Mais conteúdo relacionado


The Triumph of Liberty - The Enlightenment, Modern Democracy, and the American & French Revolutions.pdf

  1. The Triumph of Liberty The Enlightenment, Modern Democracy, and the American & French Revolutions Professor Will Adams Valencia College
  2. Setting the Scene
  3. Scientific Revolution  In 1543, Copernicus published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres which argued that the sun, rather than the Earth, stood at the center of the universe and that the planets revolved around the sun  Copernicus’ work inspired astronomers to examine the heavens in new ways  Increasingly, they based their theories on observed data and used mathematical reasoning to organize the data  This reliance on observation and mathematics ushered in the “Scientific Revolution”.
  4. Impact of the Scientific Revolution  Suggested that rational analysis of behavior and institutions could have meaning in the human as well as the natural world.  Increasingly, thinkers challenged recognized authorities such as Aristotelian philosophy and Christian religion and sought to explain the world in purely rational terms.  The result was a movement known as the “Enlightenment”.
  5. The American Revolution
  6. A Changing World  In the mid-18th century, British colonists in North America seemed content with British rule, but in the mid-1760’s things started to change  First, new ideas about a just society began to circulate in the Enlightenment era  Second, the British imposed new taxes to offset the cost of the Seven Years’ War; taxes which seemed to the colonists to conflict with the Enlightenment philosophy.
  7. The Seven Years’ War  Commercial competition in the New World ultimately generated violence that culminated in the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763).  In North America, the Seven Years’ War merged with the on-going French and Indian War which pitted the British and French against each other. George Washington fought for the British and was defeated in the opening battle of the French and Indian War at Fort Necessity in the Ohio Country
  8. The Seven Years’ War: A British Victory  The British emerged victorious and as a result they gained control of North America from the French.  The war helped create conditions that led to the American Revolutionary War, because the British colonists no longer needed British protection from the French and would come to resent the taxes imposed by Britain to pay for its military commitments.
  9. American Revolution: New Legislation  Trying to recover financial losses from the French and Indian War and the Seven Years’ War, the British passed a series of new taxes on the colonies.  Sugar Act (1764)  Stamp Act (1765)  Townshend Act (1767)  Tea Act (1773)  Other offensive legislation included the Quartering Act of 1765 and the Intolerable Acts.
  10. The Issue of Taxation  While other issues annoyed the colonists, it was taxation that most led to demands for independence.  Because Parliament had usually refrained from taxing them, many colonists assumed that it could not.  One American asked, if taxes were now imposed “without our having a legal Representation where they are laid, are we not reduced from the Character of free Subjects to the miserable State of tributary Slaves?”  The idea of “No taxation without representation” was consistent with Rousseau and other Enlightenment thinkers.
  11. The Issue of Representation  In England, electoral districts for Parliament were often based on earlier conditions.  For example, Dunwich continued to maintain its right to elect a parliamentary representative long after the city itself had been washed into the North Sea.  Manchester, however, was a rapidly growing city that lacked representation.  Most Englishmen accepted this condition because they believed in “virtual representation”.  Representatives served the interests of the entire nation rather than just their home locality.
  12. The Issue of Representation  Such Englishmen assumed that since the colonists held interests in common with citizens back home, they were “virtually” represented.  Americans, on the other hand, had enjoyed “actual representation” since the founding of the colonies.  They believed elected representatives should be directly responsive to local interests and they were used to instructing their legislators about how to vote on key issues.  They were skeptical of the idea of “virtual representation”.
