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Genetic engineering

  2. GENETIC ENGINEERING MEAN:- Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
  3. GENETIC MANIPULATION USING BIO TECHNOLOGY:-  Genetic manipulation includes process like “Inserting DNA into Host Genome “  This is possible with discovery of “CRISPR”
  4. CRISPR:- Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
  5. WHAT IS CRISPR ? Crispr-CAS9 is a Family Of DNA sequence that Is found in Prokaryotic Organism like Bacteria. Cas9 (Or "Crispr- associated Protein 9") is an enzyme that uses Crispr Sequences as a guide to recognize DNA that are complementary to the Crispr Sequence.
  6. HOW IT WORKS  The Crispr-CAS System is a Prokaryotic Immune System that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements like Plasmids and Phages.  It is process that was discovered in DNA sequence of certain Bacteria.
  7.  Their DNA that contains snippets of the DNA of virus that have previously attacked them to allow them to recognise any threat in future.  The method by which the new DNA becomes part of their own has been replaced to allow modification of their own DNA .  This organism in theory allows us edit to be made to any part of genome.
  8. HOW IT WILL HELP TO HUMANS. It will help human in making :- Genetically Modify Crops More Efficient Biofuel Ending Diseases  Designer Baby  Eternal Youth( Increase In Life Extensity) Super Soldier
  11. HOW CAS9 WILL HELP ENDING DISEASES According to scientist diseases like HIV ,Harpies , Malaria etc. would be destroyed by injecting modified Cas9 in the body. In which RNA of Virus is inserted so that Cas9 can cut RNA of Virus And Free cell from virus. In 2015 a herd of scientist performed a experiment in which rats are taken having 99% of cell infected by HIV virus . But after inserting Cas9 in Tail it Decreases Up to 48%. So other diseases can also be cure by this method. Beside this CANCER & GENETIC DISEASES can also be cured .
  12. CANCER CRISPR gives us mean to edit immunity cell and make them better cancer hunters. In 2016 first cancer infected human patient’s treatment was approved in US. In 2017 Chinese scientist discovered that they can cure lung cancer by using Cas9.
  13. GENETIC DISEASES Genetic diseases like colour blindness , Huntington's diseases , haemophilia etc. can be cured . Over 3000 genetic diseases cause due to single incorrect letter in our DNA. Scientist are already building a modified version of CAS9 Which can make a change in single letter in DNA.
  15. HOW IT IS POSSIBLE ?  A designer baby is a baby whose genetic makeup has been selected or altered to include a particular gene or to remove genes associated with disease. By parents in children by manipulation fertilized egg before in-vitro fertilization.
  16. Parents can Decide:- Gender Appearance Intelligence Resistance against Diseases Personality Further it will possible to Design every part of Genome:- Eye colour Hair colour Body colour
  17. ADVANTAGES Reduce genetic and inherited diseases. Life span may increase. Children may acquire the genes , which are not present in their parent DNA.
  18. DISADVANTAGES Damage to over all gene pool. Loss of indivuality. Some gene could have multipurpose & if changed could widely unpredictable consequences. Development of new diseases and vulnerabilities. Process is incredibly expensive.
  19. ETERNAL YOUTH (ANTI AGING) Two-Third of 1,50,000 people die of Age Related Causes. Age can be increase by killing Senescent cell (Zombie cell) & by increasing no of Stem cell.
  20. Recently in 2016 scientist inserted protein in mice to killed senescent cell . It kills 80% of senescent cell without harming healthy cell. Mice live 30% longer than average. Senescent Cell
  21. In early 2015 scientist inserted stem cell in mice . Took stem cell from baby mouse and insert it in hypothalamus of middle age mouse. After 4 months brain and mussels were better than other mice. On average mice live 10% longer and grow of hair of mouse is also seen better than average mice. Stem Cell
  22. GENETICALLY MODIFY CROPS  Genetically modified crops (GM crops) in which DNA has been modified by using Genetic engineering.  Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, diseases, environmental conditions, reduction of spoilage, resistance to chemical treatments or improving the nutrient profile of the crop.  Some example of GM crops are Bt maize , Bt brinjals , GM bananas, etc.
  23. SUPER SOLDIER  The super soldier is a concept soldier, often fictional, capable of operating beyond normal human limits or abilities.  Within this century, human beings will be capable of changing their genes to modify traits like intelligence, or even instincts like aggression, the renowned physicist Stephen Hawking predicted.  But technology today is limited so super soldier is just a theory which can be full fill in near future