Ingles aula 2

354 visualizações

Publicada em

Estudo, técnicas e esforço !

Publicada em: Educação
0 comentários
0 gostaram
Estatísticas
Notas
  • Seja o primeiro a comentar

  • Seja a primeira pessoa a gostar disto

Sem downloads
Visualizações
Visualizações totais
354
No SlideShare
0
A partir de incorporações
0
Número de incorporações
8
Ações
Compartilhamentos
0
Downloads
8
Comentários
0
Gostaram
0
Incorporações 0
Nenhuma incorporação

Nenhuma nota no slide

Ingles aula 2

  1. 1. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br -1- AULA 2 READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES (III): REFERENCE Faça o skimming do texto e escreva nas linhas abaixo: I - 15 verdadeiros cognatos. (Eu já comecei para você) authorities, government,____________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ II - 10 function words – palavras que executam uma função específica na frase - pronouns, prepositions, ... (Eu já comecei para você) with, the, have, and, as,____________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Text 1: US Colombia Join do Break Up Global Drug-Trafficking Ring Washington - U.S. law enforcement authorities, with the help of the government of Colombia, have arrested 22 members and associates of two Colombian drug- trafficking groups as part of an operation to dismantle international drug organizations that smuggle narcotics through U.S. ports. In a September 28 statement, the U.S. Immigration and Customs5 Enforcement (ICE) agency said those arrested were charged with conspiring to import multikilogram shipments of cocaine hidden inside cargo containers into ports in New York, and in the California cities of San Francisco and Oakland. Among those arrested were four Colombians who helped supply Colombian cocaine to the United States. They were arrested in Cali, Colombia,10 by the Colombian national police in conjunction with ICE, the investigative arm of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. It will seek the Colombians' extradition to the United States for prosecution in New York. ICE said that if convicted the defendants in the case face a mandatory minimum sentence of 10 years’ imprisonment and a maximum sentence of life15 in prison, and a $4 million fine.(By Eric Green Washington File Staff Writer) http://usinfo.state.gov/utils/printpage.html Agora, raciocine comigo. De que adiantaria conhecer, digamos, 30% das palavras cognatas se o examinador formulasse uma questão do tipo:
  2. 2. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -2- 1. A que se refere a palavra ‘they’ (L-10) __________________________________________________________ Ou outra, sob a forma de multiple-choice question: 2. The word ‘it’ (L-12) refers to a) Colombian government. b) enforcement authorities. c) national police. d) Immigration and Customs Enforcement. e) drug trafficker. É preciso prestar atenção à questão da reference em inglês. Todo escritor busca escrever de forma coesa e coerente. Para isso, lança mão de pronomes, por exemplo, para evitar a repetição de algo que ele entende esteja claro. Podem ser pronomes demonstrativos como this, that, these, those, podem ser pronomes relativos: who, which, that, whose etc. Todas essas function words têm que ser estudadas com atenção. Observe a tabela abaixo como os pronomes pessoais, possessivos e reflexivos. PRONOUN FORMS Study these pronoun forms: Personal Pronouns / Possessive / Subject Object Adjectives Pronouns Reflexive I me my mine myself you you your yours yourself he him his his himself she her her hers herself it it its - itself we us our ours ourselves you you your yours yourselves they them their theirs themselves Todos estes pronomes pipocarão de vez em quando nos textos que estudaremos.Todos são comumente usados em questões envolvendo reference em provas de inglês.
  3. 3. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -3- ANALYSIS OF THE TEXT a) The suffix - MENT No Text 1 há varios exemplos de palavras com o sufixo –MENT. “U.S. law enforcement authorities” (L-1) “ …with the help of the government of Colombia” (L-1) “…to import multikilogram shipments of cocaine” (L-7) “…face a mandatory minimum sentence of 10 years' imprisonment (L-15) O que se observa é o seguinte: o sufixo –MENT é acrescentado a verbos para formar substantivos. Verb Noun Tradução enforce enforcement cumprimento (leis) govern government governo ship shipment Embarque imprison imprisonment prisão Alguns outros exemplos fora do contexto: To my amazement she left for Canada without saying good-by. Para meu espanto ela partiu para o Canadá sem dizer adeus. There are no banking establishments nowadays without IT departments. Não há estabelecimentos bancários hoje sem departamentos de TI. Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formação quando encontrá-las em suas leituras.
