Introduction to FDI
Types of FDI
Method of FDI investment
Benefits of FDI
Introduction to FII
How does it work
Benefits of FII
Difference between FDI & FII
Recent news& current scenario
Foreign direct investment (FDI) is
an investment made by a firm or
individual in one country into
business interests located in
another country. Generally, FDI
takes place when an investor
establishes foreign business
operations or acquires foreign
business assets, including
establishing ownership or
controlling interest in a foreign
4. Types of FDI
Horizontal FDI- Arises when a firm
duplicates its home country-based
activities at the same value chain stage
in a host country through FDI.
Platform FDI -Foreign direct
investment from a source country into a
destination country for the purpose of
exporting to a third country.
5. Types of FDI
Vertical FDI- Takes place when a firm
through FDI moves upstream or
downstream in different value chains
i.e., when firms perform value-adding
activities stage by stage in a vertical
fashion in a host country
6. Method OF FDI
Foreign direct investments can be made in a
variety of ways.
1. Opening of a subsidiary or associate
company in a foreign country.
2. By acquiring shares in an associated
3. Through a merger or an acquisition of an
4. Participating in an equity joint venture with
another investor or enterprise.
7. Benefits of FDI in
Promotion of investment in key area
Increase Capital Inflow
Increase in Exports
Promotion of employment opportunities
Promotion of financial services
Exchange rate stability
Development of backward areas
Utilization of natural resources
A foreign institutional investor (FII) is an
investor or investment fund registered in a
country outside of the one in which it is
Institutional investors most notably include
hedge funds, insurance companies,
pension funds, and mutual funds. The
term is used most commonly in India and
refers to outside companies investing in
the financial markets of India.
10. How do they invest?
A SEBI registered FII
(as per Schedules 2
of Foreign Exchange
a registered broker
in the capital of
Indian Companies on
An FII can also invest in
India on behalf of a sub-
account (means any person
outside India on whose
behalf investments are
proposed to be made in
India by a FII) which is
registered as a sub-account
under Section 2 (k) of the
SEBI (FII) Regulations, 1995
An FII can issue off-shore
(ODIs) to persons who are
regulated by an
regulatory authority and
after compliance with
Know Your Client (KYC)
Authorized dealer banks (i.e.
the bank which is authorized by
RBI to deal in foreign currency)
can offer forward cover (i.e, to
minimize the impact of
currency fluctuations, banks
offer them the option to sell /
purchase foreign currency on a
fixed future date at a rate
specified today) to FIIs to the
extent of total inward
remittances of liquidated
5.Insurance Companies /
6.Foreign Central Banks
Sovereign Wealth Funds
University Funds (Serving
Endowments (Serving public
Foundations (Serving public
Charitable Trusts / Charitable
Societies (Serving public
Who can get
registered as FII?
A Foreign Institutional Investor may invest only in the following:-
1. Securities in the primary and secondary markets including
shares, debentures and warrants of companies listed or to be
listed on a recognized stock exchange in India.
2. Units of schemes floated by domestic mutual funds including Unit
Trust of India, whether listed on a recognized stock exchange.
3. Dated Government Securities.
4. Derivatives traded on a recognized stock exchange.
5. Commercial papers of Indian companies.
6. Rupee denominated credit enhanced bonds.
What FIIs can do?
7. Security receipts.
8. Indian Depository Receipt.
9. Listed and unlisted non-convertible debentures/bonds issued by
an Indian company in the infrastructure sector
10. Non-convertible debentures or bonds issued by Non-Banking
11. Rupee denominated bonds or units issued by infrastructure
12. Indian depository receipts.
13. Such other instruments specified by the Board from time to
Advantage of FII
Enhanced flows of equity capital
Equity market development aids
These investors generally prefer
equity over debt. So this will also help
maintain and even improve the
capital structures of the companies
they are investing in.
These institutions are professionally
managed by asset managers and
analysts. They generally improve the
capital markets of the country.
The demand for the local
currency (rupee) increases. This
can cause severe inflation in the
These FII’s drive the fortune of
big companies in which they
invest. But their buying and
selling of securities have a huge
impact on the stock market. The
smaller companies are taken
along for the ride.
