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  1. 1. Subject: Community Health Nursing Topic: Disposal of Waste and Dead Bodies Submitted To: Jayanthi Mam, Asst. Professor, Kidwai College Of Nursing, Bangalore. Submitted From, Amrutha.P 2nd Year BSc Nursing, Kidwai College Of Nursing, Bangalore.
  2. 2. Introduction: Water, sanitation and waste management are important driving force for community health in India. A clean environment, open defecation free areas, personal hygiene practices among the individuals, proper solid and liquid waste management, and availability of adequate safe drinking water determine the health of individuals as well as the community. Definition: Environmental sanitation is that branch of public health that is concerned with the control of all those factors in man’s surrounding’s or physical environment which may have detritus effect on human health and well being.
  3. 3. Introduction: Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health , the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is a distinct practise from resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. Definition: ‘Removing & destroying or strong
  4. 4. “Proper disposition of a discarded or discharged material in accordance with local environmental guidelines or laws.” [Business Dictionary] Objectives: • Public hygiene and health • Reuse, Recovery and Recycle • Energy generation • Sustainable development • Aesthetics
  5. 5.  Solid Waste  Chemical Waste  Liquid Waste  Commercial Waste / Business Waste  Gaseous Waste  Organic Waste  Biomedical Waste
  6. 6. The term ‘solid wastes’ includes;  Garbage [food wastes]  Rubbish [ paper,plastics,wood,glass]  Demolition products [ bricks, pipes]  Sewage treatment residue  Dead animals and other discarded material.
  7. 7. 1) The galvanized steel dust bin: • It is a close fitting cover is a suitab- -le receptacle for storing refuse. • For a family of 5 members, a bin having a capacity of 5 to 10 ft, can be used. 2) Paper sack:  A recent innovation in the western countries is the ‘paper sack’.  Refuse is stored in the paper and itself is removed.
  8. 8.  Public bins are for a layer number of people  Kept on a concrete platform  It handled & emotied mechanically by lorries fitted with cranes.
  9. 9. Definition; Chemical waste includes solids, liquids or gases containing or cintaminated with an of the following;  Flammable solvents(alcohols etc.)  Leachate toxic material( heavy metals)  Corrosives( hydrochloric acid, potassium hydroxide pellets)  non-returnable gas cylinders.
  10. 10. In addition to the general storage requirements outlined in section 4, these specific requirements for chemical waste must be followed: • Waste chemicals should be stored in the central waste holding facility of the building. • All safety precautions required for handling & storage of chemical will also be observed for generated wastes. • Dispose of aging containers promptly. Some chemicals are time sensitive & may degrade into very hazardous by products; eg. Ethers may degrade to from explosive organic peroxides.
  11. 11. Liquid waste can be defined as such liquids as waste water, fats, oils, used oils, or household liquids. These liquids that are hazardous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. They can also be discarded commercial products classified as ‘liquid industrial waste’, such as cleaning fluids or by products of manufacturing processes.
  12. 12. Gaseous waste can most easily results in atmospheric pollution. Gaseous wastes are generally Diluted with air, passed through filters & then released to atmosphere through large chimneys.  Our increasing levels of energy consumption have also resulted in higher levels of atmospheric waste, mainly in the form of harmful green house gases.  Although this type of waste may not be visible as solid or liquid waste, air pollutants pose no less threat to humans.
  13. 13. ‘Organic’ in chemistry field: the compound consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen etc. ‘Organic’ in biology & environment field: The material comes from the once living units, such as animals , plants and microorganisms.
  14. 14. • IGES is a Japanese policy research institute promoting sustainable development in the Asia Pacific region. • There research focuses mainly on environment related policies in developing countries • There work closely with international organisations, including UNEP, ADB & UNESCAP.
  15. 15. According to bio medical waste rules, 1998 of India ‘Bio-medical waste’ means any Waste Which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human being or animals or in the production or testing of bio medicals. Bio-Medical Waste Hospital waste Medical waste
  16. 16. Hospital waste: Refers to all waste, biological or non Biological, that is discarded and is not intended for further use. Medical waste: Refers to materials generated as a result of patient diagnoses, treatment, immunization of human beings or animals.