  4. 4. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -4- KEY WORD: AS From Text 1: “...as part of an operation to dismantle international drug organizations…” (L-3/4) “… como parte de uma operação para desmantelar organizações internacionais do narcotráfico” Dentre as várias function words do texto anterior escolhi a palavrinha ‘as’ para lhe mostrar porque você deve estudar estas verdadeiras ‘gems’. Nesse caso traduzimos por ‘como’. Vejamos, qual é a chance de uma palavra como ‘dismantle’ (= desmantelar, desbaratar) aparecer em vários outros textos neste livro? Mínima, certo? Já a palavra ‘AS’* surge freqüentemente em textos com vários significados. Palavras-chave semelhantes a ‘AS’ têm que se tornar o mais meaningful possível para você. (*) [Existe um Dictionary of Key Words, by Mary Edwards, Ed. Macmillan, não sei se está esgotado. Se você achá-lo em sebos, compre-o. Garanto que não se arrependerá!] a) conjunção significando when (=quando) Ex.: As I was taking a shower, the telephone rang. Quando eu estava tomando um banho, o telefone tocou. Turn off the light as you leave. Apague a luz quando estiver saindo. b) conjunção significando because (=porque) Ex.: As Mr. Cheng only spoke Chinese, we needed an interpreter. Como o Sr Cheng só falava Chinês, precisávamos de um intérprete. c) conjunção significando in the same way (=da mesma maneira, como) Ex.: Do as I say, not as I do. (common popular saying). Faça como eu digo, não faça como eu faço. d) preposição significando in the role of (=na qualidade de, como) Exs.: My wife works as a dentist. Minha esposa trabalha como dentista. I have worked as a teacher for many years. Trabalho como professor há anos.
  5. 5. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -5- Encontra-se a palavra ‘as’ também em várias expressões: I - As if ... (= como se ...) Ex.: It looked as if it was going to rain. Parecia que ia chover. II - As + adj. + as (formação do comparativo de igualdade) Ex.: Chris is as tall as Rita. Chris é tão alta quanto a Rita. Benjamin is not so fast as Brian. Benjamin não é tão rápido quanto Brian. This topic is as important as that one. You should study both. Este tópico é tão importante quanto aquele. Você devia estudar ambos. My friends are not so motivated as they were last year. Meus amigos não estão tão motivados quanto estavam no ano passado. III – As usual (como de costume, pra variar ...) Ex.: Natalie is late, as usual. Natalie está atrasada, pra variar. There comes Nora, crazy as usual. Lá vem a Nora, maluquinha como sempre. IV – such as (tal como, tais como quando se quer enumerar. Ex.: At that time nobody had many comforts in life, such as freezers, computers, air conditioners… Naquela época ninguém possuía muitas comodidades na vida, tais como congeladores, computadores, aparelhos de ar condicionado .. V – the same as (o mesmo que Ex.: Helen’s dress looks the same as her sister’s. O vestido da Helen parece com o da sua irmã. George studied in the same school as I did. George estudou na mesma escola que eu.