Sometimes these FII’s seek only
short-term returns. When they pull
their investments banks can face
a shortage of funds.
FDI is an investment that a parent
company makes in a foreign
The FDI flows into the primary
FDI’s are long term investment.
FDI cannot enter and exit that
Foreign Direct Investment is
considered to be more stable
FII is an investment made by an investor
in the markets of a foreign nation.
the FII flows into secondary market
FIIs are short-term investments.
FII can enter the stock market easily and
also withdraw from it easily.
But Foreign Institutional Investor is not
considered as Stable
Difference Between FDI and FII
18. Recent development
According to Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), the
total FDI investments in India April-December 2018 stood at US$ 33.49 billion,
indicating that government's effort to improve ease of doing business and relaxation in
FDI norms is yielding results.
Data for April-December 2018 indicates that the services sector attracted the highest
FDI equity inflow of US$ 6.59 billion, followed by computer software and hardware –
US$ 5.00 billion, trading – US$ 3.04 billion and telecommunications – US$ 2.29 billion.
Most recently, the total FDI equity inflows for the month of December 2018 touched
US$ 4.39 billion.
During April-December 2018, India received the maximum FDI equity inflows from
Singapore (US$ 12.98 billion), followed by Mauritius (US$ 6.02 billion), Netherlands
(US$ 2.95 billion), USA (US$ 2.34 billion), and Japan (US$ 2.21 billion).
In October 2018, VMware, a leading software innovating enterprise of US has announced investment of US$ 2
billion in India between by 2023.
In August 2018, Bharti Airtel received approval of the Government of India for sale of 20 per cent stake in its
DTH arm to an America based private equity firm, Warburg Pincus, for around $350 million.
In June 2018, Idea’s appeal for 100 per cent FDI was approved by Department of Telecommunication (DoT)
followed by its Indian merger with Vodafone making Vodafone Idea the largest telecom operator in India
In May 2018, Walmart acquired a 77 per cent stake in Flipkart for a consideration of US$ 16 billion.
In February 2018, Ikea announced its plans to invest up to Rs 4,000 crore (US$ 612 million) in the state of
Maharashtra to set up multi-format stores and experience centres.
Kathmandu based conglomerate, CG Group is looking to invest Rs 1,000 crore (US$ 155.97 million) in India by
2020 in its food and beverage business, stated Mr Varun Choudhary, Executive Director, CG Corp Global.
International Finance Corporation (IFC), the investment arm of the World Bank Group, is planning to invest about
US$ 6 billion through 2022 in several sustainable and renewable energy programmes in India.
In December 2018, the Government of India revised FDI rules related to e-commerce.
As per the rules 100 per cent FDI is allowed in the marketplace based model of e-
commerce. Also, sales of any vendor through an e-commerce marketplace entity or its
group companies have been limited to 25 per cent of the total sales of such vendor
Government of India is planning to consider 100 per cent FDI in Insurance
As of February 2019, the Government of India is working on a road map to achieve its
goal of US$ 100 billion worth of FDI inflows.
Annual FDI inflows in the country are expected to rise to US$ 75 billion over the next
five years, as per a report by UBS.
•Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores – Upto 100
•Defence – Beyond 49% & upto 100%
•Publishing/printing of scientific and technical magazines/specialty journals/ periodicals – Upto 100%
•Publication of facsimile edition of foreign newspapers – Upto 100%
•Print Media - Publishing of newspaper and periodicals dealing with news and current affairs – Upto 26%
•Print Media - Publication of Indian editions of foreign magazines dealing with news and current affairs – Upto 26%
•Air Transport Service - Scheduled, and Regional Air Transport Service – Beyond 49% & Upto 100%
•Satellites – establishment and operation – Upto 100%
•Telecom Services – Beyond 49% & Upto 100%
•Trading – Single Brand Retail Trading (SBRT) – Beyond 49% & Upto 100%
•Pharma – Brownfield – Beyond 74% & Upto 100%
•Banking – Private Sector – Beyond 49% & Upto 74%
•Banking – Public Sector – Upto 20%
•Private Security Agencies – Beyond 49% & Upto 74%