water-glass interface [Fig. 9.34(c)].
without a screen. But the image does exist. Rays from a given point
on the object are converging to an image point in space and diverging
away. The screen simply diffuses these rays, some of which reach our
eye and we see the image. This can be seen by the images formed in air
during a laser show.
3. Image formation needs regular reflection/refraction. In principle, all
rays from a given point should reach the same image point. This is
why you do not see your image by an irregular reflecting object, say
the page of a book.
4. Thick lenses give coloured images due to dispersion. The variety in
colour of objects we see around us is due to the constituent colours of
the light incident on them. A monochromatic light may produce an
entirely different perception about the colours on an object as seen in
5. For a simple microscope, the angular size of the object equals the
angular size of the image. Yet it offers magnification because we can
keep the small object much closer to the eye than 25 cm and hence
have it subtend a large angle. The image is at 25 cm which we can see.
Without the microscope, you would need to keep the small object at
25 cm which would subtend a very small angle.
9.5 A small bulb is placed at the bottom of a tank containing water to a
depth of 80cm. What is the area of the surface of water through
which light from the bulb can emerge out? Refractive index of water
is 1.33. (Consider the bulb to be a point source.)
9.6 A prism is made of glass of unknown refractive index. A parallel
beam of light is incident on a face of the prism. The angle of minimum
deviation is measured to be 40°. What is the refractive index of the
material of the prism? The refracting angle of the prism is 60°. If
the prism is placed in water (refractive index 1.33), predict the new
angle of minimum deviation of a parallel beam of light.
9.7 Double-convex lenses are to be manufactured from a glass of
refractive index 1.55, with both faces of the same radius of
curvature. What is the radius of curvature required if the focal length
is to be 20cm?
9.8 A beam of light converges at a point P. Now a lens is placed in the
path of the convergent beam 12cm from P. At what point does the
beam converge if the lens is (a) a convex lens of focal length 20cm,
and (b) a concave lens of focal length 16cm?
9.9 An object of size 3.0cm is placed 14cm in front of a concave lens of
focal length 21cm. Describe the image produced by the lens. What
happens if the object is moved further away from the lens?
9.10 What is the focal length of a convex lens of focal length 30cm in
contact with a concave lens of focal length 20cm? Is the system a
converging or a diverging lens? Ignore thickness of the lenses.
9.11 A compound microscope consists of an objective lens of focal length
2.0 cm and an eyepiece of focal length 6.25 cm separated by a
distance of 15cm. How far from the objective should an object be
placed in order to obtain the final image at (a) the least distance of
distinct vision (25cm), and (b) at infinity? What is the magnifying
power of the microscope in each case?
9.12 A person with a normal near point (25 cm) using a compound
microscope with objective of focal length 8.0 mm and an eyepiece of
focal length 2.5cm can bring an object placed at 9.0mm from the
objective in sharp focus. What is the separation between the two
lenses? Calculate the magnifying power of the microscope,
9.13 A small telescope has an objective lens of focal length 144cm and
an eyepiece of focal length 6.0cm. What is the magnifying power of
the telescope? What is the separation between the objective and
9.14 (a) A giant refracting telescope at an observatory has an objective
lens of focal length 15m. If an eyepiece of focal length 1.0cm is
used, what is the angular magnification of the telescope?
(b) If this telescope is used to view the moon, what is the diameter
of the image of the moon formed by the objective lens? The
diameter of the moon is 3.48 × 106
m, and the radius of lunar
orbit is 3.8 × 108
9.15 Use the mirror equation to deduce that:
(a) an object placed between f and 2f of a concave mirror produces
a real image beyond 2f.
(b) a convex mirror always produces a virtual image independent
of the location of the object.
(c) the virtual image produced by a convex mirror is always
diminished in size and is located between the focus and
49. Ray Optics and
(d) an object placed between the pole and focus of a concave mirror
produces a virtual and enlarged image.
[Note: This exercise helps you deduce algebraically properties of
images that one obtains from explicit ray diagrams.]
9.16 A small pin fixed on a table top is viewed from above from a distance
of 50cm. By what distance would the pin appear to be raised if it is
viewed from the same point through a 15cm thick glass slab held
parallel to the table? Refractive index of glass = 1.5. Does the answer
depend on the location of the slab?