  6. 6. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -6- EXERCÍCIO Traduza somente as expressões em negrito a seguir onde aparece a palavra as; consulte um dicionário se precisar. 1. As the judge entered the courtroom, everybody rose. ____________________ 2. I left by the back door so as not to meet Jenny’s brother. ____________________ 3. That yard is not so long as ours. ____________________ 4. As long as you promise to return my book soon, you can borrow it. ____________________ 5. As yet they haven’t chosen the new president. ____________________ 6. Nobody knows English well in my group. I might as well do the translation myself. ____________________ 7. You’re wrong! Bill’s father works as an engineer for ICF. ____________________ 8. I know you like strawberries, but the other kids love them as well. ____________________ 9. As a rule Ruth wakes up early to go to work. ____________________ 10. Henry looked pale, as though he had seen a ghost. ____________________ 11. We will start the review for the final test as of next week. ____________________ 12. My old Dad does not walk round the square as he used to. ____________________
  7. 7. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -7- Text 2: US Colombia Join do Break Up Global Drug-Trafficking Ring (II) "Operation Pier Pressure," which led to the September 27-28 arrests, began in 2000 when U.S. law enforcement authorities learned that one of the ringleaders charged in the case, Jose Escobar, was supervising an international narcotics operation from the Federal Correctional Center in Allenwood, Pennsylvania. Escobar is serving a 30-year sentence for his role in the 19955 importation of 180 kilograms of cocaine into Port Newark, New Jersey. Other ringleaders arrested are Jorge Ignacio Figueroa and retired New York longshoremen Raul Adames and Alejandro Colon. Roslynn Mauskopt U.S. attorney for the eastern district of New York, said the U.S. government’s investigation in Operation Pier Pressure has resulted10 in the seizure of millions of dollars’ worth of cocaine and "ultimately forced the Escobar/Figueroa organization to give up the ports of New York as a landing point for their drugs." John Gilbride, special agent-in-charge of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration’s office in New York, said the United States stands "committed15 with our domestic and international law enforcement partners in the fight against a common enemy: illicit drugs." He added'. "The success of this investigation is the result of the sharing of intelligence and a unified approach used to protect our nation not only from drug traffickers but from all who threaten our nation's security." (By Eric Green Washington File Staff Writer)20 http://usinfo.state.gov/utils/printpage.html Answer these questions: 1. What does the pronoun their’ (L-13) refer to? _________________________________________________________ 2. What does the pronoun this’ (L-17) refer to? _________________________________________________________
  8. 8. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -8- ANALYSIS OF THE TEXT a) The suffix – (A)TION No Text 2 há varios exemplos de palavras com o sufixo –(A)TION. que é acrescentado a verbos para formar substantivos. Verb Noun Tradução organize organization organização administer administration administração operate operation operação Investigate investigation Investigação Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formação quando encontrá-las em suas leituras. b) The suffix –URE No Text 2 há dois exemplos de substantivos formados com o sufixo - URE. que é acrescentado a verbos normalmente. No texto, por exemplo, ‘seizure’ significa (= apreensão, captura) Verb Noun Tradução press pressure pressão fail failure fracasso close closure fechamento expose exposure exposição
  9. 9. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -9- Acrescente aqui outras palavras com esta mesma formação quando encontrá-las em suas leituras. GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS 1. Retire do primeiro parágrafo do text 2 um fragmento no present continuous tense __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 2. Ainda no texto 2, retire 6 fragmentos no past simple. Subdivida conforme o verbo seja regular ou irregular A) past tense of regular verbs __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ B) past tense of irregular verbs __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 4. O verbo ‘give’ é irregular (p.s gave, p.p given). Seu significado mais comum em português é ‘dar’, as in: Could you give me your phone number? Poderia me dar o seu telefone? Agora, qual é o significado do phrasal verb ‘give up’ (L-12)? __________________________________________________________________
  10. 10. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -10- SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES RESUMO DOS TEMPOS VERBAIS 3.1 PAST CONTINUOUS From Text 2 "Jose Escobar was supervising an international narcotics operation from the Federal Correctional Center in Allenwood, Pennsylvania." (L- 3) Utilizemos as expressões learn slowly (=aprender devagar) com o verbo regular learn e run fast (=correr rápido), com o verbo irregular run. AFFIRMATIVE I / He / She / It was learning slowly // running fast You / We / They were learning slowly // running fast Note: Como você observa, forma-se o past continuous com o passado simples do verbo ‘to be’ + a forma -ing do verbo principal. QUESTIONS Was I / He / She / It learning slowly // running fast Were You / We / They learning slowly // running fast Formamos a interrogativa pela inversão do auxiliar ‘to be’ com o verbo principal. NEGATIVE I / He / She / It was not learning slowly // running fast You / We / They were not learning slowly // running fast Para formar a negativa acrescente ‘not’ ao verbo ‘to be.’ NB: was not =wasn’t // were not = weren’t 3.2 USES OF THE PAST CONTINUOUS a) To describe a past action in progress connected to another past action. Expressa uma ação continua no passado ligada a outra ação passada.
