Administration is the organization and
direction of human and material resources
to achieve desired results.
The process or activity of running a
business, organization etc. This includes
creating rules and regulations, making
decisions, management of operations,
creating organization of staff, employees
people to direct activities towards achieving
a common goal or objective.
The process of management is relevant to
all people who seek to influences the
behavior of others towards achieving the
Management involves a set of activities
directed at the efficient and effective
utilization or resources human financial and
physical through planning, organizing,
leading and controlling functions. It is based
on economical resources, goals, processes
4. DEFINITIONS OF MANAGEMENT
George R. Terry: “Management is a distinct process
consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and
controlling performance to determine and
accomplish objectives by the use of people and
E.F.L. Brech: Management is concerned with
seeing that the job gets done: its tasks centre on
planning and guiding the operations of an enterprise.
S. George: Management consists of getting things
done through others. A manager is one who
accomplishes the objectives by directing the efforts
5. NURSING MANAGEMENT
Nursing management is defined as the
process of planning, organizing, activating
and controlling the managerial functions of
nursing in order to determine and
accomplish the objectives of nursing care.
Nursing management is a process of
working through nursing personnel to
promote and maintain health and prevent
illness and suffering.
6. PHILOSOPHY OF MANAGEMENT
Management improve economic and social
Specialized management, management by
experts, keep abreast of fresh challenges by
providing new ideas, imagination and
foresight and developing appropriate
Management makes human efforts more
It helps to improve equipment and plants,
products, services as well as human
7. Demanding and cost conscious customers
always look to the management for quality
products at reasonable costs.
The success or failure of a business
depends on good management
The government looks at organizations with
good management to run its business in a
lawful way and act as partners in achieving
its goal of an egalitarian society.
8. ELEMENTS OF MANAGEMENT
Universal application: management is a universal
activity. It is applied to establishments engaged in any
form of activity, economic or otherwise.
Goal oriented: every organization has certain
objectives and it is the task of the management to
A distinct process: management is a distinct
process consisting of the fundamental functions of
planning, organizing, actualizing and controlling.
Intangible process: management is abstract and
cannot be seen with the eyes.
9. Social process: it is concerned with directing.
Coordinating and controlling the efforts of human
beings who actually perform diverse and specific
A decision making process: Management involves
decision relating to various aspects of management.
Guidance: To convert the organized resources of
men, machines, money and materials into a useful
and effective enterprise.
An art and a science: it is an art because it is
concerned with the application of knowledge for the
solution of organizational problems.
10. A profession: Management is now recognized as
a profession. it has a specialized body of
knowledge, principles, tools and techniques that
can be taught and transferred.
Divorced from ownership: management does not
Authority: managers are leaders: they inspire,
motivate and channel the efforts of a team of
A continuous process: management is a
complex, dynamic and ongoing process that lasts
as long as the organization continues to exist.
11. PRINCIPLE OF MANAGEMENT
Fayol’s principles of management:
Unity of command: confusion of authority and
conflict in instructions results while an employee
reports to more than one superior.
Discipline: rules and agreements that govern the
organization should be respected by the members in
the organization. Good leadership results in discipline
at all levels of the organization.
Authority: managers formal authority gives them the
right to command, hence they must give orders to get
12. Divison of Labour : people can more efficiently
perform their work if they specialize more.
Centralization : In the process of decision making
increasing the role of subordinates is known as
decentralization and decreasing their role is known
Remuneration : there should be fair compensation
for work done to both employees and employers.
Unity of direction : operations heving the same
objective within an organization should be director
by only one manager and one plan.
13. Subordination of individual interest to the
common good: employees interests should not be
prioritized over the interests of an organization as a
Stability of staff: for the efficient functioning of an
organization, a high employee turnover is not
Hierarchy: neat boxes and lines of an organization
chart symbolize the line of authority in an
organization, from the top management to the
lowest level of the enterprise.
Order: befitting people should be placed in the
jobs or positions most suited to them, materials and
people should be in the right place at the right time.
14. Equality : there should be friendly and fair
approach by managers to their subordinates.
Esprit de corps: promotion of team spirit brings
the organization a feel of unity. small factors even
help to develop this spirit.
Initiative: even though some mistakes might
result, subordinates should be allowed to plan and
implement their works by taking self initiatives.
Planning is concerned with the determination of the
objectives to be achieved and the course of action
to be followed to achieve them.
Planning implies decision making as to what is to be
done, how it is to be done, when it is to be done and
by whom it is to be done.
Planning helps in achieving the objectives efficiently
Planning involves selecting of objectives and
strategies, policies, programmes and procedures for
To organize a business is to provide it with everything
useful to its functioning- raw materials, tools, capital
Determining and defining the activities involves in
achiveing the objectives laid down by the
Grouping the activities in logical pattern
Assigning the activities to specific positions and
Delegating authority so as to enable personnel to
perform the activities assigned to them.
Proper selection of candidate for positions.
Proper training and development so as to enable
staff to discharge their organizational functions
Proper evaluation of personnel.
Directing is one of the important functions of
management and is the art and process of getting
The directing functions actually starts the work.
Directing is concerned with actuating the members
of the organization to work efficiently and effectively
for the attainment of organizational goals.
Directing involves the manager telling the
subordinates how they have to perform jobs
assigned to them
Controlling is related to all other management
Control is the process of checking to determine
whether or not proper progress is being made
towards the objectives and goals and then acting if
necessary to correct any deviation.
Determination of standards for measuring work
Measurement of actual performance
Comparing actual performance with standards
Finding variances between the two and reasons for