9.17 (a) Figure 9.35 shows a cross-section of a ‘light pipe’ made of a
glass fibre of refractive index 1.68. The outer covering of the
pipe is made of a material of refractive index 1.44. What is the
range of the angles of the incident rays with the axis of the pipe
for which total reflections inside the pipe take place, as shown
in the figure.
(b) What is the answer if there is no outer covering of the pipe?
9.18 Answer the following questions:
(a) You have learnt that plane and convex mirrors produce virtual
images of objects. Can they produce real images under some
(b) A virtual image, we always say, cannot be caught on a screen.
Yet when we ‘see’ a virtual image, we are obviously bringing it
on to the ‘screen’ (i.e., the retina) of our eye. Is there a
(c) A diver under water, looks obliquely at a fisherman standing on
the bank of a lake. Would the fisherman look taller or shorter to
the diver than what he actually is?
(d) Does the apparent depth of a tank of water change if viewed
obliquely? If so, does the apparent depth increase or decrease?
(e) The refractive index of diamond is much greater than that of
ordinary glass. Is this fact of some use to a diamond cutter?
9.19 The image of a small electric bulb fixed on the wall of a room is to be
obtained on the opposite wall 3m away by means of a large convex
lens. What is the maximum possible focal length of the lens required
for the purpose?
9.20 A screen is placed 90cm from an object. The image of the object on
the screen is formed by a convex lens at two different locations
separated by 20cm. Determine the focal length of the lens.
9.21 (a) Determine the ‘effective focal length’ of the combination of the
two lenses in Exercise 9.10, if they are placed 8.0cm apart with
their principal axes coincident. Does the answer depend on
which side of the combination a beam of parallel light is incident?
Is the notion of effective focal length of this system useful at all?
(b) An object 1.5 cm in size is placed on the side of the convex lens
in the arrangement (a) above The distance between the object
and the convex lens is 40 cm Determine the magnification
produced by the two-lens system, and the size of the image.
9.22 At what angle should a ray of light be incident on the face of a prism
of refracting angle 60° so that it just suffers total internal reflection
at the other face? The refractive index of the material of the prism is
9.23 You are given prisms made of crown glass and flint glass with a
wide variety of angles. Suggest a combination of prisms which will
(a) deviate a pencil of white light without much dispersion,
(b) disperse (and displace) a pencil of white light without much
9.24 For a normal eye, the far point is at infinity and the near point of
distinct vision is about 25cm in front of the eye. The cornea of the
eye provides a converging power of about 40 dioptres, and the least
converging power of the eye-lens behind the cornea is about 20
dioptres. From this rough data estimate the range of accommodation
(i.e., the range of converging power of the eye-lens) of a normal eye.
9.25 Does short-sightedness (myopia) or long-sightedness (hyper-
metropia) imply necessarily that the eye has partially lost its ability
of accommodation? If not, what might cause these defects of vision?
9.26 A myopic person has been using spectacles of power –1.0 dioptre
for distant vision. During old age he also needs to use separate
reading glass of power + 2.0 dioptres. Explain what may have
9.27 A person looking at a person wearing a shirt with a pattern
comprising vertical and horizontal lines is able to see the vertical
lines more distinctly than the horizontal ones. What is this defect
due to? How is such a defect of vision corrected?
9.28 A man with normal near point (25 cm) reads a book with small print
using a magnifying glass: a thin convex lens of focal length 5 cm.
(a) What is the closest and the farthest distance at which he should
keep the lens from the page so that he can read the book when
viewing through the magnifying glass?
(b) What is the maximum and the minimum angular magnification
(magnifying power) possible using the above simple microscope?
9.29 A card sheet divided into squares each of size 1 mm2
is being viewed
at a distance of 9 cm through a magnifying glass (a converging lens
of focal length 9 cm) held close to the eye.
(a) What is the magnification produced by the lens? How much is
the area of each square in the virtual image?
(b) What is the angular magnification (magnifying power) of the
(c) Is the magnification in (a) equal to the magnifying power in (b)?