  13. Country Ideology  Even before the Seven Years’ War, the British had borrowed heavily to fund several other wars and developed a large bureaucracy to collect taxes to pay the war debt  In response, a “Country” or “Real Whig” ideology emerged that:  Stressed the threats to personal liberty posed by a large standing army and a powerful state  Emphasized the dangers of taxation to property rights and the need for property holders to maintain the right to consent to taxation
  14. Country Ideology  Country ideology stressed that it was the duty of the Parliament (particularly the House of Commons which represented the people as a whole) to check the executive power of the Crown.  It was the House of Commons’ control of taxation that controlled tyrannical leaders.  John Locke had argued that rulers had authority to enforce law “only for the public good”.  When the Crown did its job properly, the House of Commons appropriated the necessary funds.  When rulers infringed on the people’s liberties, the House restrained them by withholding taxes.
  15. Country Ideology  Because of these important responsibilities, Country ideology required representatives to be of sufficient property and judgment to make independent decisions  A representative of appropriate social status was generally assumed to be qualified to lead, but if he proved otherwise, his constituents should be able to vote him out
  16. Country Ideology  Country ideology appealed to many Americans.  It was consistent with the idea that power should reside at the local level.  It emboldened those who feared they lacked a voice in decisions being made in England.  Its insistence on the important political role of the propertied elite appealed to the local gentry.
  17. The Sugar Act  Given the philosophies of the Enlightenment and Country ideology, the colonists responded only mildly to the Sugar Act.  The effects of the act were felt mostly in New England where it cut into the smuggling trade with the French West Indies.  Still, on principle, the act was offensive and eventually all the assemblies passed resolutions declaring that any Parliamentary tax on America, including the Sugar Act, was unconstitutional.
  18. The Stamp Act  The Stamp Act, because its effects were felt equally throughout the colonies, elicited a more swift response  One response was the formation of the Sons of Liberty, a collection of loosely organized protest groups, who put pressure on stamp distributors and British authorities  The American response was troublesome enough that in March 1766, the Stamp Act was repealed  Still the British persisted in their right to impose taxes, including the Townshend Duties in 1767
  19. The Boston Massacre  The Townshend duties continued to strain the relationship between America and Britain, and most of its articles were eventually repealed  Before that, however, on March 5, 1770, the “Boston Massacre” occurred in which British troops fired on an unruly crowd, killing five men  A period of quiet followed this outbreak, but during it the colonies established “committees of correspondence” to keep each other informed of objectionable British actions.
  20. The Boston Tea Party  The “Quiet Period” was broken on December 16, 1773 with the Boston Tea Party.  Partly because Americans were drinking smuggled and untaxed tea, the British East India Company was nearly bankrupt.  Lord North, the British prime minister, tried to rescue it by the Tea Tax of 1773 which was a thinly disguised measure to get the Americans to pay the old Townshend duty on British East India Tea.  A well-organized band of men, some disguised as Indians, boarded the tea ship Dartmouth and broke open 342 chests of tea and threw the contents into the harbor.
  21. The First Continental Congress  The Boston Tea Party led to the British passing three repressive measures known collectively as the Intolerable Acts.  These acts united the colonists like never before and the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia from September 5 to October 26, 1774.  Even now, however, it was but a minority who favored war with Britain.  Most hoped and believed the British would change their policies and all would be well again.
  22. Increased Tensions  Colonists began to separate into “Whigs” who advocated increased rights and “Tories” who were more loyal to the Crown.  Both the Americans and British could see a crisis was looming and took steps to prepare.  In 1774, General Thomas Gage, the commander of the British army in America and governor of Massachusetts, dissolved the legislature which then proceeded to assemble anyway.
  23. Increased Tensions  A “Provincial Congress” established the “Committee of Safety,” to be headed by John Hancock, in October 1774 for the purpose of stockpiling weapons and organizing militia volunteers.  Special companies of “minute men” were to be ready at “a minutes warning in Case of an alarm”.  In a move to quell such belligerence, Lord North ordered Gage to take decisive action.