  17. 17. Classification of Bio medical waste : 1. Infectious Waste 2. Pathological Waste 3. Waste with high content of heavy metals 4. Sharps 5. Pharmaceutical Waste 6. Genotoxic Waste 7. Chemical Waste 8. Pressurized containers 9. Radioactive Waste
  18. 18. METHODS OF DISPOSAL 1) Dumping 2) Controlled Tipping 3) Incineration 4) Composting 5) Manure Pits 6) burial
  19. 19. Disposal of waste is now largely the domain of sanitarians & public health engineers. However, health professionals need to have a basic knowledge of the subject since Improper disposal of waste constitutes a health hazard. Health professional may be called upon to give advice in some special situations, such as coping with waste disposal problem when there is a breakdown of community health services in natural disasters.
  20. 20. Final disposition, is the practise and process of dealing with the remains of a deceased Human being like most animals, when human dies, their bodies start to decompose, emitting a odour and attracting scavengers and decomposers. “Every living thing will taste the death”
  21. 21. 1. Incineration/ Cremation 2. Burial 3. Water submersion 4. Cannibalism 5. Body Donation 6. Body world display 7. Left to be eaten away by vultures 8. Hydrolysis/dissolution 9. Freezing with liquid nitrogen
  22. 22. Many of the religious like Hindus, Buddha's, Jews follow cremation. According to them they want to burn into the ashes, so that the infected body will destroy completely & all their bad being will also destroy. Advantages: • Less expensive • Environment friendly • Takes no separate space
  23. 23. Burial is the preferred method in general and should be used unless the customs and wishes of the family. Burial sites:  Burial sites should be determined through consultation with the affected community and local authorities. Soil condition, water table level and available space must be considered in their selection.
  24. 24. Graveyards should be located at least 50m from groundwater sources used for drinking And at least 50m from the nearest habitable building. Ideally, an area of at least 1500m square per 10000 population is requires. The use of the cemetery should be carefully managed. Where there are different religious Groups within the affected population, it may be necessary to provide separate burial area. Depending on local custom cement for grave markers may also be required.
  25. 25.  It may happen when an aeroplane crush occurs over the oceans, all bodies were washed out or eaten away by sharks and whales.  The body decomposition occurs faster in water rather than earth burial.
  26. 26.  It is prevalent in Brazil, Africa and parts of India.  The dead body is eaten while burning, the Agora sect in India eat human flesh.
  27. 27.  Is another way of disposal of body,  It is done for the learning & research in medical field,  It is a great service for humanity, during life the person is allowed to donate her/his body after their death to a nearby medical hospital or college or research centre.  The body is utilized for preparing future doctors/ professionals.
  28. 28.  It is also another way of disposal/ usage of dead body,  The dead body is preserved by means of plastination process of the entire body after performing desired dissection & attaining different positions and postures.  It takes 1000 to 1500 hours to prepare a body by plastination.  The water content of the human body is removed by dehydration & replaced by plastiene substance which prevens decomposition and bacterial infection.
  29. 29. Sky burial is a funeral practise is which a human body is placed on the top of the mountains to decompose while exposed to the elements or to be eaten by birds and vultures. It is a specific type of the general practise of excarnation.
  30. 30.  Disposing of human bodies in a solution which dissolves tissues into a sterile, syrupy substance that can be safely flushed down in a drain.  This process is know as Alkaline Hydrolysis
  31. 31.  It involves freezing the body, dipping it in liquid nitrogen & gently vibrating it to shatter it into power  The technique was conceived by a swedish biologist, Susanne Wiigh Masak, who said “Mulching was natures original plan for us and that’s what used to happen to us at the start of the humanity we went back into the soil”.
  32. 32. o Give priority to the living over the dead. o Respond to the wishes of the family. o Respect cultural & religious observance o Do not promote mass burial of unidentified bodies in the large graves. o Promote the identification concerning the riskes associated with corposes.