  11. 11. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -11- Exs.: I was going to school when I met Susan. Estava indo para a escola quando encontrei a Susan. The phone was ringing when Mrs. Dawson arrived home. O telefone estava tocando quando a Sra Dawson chegou em casa. Were you studying last night when I called you up? Você estava estudando ontem à noite quando eu telefonei para você? She wasn't playing tennis this afternoon. She was dancing. Ela não estava jogando tênis esta tarde. Estava dançando. It may also be used to describe an action that was happening at the same time another action was in progress. Pode ser também usado para descrever que uma ação passada estava em progressão ao mesmo tempo que outra. Ex.: While his wife was doing the housework, Bill was writing letters. Enquanto sua esposa estava fazendo suas tarefas de casa, o Bill estava escrevendo cartas. All the time the movie star was bathing at the beach, her security agents were keeping an eye on anyone who came close to her Todo o tempo que a estrela estava se banhando no mar, seus agentes de segurança estavam vigiando qualquer um que dela se aproximasse. That woman was shoplifting.
  12. 12. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -12- READING STRATEGY: PREDICTING WORDS IN ‘FAMILIES’ Quando se sabe a que classe gramatical uma palavra pertence é possível perceber que ela desempenha na frase. Pela análise das palavras próximas a ela na frase, ou seja pelo context, é possível predict qual o sentido que o autor quis dar. Sufixos, especialmente, são ótimos para nos ajudar nessa tarefa. Como já vimos, há sufixos formadores de substantivos, de verbos, de adjetivos. Complete o quadro abaixo com o item que falta: verb noun Adjective adverb xxxxx essence essential …………….. succeed successes successful ........................ xxxxx selfishness .................... selfishly define .................... definite definitely learn learner xxxxxx Admitamos que você esteja lendo um texto onde aparece o adjetivo wide (=largo / a, amplo / a). Ao consultar o dicionário você encontrará width (n.) (=largura), o regular verb widen (alargar, ampliar), o advérbio widely (= largamente, amplamente). Procure estudar a família toda. Por que não? Voltando ao tópico acima, estudando word families você terá mais agilidade na leitura dos textos em inglês. Complete the sample paragraph below with the base word 'wide' and the other deriving words in the box: widened width widely wide widening Conde de Bonfim Street, in Tijuca (RJ), is _________ (1), although I don't know its exact _________ (2). However, it is a _________ (3) known fact that the government plans on ____________ (4) it even more, In many stretches of the street it has been ___________ (5) already to four or five lanes.
  13. 13. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -13- QUIZ: WORDS IN FAMILIES Use three of the words in the box to complete the sentences. 1. CONSUMER CONSUMPTION CONSUMERISM CONSUMED a) The ___________ of genetically modified products is increasing. b) After the approval of the ___________ statute, we feel more protected when we buy something. c) In our modern society, where _________ is widespread, we need to discipline ourselves in order not to buy superfluous goods. 2. AUTHORITIES AUTHORIZATION AUTHORIZED AUTHORITATIVE a) Only ___________ personnel can enter that area. b) Without special ___________ you can’t leave the school premises. c) She spoke to me in a very ____________ manner. So, I did what she told me to. 3. PROTECT PROTECTION PROTECTIONIST UNPROTECTED a) The US has adopted ___________ measures. b) She did not feel safe to go out late at night. She said that she felt really _______________. c) It’s up to the police to provide citizens with ___________ from criminals. 4. THREATEN THREATENING THREAT THREATENED a) Are you ___________ me, young man? b) We moved form that neighborhood because we felt ______________ by gangs all the time. c) Those nuclear weapons pose serious ___________ to world peace. 5. DECIDE DECISION DECISIVELY DECISIVE a) They hired him because he can make ___________ quickly. b) It’s up to you to ___________. I’ve shown you all the options. c) We wouldn’t have won without your participation. You’ve played a ____________ role, indeed.
