1. PROJECT ON : SOURCE,
PRODUCTION& OTHER PRODUCTS
THAT CAN BE OBTAINED FROM THE
FIBRES OF THE FABRIC THAT WE
USE IN DAY TO DAY LIVES : JUTE ,
COIR , COTTON, SILK, WOOL
Name: Radhika Gupta
Roll no : 32 – MBA-14
2. 1) SOURCE OF JUTE
• Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into
coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus
Corchorus, which was once classified with the family
Tiliaceae, more recently with Malvaceae, and has now been
reclassified as belonging to the family Sparrmanniaceae. The
primary source of the fibre is Corchorus olitorius."Jute" is the
name of the plant or fiber that is used to make burlap, Hessian
or gunny cloth.
• Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials
cellulose and lignin. Jute is also called "the golden fiber" for
its color and high cash value.
3. PRODUCTION OF JUTE
Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides, in contrast
to cotton's heavy requirements. Production is concentrated mostly in India's
states of Assam, Bihar, and West Bengal, and Bangladesh. The jute fiber
comes from the stem and ribbon (outer skin) of the jute plant. The fibers
are first extracted by retting. The retting process consists of bundling jute
stems together and immersing them in slow running water. There are two
types of retting: stem and ribbon. After the retting process, stripping begins;
women and children usually do this job. In the stripping process, non-
fibrous matter is scraped off, then the workers dig in and grab the fibers
from within the jute stem.India is the world's largest producer of jute,but
imported approximately 162,000 tonnes of raw fiber and 175,000 tonnes of
jute products in 2011. India, Pakistan, and China import significant
quantities of jute fiber and products from Bangladesh, as does the United
Kingdom, Japan, United States, France, Spain, Côte d'Ivoire, Germanyand
4. PRODUCTS:JUTE BAGS
Natural look and shiny texture make jute bags a desirable
object for all age groups. Today, jute fiber is used to
manufacture a vast variety of products, among which jute
bags(or earth bags) are one of the most common and highly
demanded product. Fashionable and trendy bags made from
jute available in the market are loved by one and all. These
jute bags are biodegradable and organic in nature and can be
obtained in varied shapes, sizes, and designs. These eco
friendly bags are multipurpose in nature and thus find
extensive application in day to day life and for various
industrial purpose as well.
5. TYPES OF JUTE BAGS:
There are different types of jute made bags are available in the
market e.g. trendy jute bags, fancy jute bags, stylish jute bags,
jute rice bags, jute onion bags, and many other types of bags.
6. JUTE JEWELLERY
Then comes the jewellery section. The jute jewellery on
display could compete with its popular counterparts with élan
for the mere variety of designs weaved using this once cheap
fiber. There are wonderful necklaces, matching earrings, hair
clips, and bangles are also available now a days.
7. JUTE FOOTWEAR
The jute footwear is also popular for the comfort they offer
compared to plastic and leather footwear. The footwear is
available in all sizes and a variety of designs and colors.
Swings and nets made of jute, door mats, rugs, and wall
hangings in jute can also be made from jute.
8. Apart from pure jute bags, there are those made of screw-pine
leaves and bamboo, a mix of jute and cotton, jute and silk, jute
and banana fiber, jute and palm leaves, and many other
combinations. The prices range from Rs.50 to Rs.1,500 based
on the material used and the quality of stitching.
9. 2) SOURCE& PRODUCTIONOF
• Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or
protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the
genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae. The fiber is
almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton
bolls will tend to increase the dispersion of the seeds.
• The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions
around the world, including the Americas, Africa, and India.
The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in
Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was
independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds.
There are four commercially grown species of cotton, all domesticated in
• Gossypium hirsutum– upland cotton, native to Central America, Mexico,
the Caribbean and southern Florida (90% of world production)
• Gossypium barbadense – known as extra-long staple cotton, native to
tropical South America (8% of world production)
• Gossypium arboreum– tree cotton, native to India and Pakistan (less than
• Gossypium herbaceum – Levant cotton, native to southern Africa and the
Arabian Peninsula (less than 2%)
The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern
cotton production, but the two Old World species were widely used before
• Cotton is known for its versatility, performance and natural comfort.
It’s used to make all kinds of clothes and home wares as well as for
industrial purposes like tarpaulins, tents, hotel sheets and army
• Cotton fiber can be woven or knitted into fabrics such as velvet,
corduroy, chambray, velour, jersey and flannel. In addition to textile
products like underwear, socks and t-shirts, cotton is also used in
fishnets, coffee filters, book binding and archival paper. Cotton is a
food AND a fiber crop. Cotton seed is fed to cattle and crushed to
make oil. This cottonseed oil is used for cooking and in products like
soap, margarine, emulsifiers, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, rubber and
• Linters are the very short fibers that remain on the cottonseed after
ginning. They are used to produce goods such as bandages, swabs,
bank notes, cotton buds and x-rays.