  24. Lexington & Concord  On April 18, 1775, Gage assembled 700 men on the Boston Common and marched them toward Lexington and Concord  His goal was to arrest rebel leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock in Lexington and destroy the military supplies the Committee of Safety had stockpiled in Concord  Riders like Paul Revere warned fellow patriots, and by the time the British reached Lexington they found 70 armed militiamen waiting for them
  25. Lexington & Concord  No one knows who fired the first shot, but the end result was 18 Americans killed or wounded.  The British then marched to Concord and burned some supplies.  Some 4,000 militia men descended on the British and harassed their retreat back to Boston, inflicting 273 casualties while suffering nearly 100 of their own.
  26. Lexington & Concord Concord Hymn By the rude bridge that arched the flood, Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, Here once the embattled farmers stood, And fired the shot heard ‘round the world. - Ralph Waldo Emerson
  27. The Concord Hymn
  28. The Declaration of Independence  On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted “The Unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America” (The Declaration of Independence).
  29. The Declaration of Independence  “all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness”  Governments derive their power and authority from “the consent of the governed”  When any government infringes upon individual’s rights, “it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government”  Declared the colonies to be “Free and Independent States”
  30. David vs. Goliath  However, declaring independence and actually winning it by war were two different things.  Victory in the Seven Years’ War had left Britain as the dominant power in the world.  It had a population of eight million with a professional army, large navy, and formidable wealth.  The colonists had a population of two and a half million (20% of whom were enslaved) and no army, navy, or significant financial resources.
  31. British Troops: August, 1776  24,000 soldiers  Average soldier was 30 years old with 10 years service  Muskets, bayonets, light field guns  Two or three ranks of infantry supported by light field guns  Powerful Navy (30 warships, 400 transports)  More experienced, better led, more thoroughly disciplined and trained  General William Howe knew generals from their Seven Years’ War record
  32. Colonial Troops: August, 1776  28,000 soldiers  Average soldier was 20 years old with less than a year of service  Muskets, bayonets, light field guns  Two or three ranks of infantry supported by light field guns  Used simplified British tactics (experience from Seven Years’ War)  No Navy  Great disparity in quality between militia and Continental Army  Many generals were imposed upon General George Washington by Congress or state governments.
  33. The Difference  What gave the colonists hope was the opportunity to be gained by courage, cause, the home court advantage, and patriotism  Unlike earlier European dynastic squabbles, the American Revolution was an ideological war that affected the population  “Remember, officers and soldiers, that you are freemen, fighting for the blessings of liberty; that slavery will be your portion and that of your posterity if you do not acquit yourselves like men.” - George Washington
  34. British Challenges  Underestimated the impact of patriotism.  Overestimated the Loyalist strength.  Only about 20% of free Americans were Tories.  Colonial decentralization meant colonies had no strategic heart and the British would have to occupy vast expanses of territory.  Supply and communications were difficult with England 3,000 miles away.  The British population was not united behind the war.  Britain still had enemies in Europe to worry about.
  35. Civilian Attitudes  Both sides understood from the beginning that they were fighting for the allegiance of a people and for the destruction or preservation of one state and the creation of another  The colonists had to defeat the British and control the loyalists without losing popular support or destroying the republican principles for which they fought  The British argued that they were protecting loyalists from the tyranny of a few ambitious rebels.
  36. The British Strategy  The British never really found a good solution for dealing with the population  Tried various strategies with little success 1. Intimidating the rebels with a show of force 2. Combining force and persuasion to break the rebellion without alienating a majority of the colonists 3. Enlisting the support of loyalists in a gradual and cumulative restoration of royal government
  37. American Strategy  Primarily defensive and therefore shaped by countering British moves.  Uncertainties about supplies and manpower worked against a consistent strategy.  However, Washington understood his strengths and weaknesses and had the defender’s advantage.
  38. American Strategy  Maintain a principal striking force in a central position to block any British advance into the interior.  Be neither too timid or too bold in seeking battle for limited objectives (Partisan operations in the South).  Avoid the destruction of the army at all costs.  Find some means of concentrating a sufficient force to strike a decisive offensive blow whenever the British overextended themselves.