  14. 14. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -14- VOCABULARY BUILD-UP A number of words have been removed from the minitexts that follow. Complete them with the words from the box paying attention to the meaning and structure of the texts. Mini-text 1: The Evolving Internet interactions reshaping assisting virtual mystery debating productive corner Each day brings new examples of how information and communication technology (ICT) is __________ (1) the lives of people around the world. To one degree or another, the digital revolution has arrived in just about every ___________ (2) of the globe… On the Internet and the World Wide Web, people are governing, learning, communicating, ___________ (3), "politicking," shopping, and experimenting - conducting all kinds of ____________ (4) in ways only made possible by ICT. The Internet has brought into being a ___________ (5) world that, like the universe itself, is expanding every moment, full of promise, hope, and a little ___________ (6). But challenges remain if it is to achieve its full promise. The United States, in partnership with other governments, international organizations, and citizens of many countries, is committed to ___________ (7) people around the globe to meet these challenges so that this virtual world becomes a helpful and ___________ (8) part of their everyday lives. Visit: http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/1103/ijge/1103.htm Task: Suponhamos que você não saiba o significado do título acima ‘The Evolving Internet’. Escreva na linha abaixo qual a melhor tradução para ele agora que você já preencheu as lacunas do mini-text 1. Há várias ‘dicas’ no próprio texto indicando a melhor tradução. Não consulte nenhum dicionário! __________________________________________________________
  15. 15. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -15- Mini-text 2: Silicon Valley nicknamed availability fabric heart spread springing home fierce demand price Only 72 kilometers south of San Francisco lies the ____________ (1) of the U.S. aerospace, telecommunications, and computer research industry. ___________ (2) for the ___________ (3) of computer chips, “Silicon Valley” is ___________ (4) to hundreds of companies attracted by California’s tax and land use policies and the ____________ (5) of science and engineering graduates emerging from the nearby colleges and universities. New “silicon valleys” are ___________ (6) near Boston and in the South to meet the still growing ___________ (7). ___________ (8) competition has driven down the price of inventions like personal computers and has led to new ways of doing old things, such as electronic ____________ (9) reading in supermarkets. Most dramatic is the ____________. (10) of computers into the lives of young people, who use them for both education and environment. (From Dateline Calendar, 1984, USIA) Task: Escreva na linha abaixo qual a melhor tradução para o título do texto acima ‘Silicon Valley’ agora que você já preencheu as lacunas do mini-text 1. Desta vez, se você prestar bem atenção há uma indicação no próprio texto que leva à melhor tradução. Não consulte nenhum dicionário! __________________________________________________________ Dica importante! Você pode montar os seus próprios mini-texts. Admitamos que você queira estudar diversos discourse markers ou vários termos técnicos sobre um determinado assunto. Tire duas cópias do texto e use liquid paper -verniz corretor para apagar as palavras-chave do seu interesse. É só grampear a cópia com as lacunas ao texto completo e a qualquer hora você poderá se testar. Acredite, aprendi muito inglês assim!