9.30 (a) At what distance should the lens be held from the figure in
Exercise 9.29 in order to view the squares distinctly with the
maximum possible magnifying power?
(b) What is the magnification in this case?
(c) Is the magnification equal to the magnifying power in this case?
9.31 What should be the distance between the object in Exercise 9.30
and the magnifying glass if the virtual image of each square in the
figure is to have an area of 6.25 mm2
. Would you be able to see the
squares distinctly with your eyes very close to the magnifier?
51. Ray Optics and
[Note: Exercises 9.29 to 9.31 will help you clearly understand the
difference between magnification in absolute size and the angular
magnification (or magnifying power) of an instrument.]
9.32 Answer the following questions:
(a) The angle subtended at the eye by an object is equal to the
angle subtended at the eye by the virtual image produced by a
magnifying glass. In what sense then does a magnifying glass
provide angular magnification?
(b) In viewing through a magnifying glass, one usually positions
one’s eyes very close to the lens. Does angular magnification
change if the eye is moved back?
(c) Magnifying power of a simple microscope is inversely proportional
to the focal length of the lens. What then stops us from using a
convex lens of smaller and smaller focal length and achieving
greater and greater magnifying power?
(d) Why must both the objective and the eyepiece of a compound
microscope have short focal lengths?
(e) When viewing through a compound microscope, our eyes should
be positioned not on the eyepiece but a short distance away
from it for best viewing. Why? How much should be that short
distance between the eye and eyepiece?
9.33 An angular magnification (magnifying power) of 30X is desired using
an objective of focal length 1.25cm and an eyepiece of focal length
5cm. How will you set up the compound microscope?
9.34 A small telescope has an objective lens of focal length 140cm and
an eyepiece of focal length 5.0cm. What is the magnifying power of
the telescope for viewing distant objects when
(a) the telescope is in normal adjustment (i.e., when the final image
is at infinity)?
(b) the final image is formed at the least distance of distinct vision
9.35 (a) For the telescope described in Exercise 9.34 (a), what is the
separation between the objective lens and the eyepiece?
(b) If this telescope is used to view a 100 m tall tower 3 km away,
what is the height of the image of the tower formed by the objective
(c) What is the height of the final image of the tower if it is formed at
9.36 A Cassegrain telescope uses two mirrors as shown in Fig. 9.33. Such
a telescope is built with the mirrors 20mm apart. If the radius of
curvature of the large mirror is 220mm and the small mirror is
140mm, where will the final image of an object at infinity be?
9.37 Light incident normally on a plane mirror attached to a galvanometer
coil retraces backwards as shown in Fig. 9.36. A current in the coil
produces a deflection of 3.5o
of the mirror. What is the displacement
of the reflected spot of light on a screen placed 1.5 m away?
9.38 Figure 9.37 shows an equiconvex lens (of refractive index 1.50) in
contact with a liquid layer on top of a plane mirror. A small needle
with its tip on the principal axis is moved along the axis until its
inverted image is found at the position of the needle. The distance of
the needle from the lens is measured to be 45.0cm. The liquid is
removed and the experiment is repeated. The new distance is
measured to be 30.0cm. What is the refractive index of the liquid?
53. Chapter Ten
In 1637 Descartes gave the corpuscular model of light and derived Snell’s
law. It explained the laws of reflection and refraction of light at an interface.
The corpuscular model predicted that if the ray of light (on refraction)
bends towards the normal then the speed of light would be greater in the
second medium. This corpuscular model of light was further developed
by Isaac Newton in his famous book entitled OPTICKS and because of
the tremendous popularity of this book, the corpuscular model is very
often attributed to Newton.
In 1678, the Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens put forward the
wave theory of light – it is this wave model of light that we will discuss in
this chapter. As we will see, the wave model could satisfactorily explain
the phenomena of reflection and refraction; however, it predicted that on
refraction if the wave bends towards the normal then the speed of light
would be less in the second medium. This is in contradiction to the
prediction made by using the corpuscular model of light. It was much
later confirmed by experiments where it was shown that the speed of
light in water is less than the speed in air confirming the prediction of the
wave model; Foucault carried out this experiment in 1850.
The wave theory was not readily accepted primarily because of
Newton’s authority and also because light could travel through vacuum