12. • In addition to the textile industry, cotton is used in fishing nets,
coffee filters, tents, explosives manufacture , cotton paper, and
in bookbinding. The first Chinese paper was made of cotton
fiber. Fire hoses were once made of cotton.
• Pima cotton is often compared to Egyptian cotton, as both are
used in high quality bed sheets and other cotton products. It is
considered the next best quality after high quality Egyptian
cotton by some authorities. Pima cotton is grown in the
American southwest. Not all products bearing the Pima name
are made with the finest cotton. The Pima name is now used
by cotton-producing nations such as Peru, Australia and Israel.
13. 3) SOURCE & PRODUCTIONOF SILK
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be
woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed
mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to
form cocoons.The best-known silk is obtained from the
cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori
reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance of
silk is due to the triangular prism-like structure of the silk
fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at
different angles, thus producing different colors.
14. Silk is produced by several insects, but generally only the silk
of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing.
There has been some research into other types of silk, which
differ at the molecular level. Silk is mainly produced by the
larvae of insects undergoing complete metamorphosis, but
some adult insects such as webspinners also produce silk, and
some insects such as raspy crickets produce silk throughout
their lives. Silk production also occurs in Hymenoptera (bees,
wasps, and ants), silverfish, mayflies, thrips, leafhoppers,
beetles, lacewings, fleas, flies, and midges. Other types of
arthropod produce silk, most notably various arachnids such as
15. PRODUCTION PROCESS
The entire production process of silk can be divided into
several steps which are typically handled by different entities.
Extracting raw silk starts by cultivating the silkworms on
mulberry leaves. Once the worms start pupating in their
cocoons, these are dissolved in boiling water in order for
individual long fibres to be extracted and fed into the spinning
16. FUNCTION OF SILK
• Being a natural fiber, the silk has irreplaceable uniqueness and
great vitality. The silk garment has certain health care function
to human body:
• First, it brings the pleasant sensation. Composed of azelon, the
real silk has a good biocompatibility. The smooth surface
makes the smallest friction coefficient of all types of ribers.
17. • Second, it has a good permeability and hygroscopicity. It
contains 18 sorts of amino acid. It is regarded as the "Queen of
Fiber" due to its good permeability and light absorbing ability.
• Third, it has excellent qualities of acoustic absorption, dust
absorption and strongly heat-resistant.
• Fourth, it has the function of anti-ultraviolet radiation. The
fibroin in it can well absorb the ultraviolet radiation. But after
absorbing the ultraviolet radiation, the chemical changes will
make it yellowing from day lighting.
• Silk's absorbency makes it comfortable to wear in warm weather and
while active. Its low conductivity keeps warm air close to the skin
during cold weather. It is often used for clothing such as shirts, ties,
blouses, formal dresses, high fashion clothes, lining, lingerie, pajamas,
robes, dress suits, sun dresses and Eastern folk costumes. Silk's
attractive lustre and drape makes it suitable for many furnishing
applications. It is used for upholstery, wall coverings, window
treatments (if blended with another fiber), rugs, bedding and wall
hangings.While on the decline now, due to artificial fibers, silk has had
many industrial and commercial uses, such as in parachutes, bicycle
tires, comforter filling and artillery gunpowder bags
• Fabrics that are often made from silk include charmeuse, habutai,
chiffon, taffeta, crepe de chine, dupioni, noil, tussah, and shantung,
19. 4) SOURCE,PRODUCTION &
PRODUCTS OF COIR
Red coir is used in floor mats and doormats, brushes,
mattresses, floor tiles and sacking. A small amount is also
made into twine. Pads of curled brown coir fibre, made by
needle-felting (a machine technique that mats the fibres
together), are shaped and cut to fill mattresses and for use in
erosion control on river banks and hillsides. A major
proportion of brown coir pads are sprayed with rubber latex
which bonds the fibres together (rubberised coir) to be used as
upholstery padding for the automobile industry in Europe. The
material is also used for insulation and packaging.
