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  1. 1. Housing Town Planning
  2. 2. Introduction • The place of housing is next only to food and clothing among the primary necessities of Life. • Man is primarily a social creature. He loves to live in a society or community. Hence housing does not mean a covered roof for every family. It is a social unit planned on neighborhood and community principles. • Housing in general sense, is the layout and development of residential unit in which people can live in pleasant, peaceful and healthy surroundings with social, Cultural, and Recreational facilities.
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Introduction Requirements of Good Housing Facility. • It is not enough to provide structurally stable structure (houses), but they must be so located and designed that they afford convenience, amenity, health and social life to the community. • A house in a general sense represents the smallest unit from where the town planning scheme emerges. • The success and failure of all town planning scheme rests on effective provision of Housing.
  5. 5. Requirements of Good Housing Facility
  6. 6. Requirements of Residential Building • Height • Location • Orientation • Parks • Privacy • Security • Space • Utility Services • Ventilation and Light
  7. 7. Layout of Residential Units The Important point to be considered in planning of residential building are as below: • Houses should be designed in different types with pleasing elevations. • Houses should be planned with harmony with the surrounding like lake, streams, greeneries, etc. • Houses should be properly oriented to get maximum advantage of the sun, wind, and topography. • Density of population should be in accordance with the standard specified by the competent authority • Houses for different Income group should be grouped to geather to build the spirit of neighborhood.
  8. 8. Layout of Residential Units
  9. 9. Types of Layouts • The general layout of the houses should have variety, economy, and convenience of the community. The layout differs for different shapes of site such as square, semi- circular, triangular, or trapezoidal. Etc.
  10. 10. Types of Layouts
  11. 11. Types of Layouts • Rectangular or Grid Pattern • The layout plan is almost square with road meeting at right angles. This pattern is suitable for flat country, but is not suitable from the point of view of traffic.
  12. 12. Rectangular or Grid Pattern
  13. 13. Types of Layouts • Cul- de-sac • This type consisting of approach road with a dead end is suitable for a small estate. • In this case the houses are arranged to face a dead end road branching from the main road at right angle. • At the dead end of road a roundabout is provided so that the vehicle can go round and return to the main road. A fountain or such another feature can be provided at the dead end to make it pleasing and attractive.
  14. 14. Cul- De-sac
  15. 15. Cul- De-sac
  16. 16. Types of Layouts • The following point can be considered in the layout of cul-de-sac • The length of the cul-de-sac should not be more than 80 to 100m to serve its purpose. • The ground should have a rising gradient from the main road towards dead end so that better vista can be obtained. • The housing blocks on either side should have open front lawns to make them more spacious
  17. 17. Types of Layouts
  18. 18. Advantages of Cul-de-sac • It affords privacy • It affords peaceful atmosphere • It is free from noise, bustle of the road traffic. • It is free from dust nuisance. • It minimizes road accidents
  19. 19. Advantages of Cul-de-sac
  20. 20. Shoe- String Development • In this case the house are arranged around a local road encircling a park in the centre, It is an Improved variety of Cul-de-sac • The houses are arranged in groups, in the shape of shoe, around a local road encircling a park in the centre, the main road forms string hence the name shoe string development.
  21. 21. Shoe- String Development • Each group is placed on the left or right side of the local road facing the park, thus forming the shape of ‘S’ • Advantages of Shoe-String Development • It Provides Calm and quite atmosphere. • It is absolutely free from noise, dust, bustle of the city. • It is free from traffic accidents. • It provides better social contacts.
  22. 22. Classification of Housing • The different types of houses are classified as below: • Detached House • Semi-Detached House • Group housing • Apartment and flats • Sky scrapers • Prefabricated house.