  16. 16. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -16- A LOOK AT PAST EXAMS A única forma de testar se as estratégias e técnicas que estamos estudando são válidas é to take the bull by the horns, ou seja, pegar o touro a unha. Por isso escolhi o texto seguinte que foi considerado uma espécie assim de touro ‘bandido’ na época do concurso de AFC. I - Sem usar um dicionário (até porque na hora da prova você não pode consultar um) escreva a melhor tradução para o título do texto. ____________________________________________________________________ II - Faça o skimming do texto e assinale os true cognates. (No final você terá as minhas respostas e comentários) Unpicking the Fiscal Straightjacket Never has a straightjacket seemed so ill-fitting or so insecure. The euro area’s “stability and growth pact” was supposed to stop irresponsible member states from running excessive budget deficits, defined as 3% of GDP or more. Chief among the restraints was the threat of large fines if member governments breached the limit for 3 years in a row. For some time now no one has seriously5 believed those restraints would hold. In the early hours of Tuesday November 25th the euro’s fiscal straitjacket finally came apart at the seams. The pact’s fate was sealed over an extended dinner meeting of the euro area’s 12 finance ministers. They chewed over the sorry fiscal record of the euro’s two largest members, France and Germany. Both governments ran10 deficits of more than 3% of GDP last year and will do so again this year. Both expect to breach the limit for the 3rd time in 2004. Earlier this year, the European Commission, which policies the pact, agreed to give both countries an extra year, until 2005, to bring their deficits back into line. But it also instructed them to revisit their budget plans for 2004 and make extra cuts. France was15 asked to cut its underlying, cyclically adjusted deficit by a full 1% of GDP, Germany by 0.8%. Both resisted. (Nov 27th , 2003-The Economist Global Agenda) Já que falamos de Reference a) A que se refere a palavra ‘both’ (L-10) em “Both expect to breach the limit for the 3rd time in 2004”? _____________________________ b)- A que se refere o pronome ‘IT’ (L-14) em “But it also instructed them to revisit their budget plans for 2004”? _____________________________
  17. 17. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -17- Preparado para responder as questões propostas pela banca ESAF? Aqui vão elas. ESAF / AFC/ CGU/ 2004 Read the text “Unpicking the Fiscal Straightjacket” in order to answer questions 21 to 24 21. According to the text the Euro pact a) has been preventing excessive budget deficits. b) has been devised by France and Germany. c) aims at restraining the euro’s economic growth. d} has redressed the euro’s fiscal balance. e) sets parameters related to fiscal deficits. 22. In “if member states breached the limit” (paragraph 1) breached could best be replaced by a) reduced b) exceeded c) extended d) compassed e) outlasted 23. In pr. 2, Germany and France are referred to as a) countries which have failed to follow fiscal rules. b) leading forces within the European Central Bank. c) countries which brought their deficits below 3%. d) members of a coming European Union. e) countries whose fiscal balance is remarkable. 24. According to the author, Tuesday November 25th is the day on which the euro pact a) was at last enforced. b) was finally signed. c) proved its ineffectiveness. d) finally acquired legitimacy. e) was at last respected.
  18. 18. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -18- Sinalização dos verdadeiros cognatos Unpicking the Fiscal Straightjacket* Never has a straightjacket seemed so ill-fitting or so insecure. The euro area’s “stability and growth pact” was supposed to stop irresponsible member states from running excessive budget deficits, defined as 3% of GDP or more. Chief among the restraints was the threat of large fines if member governments breached the limit for 3 years in a row. For some time now no one has seriously believed those restraints would hold. In the early hours of Tuesday November 25th the euro’s fiscal straitjacket finally came apart at the seams. The pact’s fate was sealed over an extended dinner meeting of the euro area’s 12 finance ministers. They chewed over the sorry fiscal record of the euro’s two largest members, France and Germany. Both governments ran deficits of more than 3% of GDP last year and will do so again this year. Both expect to breach the limit for the 3rd time in 2004. Earlier this year, the European Commission, which policies the pact, agreed to give both countries an extra year, until 2005, to bring their deficits back into line. But it also instructed them to revisit their budget plans for 2004 and make extra cuts. France was asked to cut its underlying, cyclically adjusted deficit by a full 1% of GDP, Germany by 0.8%. Both resisted.(Nov 27th , 2003-The Economist Global Agenda) [about 200 words] GLOSSARY CONTENT WORDS/TRANSLATION fiscal straightjacket running budget deficits threat of large fines breach the limit come apart at the seams the pact’s fate was sealed chewed over the fiscal record make extra cuts (*) Além da grafia ‘straightjacket* você encontrará também ‘straitjacket.
