0000000000000000000000 Professor John Walker FBCS CISM CRISC ITPC CITP FRSA MSSoc 000000000000000
[AKA – The Yellow Brick Road to Insecurity]
Who AM I
CTI Cytelligence Ltd
Member ENISA CEI Listed Experts - http://www.enisa.europa.eu/
Registered International Expert Witness
Editorial Board – Cyber Security Research Institute (CRSI)
Visiting Professor School of Science and Technology NTU
Visiting Professor/Lecturer – University of Slovenia
30 Years Experience in the Fields of Infosecurity, and Cyber
100+ Papers Published Internationally
Presented 100+ Internationally
Die Hard – 4 – With Nails
One overall Society Wide implication is, by Socio-Economic Implication we
[the Global Village] have embedded the environment of Internet dependencies into the
very fabric of our lives – Cloud has expand these dependencies.
Social, Business, Government, all of which are now entwined into the interconnected
environment, the Genie is Out, and may not be placed back in the bottle.
Business Operations are highly dependent - Governments are highly reliant on Internet
Operability. Socially be it from IP TV, VoIP, or even Home working, again dependency is
high . . . . Making it, and us an ideal surface of Attack.
This dependency on an environment with no real Governance, Cross Boarder Control, or
for that SLA, makes us significantly vulnerable, in the Medium to Long Term . . . and it WILL
SITREP – 11/02/13/14
Criminals are Winning – and the Rewards are HIGH
Hacktivists are, well Active (NOT forgetting Cyber Radicals)
PCI-DSS has been found to be FLAWED
The Standard of ‘Overcompensation’
Skills Low – they need to be honed
International Threats Ignored
Too many Reports – NOT enough Action
Lack of Reporting
Lack of Public Security Awareness
a) Malware – Once considered by Government Agencies [GCHQ/CESG] to be a
passing nuisance - is now a significant threat and in a new guise!
b) SPAM – Thought to only be a communication which had to be managed [House
or Lords Technology Committee]. Now a major conduit for Malware, and other
c) Cyber Intelligence Gathering [OSINT] is a reality and not a myth [consider the
d) Cyber Attacks have taken place against the UK, US, and Germany to name but a
few – Titan Rain!
e) Root Servers are regular targets!
f) IP is everywhere [Including Fridges] and so the threats are commensurate and
rising – The Dirty Shirt!
Some Good Bad Examples
2. Exposures & Vulnerabilities
3. Users – Education & Awareness (Not me Gov)
4. Patch & Fix (or NOT)
5. Bleeding Edge Technologies
6. Virtualisation & Cloud (and its not new)
7. Lack of Standards
8.New Age Malware (Smart Cell Phone)
The Promise of Third Parties
When Contracting out into a Specialty Third Parties there is an expectation that they will
provision the required level of Best Practice support to secure the enterprise under contract,
and do what they say they do – as stated in the following article form published in Secure
Computing magazine, by a CSIO representing a well known Big Name Third Party:
Problem was – when working with a major brand
Company this same supplier was supporting, they did not
follow any such path, and the service was so wanting
it left [and is leaving today] that client exposed to
Uncontrolled Security Incidents, Exposure to Malware, and
Insider Threats to mention just three of many shortfalls.
LONDON, Jan/07: The Director General of MI5 warned British companies of possible
cyber-attacks originating from China.
The Prime Minister's office accused China of engaging in state-sponsored espionage
targeting integral parts of Britain's economy, using the computer infrastructure of
Banks and financial services.
April 2010 the Cabinet Office assessed the threat from Electronic Attack from
Russia, and China was rated SEVERE. Better late than never:
Copyright SBLTD 2012
Unrestricted Warfare is a book on military strategy
written in 1999 by two colonels in the People's
Liberation Army, Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui.
Copy supplied as a ‘Hand-Out-1’
Hotels & Public Access Points can present very insecure & hostile environments which
can & do exposure their users!
Example of a deployed Access Point at a well know
London Hotel which is compromised & possibly being
1. Large Global Oil & Gas – Insecure SCADA
2. UK Smart Metering – Open to Abuse
3. Connected Homes – Hacked and Insecure
4. Major London Based Bank - Compromised
5. London City Insurance Broker – Total Insecurity
6. Scot’s Care Home Hacked – Heating Systems]
7. Betting Agency – Cyber and DDoS Attack
8.Operational Security – Learning on the Job!!!
DDoS has been growing in popularity year-on-year, with the throughput of adverse traffic
increasing - it requires zero skill to join in and to play:
Italy = 20
China = 428 Global Attacks
Attacks – 2012 - 2013
Hong Kong = 66
Turkey = 52
Poland = 10
Brazil = 19
California = 20
Turkey = 161
California = 22
South Korea = 24
Japan = 36
Venezuela = 15
Brazil = 34
California = 24
Indiana = 25
Australia = 4
Italy = 24
California = 30
Brazil = 53
California = 33
California = 31
Venezuela = 11
California = 38
Honk Kong = 50
Mediocrity will NOT Suffice
It was the BofE who were the main orchestrators of
Waking Shark II – Yet they have a number of significant
security exposures, and vulnerabilities, of which they
have been informed under respectful, Channelled
Disclosure Notification – With no response, or action.