  39. The United States is Born  In September 1783, the British formally recognized American independence.  In 1787, Americans drafted the Constitution of the United States which created a federal government based on popular sovereignty.  The Bill of Rights in particular stressed individual liberties such as freedom of speech, the press, and religion.  The success of the American Revolution and this early understanding of freedom, equality, and popular sovereignty in America would have broad implications throughout the world.  Remember Emerson’s “shot heard round the world”!
  40. The French Revolution
  41. Absolutism  King Louis XIV (1643-1715) of France is credited with having said “L’etat c’est moi!” or “I am the state.”  Louis’s statement is consistent with the idea of absolutism.  Absolutism is the theory that ultimate power in the early centuries of modern Europe was vested in a hereditary monarch who claimed a God-given right to rule.
  42. Absolutism  Louis went so far as to call himself the “Sun King,” claiming that like the sun, everything revolved around him  Catholicism was the national religion of France  “One faith, one law, one king.”  In 1685 Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes and insisted that Huguenots convert to Catholicism.
  43. Philosophes  Enlightenment thinkers considered absolutism to be unnatural and they sought to discover natural laws that governed human society in the same way Newton’s laws regulated the universe.  Collectively, these thinkers were called the philosophes (“philosophers”) .
  44. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)  Many Enlightenment thinkers condemned the legal and social privileges enjoyed by aristocrats and called for a society in which all individuals were equal before the law  In 1762, Rousseau wrote The Social Contract arguing that members of a society were collectively the sovereign  All individuals would participate directly in the formulation of policy and the creation of laws
  45. French Revolution: Ancien Regime  The Americans sought independence from British imperial rule, but they kept British law and much of the British social and cultural heritage.  On the other hand, French revolutionaries sought to replace the ancien regime (“the old order”) with new political, social, and cultural structures.
  46. French Revolution: Estates General  In May 1789, in an effort to raise taxes, King Louis XVI convened the Estates General, an assembly representing the entire French population through three groups known as estates.
  47. French Revolution: Estates General  The first estate was about 100,000 Roman Catholic clergy.  The second estate was about 400,000 nobles.  The third estate was about 24 million others (serfs, free peasants, laborers).  In spite of these numerical discrepancies, each estate had one vote.
  48. French Revolution: Estates General  The third estate demanded sweeping political and social reform, but the other two estates resisted  On June 20, 1789, the third estate seceded from the Estates General and declared itself the National Assembly.
  49. French Revolution: NationalAssembly  The National Assembly vowed not to disband until France had a written constitution.  This assertion of popular sovereignty spread to Paris and on July 14 a crowd stormed the Bastille to seize weapons and ammunition.  The garrison surrendered in the wake of great bloodshed.  The attackers severed the commander’s head and paraded it through the streets on a pike.  Insurrections spread throughout France.
  50. French Revolution: Declaration  In August, 1789, the National Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.  Obviously influenced by the American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence  Proclaimed the equality of all men, declared that sovereignty resided in the people, and asserted individual rights to liberty, prosperity, and security.
  51. Reforms of the National Assembly  The motto of the National Assembly was “Liberty, equality, fraternity”  Reconfigured French society  Ended the fees and labor services the peasants owed their landlords  Seized church lands  Abolished the first estate and defined clergy as civilians  Required clergy to take an oath of loyalty to the state  Made the king the chief executive but deprived him of legislative authority (a constitutional monarchy)  Men of property could vote for legislators
  52. The Convention  Alarmed by the disintegration of monarchial authority, the rulers of Austria and Prussia invaded France to support the king and restore the ancien regime.  The revolutionaries responded by establishing the Convention, a new legislative body elected by universal male suffrage.  The Convention abolished the monarchy and proclaimed France a republic.
  53. The Convention  Drafted people and resources for use in the war through the levee en masse (universal conscription).  This was a move toward total war.  Used the guillotine to execute enemies to include King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette in 1793 for treason.