  19. 19. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -19- ANSWERS Selected True Cognates from Text 1 authorities, government, Colombia, members, associates, groups, part, operation, international, organizations, narcotic, ports, immigration, agency, import, multikilogram, cocaine, cargo, police, conjunction, investigative, department, security, extradiction, face, mandatory, minimum, sentence, maximum, prison, million, … Selected Function Words from Text 1 With, the, have, and, as of, to, that, through, in, those, were, inside, into, and, among, who, they, by, will, for, if, … Reference A que se refere a palavra ‘they’ (L-10) four Colombians The word ‘it’ (L-12) refers to d) Immigration and Customs Enforcement. KEY WORD: AS 1. As the judge entered the courtroom, everybody rose. Quando o juiz entrou na corte, todos se levantaram. 2. I left by the back door so as not to meet Jenny’s brother. Sai pela porta dos fundos a fim de não encontrar com o irmão da Jenny. 3. That yard is not so long as ours. Aquele pátio não é tão comprido quanto o nosso. 4. As long as you promise to return my book soon, you can borrow it. Se você promete devolver meu livro em breve, pode ficar com ele. 5. As yet they haven’t chosen the new president. Até agora não escolheram o novo presidente. 6. Nobody knows English well in my group. I might as well do the translation myself. Ninguém sabe bem inglês no meu grupo. É melhor eu mesmo fazer a tradução. 7. You’re wrong! Bill’s father works as an engineer for ICF. Você está errado. O pai do Bill trabalha como engenheiro na ICF. 8. I know you like strawberries, but the other kids love them as well. Eu sei que você gosta de morangos, mas as outras crianças também gostam. 9. As a rule Ruth wakes up early to go to work. Geralmente a Ruth acorda cedo par air trabalhar. 10. Henry looked pale, as though he had seen a ghost. O Henry parecia pálido, como se tivesse visto um fantasma. 11. We will start the review for the final test as of next week. Começaremos a revisão para a prova final a partir da semana que vem. 12. My old Dad does not walk round the square as he used to. Meu velho pai não caminha mais em volta da praça como costumava fazer.
  20. 20. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -20- From Text 2: 1. the organization’s 2. investigation in Operation Pier Pressure WORDS IN ‘FAMILIES’ verb noun Adjective adverb xxxxx essence essential essentially succeed successes successful successfully xxxxx selfishness selfish selfishly define definition definite definitely learn learner learned xxxxxx Word Families “wide”: Conde de Bonfim Street, in Tijuca (RJ), is wide (1), although I don't know its exact width (2). However, it is a widely (3) known fact that the government plans on widening (4) it even more, In many stretches of the street it has been widened (5) already to four or five lanes. QUIZ: WORDS IN FAMILIES 1. a) The CONSUMPTION of genetically modified products is increasing. b) After the approval of the CONSUMER statute, we feel more protected when we buy something. c) In our modern society, where CONSUMERISM is widespread, we need to discipline ourselves in order not to buy superfluous goods. 2. a) Only AUTHORIZED personnel can enter that area. b) Without special AUTHORIZATION you can’t leave the school premises. c) She spoke to me in a very AUTHORITATIVE manner. So, I did what she told me to. 3. a) The US has adopted PROTECTIONIST measures. b) She did not feel safe to go out late at night. She said that she felt really UNPROTECTED. c) It’s up to the police to provide citizens with PROTECTION from criminals. 4. a) Are you THREATENING me, young man? b) We moved form that neighborhood because we felt THREATENED by gangs all the time. c) Those nuclear weapons pose serious THREATS to world peace.