20. PRODUCTS OF COIR
• The major use of white coir is in rope manufacture. Mats of
woven coir fibre are made from the finer grades of bristle and
white fibre using hand or mechanical looms. White coir also is
used to make fishing nets due to its strong resistance to
• In horticulture, coir is a substitute for sphagnum moss because
it is free of bacteria and fungal spores. Coir is also useful to
deter snails from delicate plantings, and as a growing medium
in intensive glasshouse (greenhouse) horticulture
21. • Coir is also used as a substrate to grow mushrooms. The coir is
usually mixed with vermiculite and pasteurized with boiling
water. After the coir/vermiculite mix has cooled to room
temperature, it is placed in a larger container, usually a plastic
box. Previously prepared spawn jars are then added, spawn is
usually grown in jars using substrates such as rye grains or
wild bird seed. This spawn is the mushrooms mycelium and
will colonize the coir/vermiculite mix eventually fruiting
• Coir is an allergen, as well as the latex and other materials
used frequently in the treatment of coir.
22. • The Karnataka Government has been asked to encourage the
use of coir-based products in day-to-day life.
• Explaining the uses of coir, he said the coir geo-textiles is a
measure to prevent soil erosion. It also reinforces roads for
heavy traffic and for adverse climatic conditions. Kerala has
made use of coir in the construction of roads and a runway at
Kozhikode airport, he said.
• He suggested that the Karnataka Government think of
producing coir-based furniture for use in schools and other
23. 5) SOURCE OF WOOL
• Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other
animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats,
qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of
wool from camelids.
• Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it
is crimped, it is elastic, and it grows in staples (clusters).
24. PRODUCTION OF WOOL:
SHEARING - Sheep shearing is the process by which the
woolen fleece of a sheep is cut off. After shearing, the wool is
separated into four main categories: fleece (which makes up
the vast bulk), broken, bellies, and locks. The quality of
fleeces is determined by a technique known as wool classing,
whereby a qualified person called a wool classer groups wools
of similar gradings together to maximize the return for the
farmer or sheep owner. In Australia and New Zealand, before
being auctioned, all Merino fleece wool is objectively
measured for micron, yield (including the amount of vegetable
matter), staple length, staple strength, and sometimes color and
comfort factor. The sheep is given a dip in antiseptic solution
after shearing, so as to cure the wounds caused during
25. PRODUCTION OF WOOL:
• Scouring - Wool straight off a sheep, known as "greasy wool" or "wool
in the grease", contains a high level of valuable lanolin, as well as dead
skin, sweat residue, pesticides, and vegetable matter. Before the wool
can be used for commercial purposes, it must be scoured, a process of
cleaning the greasy wool. Scouring may be as simple as a bath in warm
water or as complicated as an industrial process using detergent and
alkali in specialized equipment. In north west England, special potash
pits were constructed to produce potash used in the manufacture of a
soft soap for scouring locally produced white wool.
• In commercial wool, vegetable matter is often removed by chemical
carbonization.In less-processed wools, vegetable matter may be
removed by hand and some of the lanolin left intact through the use of
gentler detergents. This semigrease wool can be worked into yarn and
knitted into particularly water-resistant mittens or sweaters, such as
those of the Aran Island fishermen. Lanolin removed from wool is
widely used in cosmetic products such as hand creams.
• Woolen garments in the wool samples area of a wool store,
Newcastle, New South Wales.
• In addition to clothing, wool has been used for blankets, horse
rugs, saddle cloths, carpeting, felt, wool insulation and
upholstery. Wool felt covers piano hammers, and it is used to
absorb odors and noise in heavy machinery and stereo
speakers. Ancient Greeks lined their helmets with felt, and
Roman legionnaires used breastplates made of wool felt.
27. • Wool has also been traditionally used to cover cloth diapers.
Wool fiber exteriors are hydrophobic (repel water) and the
interior of the wool fiber is hygroscopic(attracts water); this
makes a wool garment able to cover a wet diaper while
inhibiting wicking, so outer garments remain dry. Wool felted
and treated with lanolin is water resistant, air permeable, and
slightly antibacterial, so it resists the buildup of odor. Some
modern cloth diapers use felted wool fabric for covers, and
there are several modern commercial knitting patterns for wool
• Initial studies of woolen underwear have found it prevented
heat and sweat rashes because it more readily absorbs the
moisture than other fibers.
28. • Merino wool has been used in baby sleep products such as
swaddle baby wrap blankets and infant sleeping bags.
• As an animal protein, it can be used as a soil fertilizer, being a
slow-release source of nitrogen.
• Researchers at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology
school of fashion and textiles have discovered a blend of wool
and kevlar, the synthetic fiber widely used in body armor, was
lighter, cheaper and worked better in damp conditions than
kevlar alone. Kevlar, when used alone, loses about 20% of its
effectiveness when wet, so required an expensive
waterproofing process. Wool increased friction in a vest with
28–30 layers of fabric, to provide the same level of bullet
resistance as 36 layers of Kevlar alone.