  54. Maximilian Robespierre (1758-1794)  Led the radical Jacobin party which believed France needed complete restructuring and used a campaign of terror to promote their agenda  Dominated the Convention from 1793- 1794.
  55. Robespierre & The Jacobins  Sought to eliminate the influence of Christianity  Closed churches  Forced priests to take wives  Promoted a new “cult of reason” as a secular alternative  Devised a new calendar which recognized no day of religious observance  Between the summers of 1793 and 1794, the Jacobins executed 40,000 people and imprisoned 300,000.
  56. The Directory  Many of the victims of the Reign of Terror were fellow radicals who had fallen out of favor with Robespierre and the Jacobins.  In July 1794, the Convention arrested Robespierre and his allies, convicted them of treason, and executed them.  A group of conservative men of property seized power and ruled from 1795 to 1799 under a new institution called the Directory.  The Directory sought a middle way between the ancien regime and radical revolution but had little success.  In Nov 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup d’etat and seized power.
  57. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)  Napoleon had served as an officer under King Louis XVI and had become a general at age 24.  In a campaign of 1796- 1797, he drove the Austrians from northern Italy and established French rule there.
  58. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)  In 1799, he returned to France and joined the Directory, but when Austria, Russia, and Britain formed a coalition to attack France and end the Revolution, Napoleon staged a coup d’etat.  He overthrew the Directory, imposed a new constitution, and named himself first consul.  In 1802, he became consul for life and in 1804 crowned himself emperor.
  59. Napoleon: The Concordat  Brought stability to France  Made peace with the Catholic Church  Concluded the Concordat with the pope in 1801  France would retain the church lands seized during the Revolution, but France agreed to pay priests’ salaries, recognize Roman Catholic Christianity as the preferred faith of France, and extend freedom of religion to Protestants and Jews  Was a popular measure with people who supported the political and social goals of the revolution but didn’t want to replace Christianity with the cult of reason
  60. Napoleon: Civil Code  In 1804,Napoleon established the Napoleonic Civil Code, which further stabilized France.  Affirmed the political and legal equality of all adult men  Established a merit-based society in which individuals qualified for education and employment because of talent rather than birth or social standing  Protected private property, even allowing aristocratic opponents of the Revolution to return to France and reclaim their property  Confirmed many of the moderate revolutionary policies of the National Assembly but removed many measure passed by the more radical Convention
  61. Napoleon as Authoritarian  Limited free speech, routinely censoring newspapers  Established a secret police force and detained thousands of political opponents  Manipulated public opinion through systematic propaganda  Ignored elective bodies  Surrounded himself with loyal military officers  Set his family above and apart from the French people
  62. The End of Napoleon’s Empire  In 1812, Napoleon decided to invade Russia, believing that the Russians were conspiring with the British.  Napoleon and his “Grand Army” of 600,000 soldiers captured Moscow, but the Russians refused to surrender.  Instead, Russian patriots burned the city, leaving Napoleon without supplies or shelter.
  63. The End of Napoleon’s Empire  Napoleon was forced to retreat  Defeated by “General Winter”  Only 30,000 soldiers made it back to France  The defeat in Russia emboldened a coalition of British, Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies to converge on France.  Forced Napoleon to abdicate his throne in April 1814
  64. The End of Napoleon’s Empire  The coalition restored the French monarchy and exiled Napoleon to the island of Elba, near Corsica.  In March 1815, Napoleon escaped, returned to France, and reconstituted his army.  This time the British defeated him at Waterloo and banished Napoleon to the remote island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic.  He died there in 1821.
  65. Other Impacts  The Enlightenment ideals and the American and French Revolutions also influenced:  The Saint Dominque slave revolt in Haiti  Simon Bolivar in South America  The Abolitionist Movement in the USA  The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen  Elizabeth Cady Stanton and women’s rights movements
  66. The End C’Est Fin