If we are to lead the riotous path to evolve security
and to protect the public, then it must surly follow
a route to secure our infrastructures, and not just
Ignore the open states of potential compromise!
We must take the Threat serious – or there is no point.
Waking Shark II – ‘Hand Out-2’
we are already here!
See article in Digital Forensics Magazine – [If you want a cope just drop me a line].
Critical Unacceptable Exposures
If I were to tell you that because of a breakdown in process
there are potentially hundreds of Highly Classified
Soft Copy Files sitting on Laptops, Servers, unencrypted,
and then just left there – TS, STRAP etc would you believe
me? – And such documents are replicated in a very
If I were to tell you that FOI has been employed in an
unthinking way and exposed lives to threat – would you
believe me? – then you should!!
Critical Infrastructures Exposed
By the very nature of what the Power Industry supply, and support -
they are a Target! – But they don’t seem to know it!
911 – The Power Event?
Play Safe – The Vulnerability of WiFi
WiFi everywhere – but still not being used security, or sensibly –
Called Advanced Threats, Advanced Persistent Threats [APT],
Advanced Evasion Techniques [AET] – they are all New Age Cyber
Threats that carry Payload.
And it is highly likely they are responsible for many of the well
Publicised security breaches, and the state of Assumed Compromise.
Proven Real-Time & in Lab Conditions
by Nottingham Trent University in
Research Partnership with Commercial
Vendors – Firewalls Can Be Broken!
Smart Phones and BYOD
The advent of the Smart Cell Pones – (Hand Held Micro Computers) host a vast range of
features, and are no longer simple devices which just make Telephone Calls.
They are installed with high capacity storage capabilities well in excess of their early Big
Brothers and Sisters based on 8086 Chips.
They are hosting Bluetooth, WiFi (802.11 . ..), and Web Access – they talk to the Internet,
and communicate into Clouds.
They are also enjoying the interest of Malware Writers, and currently there are
approximately 300 such applications in circulation.
The AV Companies are responding with early solutions . . . . But they are the new target
And User are happy to Accept All Access to All Things!!!
Cyber Attacks of eCrime/eFraud are, Phishing, RockPhish and FastFlux,
Scams (419), Spear Phishing, Malware, Botnets, Rootkits, and DoS/DDoS are
some examples of the methods of choice of Criminals, Organised Crime, and
Hacktivist to attack business, systems, and the end-user community alike.
These acts are remote from the enterprise perimeter, so physical
assess may prove to be impossible as the related artifacts will be dynamic.
The Missing element is the CSIRT First Responder Digital Forensics, and
Cyber Extortion – Anatomy of Attack
Distance Based Digital Forensics should be triggered by the manifestation of impact from
any one of many variations of attack conditions – and Footprinting can also include eMail
based Social Engineering - This is a Real-Time Map of an attacks on against an on-line
Logs, Alerts, and Notifications should notify adverse conditions.
Islamic Jihad – Its Serious
Global Islamic Media Front's
Physical Threats – Real Time
•Times are Changing – Consider!
• East Midlands Airport
• Stephen Timm’s
• Mumbai (x2)
May we conclude that, if the prospect of ‘Radicalisation’ is interwoven in our Society,
should we expect to see more use of Cyber Tools to support these missions in 2014! –
Low Cost Munitions, with High Impact Potentials!
From Russia with Love - CaaS
Source = Trend Micro
CyberWar - CyberConflict
Just 8 years ago a CPNI Agent commented that the Cyber Threat was over-hyped!
Cyber War is now considered to be a reality, and represents an Aggressive capability
which hostile nations may utilise against a target.
Cyber War capabilities exist in Nations where their internal technology Capabilities are
extremely low, but they do have high capabilities to attack outside their logical
It is anticipated that Cyber War will be an activity which would be a joined force
alongside Kinetic Warfare.
In certain conditions, Cyber War holds the potential to escalate into Kinetic
Early singes have been seen of Hostile Government Capabilities – North Korea.
Response - DOING
Upon engaging with an event classified as Distance Forensics (the Unknown) DO:
a) Triage the event - trace
b) Contain all Dynamic Artifacts (Logs, traces, events, eMail (including headers)
c)Conduct Intelligence Gathers from known facts, to reveal the unknown circumstance,
d) Taxonomy of the attack type (e.g. below, Utube Page containing Malware)
e) Investigate Logs/Service Desk Reports, and any other form of possible information
f) Confirm with other CSIRT Members their status – communicate the event for purpose
of Situational Awareness
h)Real-Time Threats Assessment
j) Preserve Artifacts & Evidence
k) Assess need for Third Party Reporting – Law Enforcement Vice (CMA), DPA68, PCI-DSS,
l) Consider Corporate Communications Position
m) Consider taking down impacted systems/or reducing their operability -
n) Assess any Sprawl Conditions
Intelligent Postures & Response
Know your Critical assets
Find out what you ‘Don’t Know’
Consider the element of Data Leakage – Conduct a Triage
Conduct Intelligent Testing
Know your Business Exposure
Employ Situational Awareness Practices
Evolve an Incident Response Process, and Capability [Not just Lights on stuff]
Don’t do ‘Lip-Service’ do ‘Security’
Take the Threat Seriously
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