  21. 21. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -21- 5. a) They hired him because he can make DECISIONS quickly. b) It’s up to you to DECIDE. I’ve shown you all the options. c) We wouldn’t have won without your participation. You’ve played a DECISIVE role, indeed. Grammar essentials From Text 2 example of present continuous construction “Escobar is serving a 30-year sentence for his role in the 1995 importation of 180 kilograms of cocaine into Port Newark, New From Text 2 example of past continuous construction “Jose Escobar was supervising an international narcotics operation from the Federal Correctional Center in Allenwood, Pennsylvania.” Mini-text 1: The Evolving Internet 1. reshaping 2. corner 3. debating 4. interactions 5. virtual 6. mystery 7. assisting 8. productive Task: The Evolving Internet A Internet em Desenvolvimento Mini-text 2: Silicon Valley 1. heart 2. nicknamed 3. fabric 4. home 5. availability 6. springing 7. demand 8. fierce 9. price 10. spread Task: Silicon Valley Vale do Silício Unpicking the Fiscal Straightjacket Literalmente straightjacket é uma camisa de força. Uma boa tradução para otítulo pode ser: Afrouxando o arrocho fiscal Reference: a) ‘BOTH’ (L-10) França e Alemanha b)- ‘IT’ (L-14) European Commission
  22. 22. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -22- ESAF / AFC/ CGU/ 2004 21. E O pacto do euro estabeleceu parâmetros relativamente a déficits fiscais. Em (a), lê-se: tem impedido déficits orçamentários excessivos; na (b), foi concebido pela França e pela Alemanha; na (c), visa a restringir o crescimento econômico na comunidade do euro; na (d), corrigiu o equilíbrio fiscal na comunidade do euro. 22. B Quando ocorre uma ‘breach of a contract’, não há o cumprimento de uma cláusula contratual. Portanto, ao descumprir o limite estabelecido, de 3% do PIB, os estados membros o estariam excedendo. Na (a) lê-se: reduzido; na (c), estendido; na (d), alcançado; na (e), perdurou. 23. A França e Alemanha são países membros que fracassaram em cumprir as regulamentações fiscais. Na (b) lê-se: são forças preponderantes dentro do Banco Central Europeu; na (c), países que trouxeram seus déficits a níveis inferiores a 3%; na (d), países membros de uma futura União Européia; na (e), países cujo equilíbrio fiscal é notável. 24. C Ao dizer que nessa data a ‘camisa de força se rompeu na sua base’, o autor transmite a idéia de que o pacto provou sua ineficácia. Na (a) lê- se: foi afinal colocado em vigor; na (b), foi afinal assinado; na (d), por fim adquiriu legitimidade; na (e), foi afinal respeitado. GLOSSARY CONTENT WORDS/TRANSLATION fiscal straightjacket* arrocho fiscal running budget deficits acumulando déficits orçamentários threat of large fines ameaça de pesadas multas breach the limit exceder o limite come apart at the seams romper na base the pact’s fate was sealed o destino do pasto estava selado chewed over the fiscal record discutiram sobre o registro fiscal make extra cuts fazer cortes adicionais
  23. 23. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br CURSOS ON LINE Prof. Carlos Augusto -23- AULA 2 Avalie se os seguintes objetivos desta aula foram alcançados. TÓPICOS & OBJETIVOS Raise your awareness of: Despertar sua conscientização para: I – Reading Strategy (III): Reference Estratégia de Leitura (II): Referência II – Study of text 1: USA / Colombia … Estudo do texto” EUA / Colômbia .... III – Word Forms – The suffix -MENT Formação de Palavras – Sufixo –MENT IV – Key Word AS / Exercise A Palavra-chave: AS / Exercício V – Study of text 2: USA / Colombia … (part II) Estudo do texto 2 ” EUA / Colômbia .... (parte II) VI – Word Forms – The suffix –(A)TION Formação de Palavras – Sufixo –(A)TION VII - Summary of Verb Tenses: Past Continuous Resumo dos tempos verbais: Passado Contínuo VIII – Reading Strategy: Predicting // Words in Families //Quiz Estratégia de Leitura: Previsão // Palavras em ‘famílias’ // Teste IX– Vocabulary Build-up: Mini-texts (1 /2) Construção de Vocabulário: Mini-textos (1/2) X– Analysis of past exams: ESAF / AFC/CGU – 2004 Análise de provas anteriores: ESAF / AFC /CGU – 2004
  24. 24. CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

×