  23. 23. Detached House • This is entirely an independent house. Its design depends upon the number of family members to be accommodated in the house, leaving sufficient front, rear margin with a small garden in front. • It provides privacy and lot amount of sunshine air and breeze. It is the best form of residence for a small village or town where land and building material are cheap. However compared to other types it is not economical
  24. 24. Detached House
  25. 25. Semi-Detached House • It consist of two houses with a common wall as such there is considerable amount of saving in side margin and also in plot area. The elevation of this type of houses can be made more attractive with the longer frontage by keeping the similar element on either side of the common wall. By providing common amenities like water, drainage, line, etc semi-detached houses can be built economically.
  26. 26. Semi-Detached House
  27. 27. Group Housing • A number of houses can be grouped together. It is proffered for low-income group such as laborers or workers. The houses may be single or double storeyed.
  28. 28. Apartment or flats • A flat consist of number of storeys in which accommodation is provided in an independent suite of three to four rooms, such as living room, kitchen, bath, W.C. etc, It is suitable for better income group people and is most popular in big cities. • Due to influx of rural population in the cities, the price of land have sky rocketed. Hence resort is made to flats so as to accommodate as many unit as possible on the same land.
  29. 29. Apartment or flats
  30. 30. Sky- Scrapers • To accommodate the growing population in metropolitan cities, the sky- scrappers or high rise buildings are being built with multistories soaring high in the sky. • The vertical development in the form of sky scrapers is seen to be popular as people found it more useful by going up and down with the help of lift then walking side-ways, even though they are facing some problems • One is fire problem for this proper precautions should be taken by providing emergency staircase. Also the building should be well equipped with first aid fire extinguishers, heat and smoke detectors, and fixed fire protection system. • Wind is another problem of this purpose sky scrappers are now checked through wind tunnel test before their construction the wind problem can be avoided by careful massing of sky scrappers
  31. 31. Sky- Scrapers
  32. 32. Pre-fabricated House • The nation wide housing crisis is now sought in fabrication, the process by which different parts of the house are made in the factory and merely assembled later. • This is also referred by many as ‘instant’ housing, factory built housing and in America it is called System Building. • The main advantage of this method are: • High speed in construction, so saving in Time, • Use of highly developed construction technology. • Use of improved quality of building material manufactured in the factory. • Minimum use of Labour.
  33. 33. Pre-fabricated House
  34. 34. Design of Residential Areas
  35. 35. Landscaping Elements
  36. 36. Housing in India • The housing is an important social welfare measure and is an integral part of the nation’s economic development. As such housing deserves a high priority in planning. But housing indeed received very little attention in the past. Main reasons can be stated as the tremendous growth in population, scarcity of land and rise in the cost of construction material.
  37. 37. Housing in India
  38. 38. Housing in India • Industrial growth and employment opportunities excellent facilities for higher education, research, lucrative careers, social welfare in the town & cities have acted as powerful magnets to attract rural population. The urban population has therefore increased by about 30 % in the last decade.Thi has resulted in not only over crowding and congestion inn the towns & cities but also aggravated acute shortage of housing.
  39. 39. Housing in India
  40. 40. Housing in India • The planning commission had provided in the sixth plan period an outlay of Rs 9400 crore for Urban Housing. Despite this the backlog of housing increases by a million units every year. • The housing problem revolve around three important factors such as poverty, transportation, and low investments All this must be accounted for in a successful urban strategy.
  41. 41. Housing in India
  42. 42. Housing in India • To meet the growing demand of houses for the millions, we have not only to build houses but also plan towns near existing urban areas. Neighborhood units, Satellite towns, Suburbs, Garden cities, seem to be a reasonable solution for the housing problem. In short we require properly planned long term housing strategy.
  43. 43. Housing in India
  44. 44. Agencies for Housing Schemes • The following are the agencies established with a view to tackle housing problem under various housing schemes: • State Housing Board • Co-operative Housing Society • Private Enterprises • Individuals
  45. 45. State Housing Board • To undertake housing programmes, to arrange for finance, to work in liaison between the central agencies and the state, housing boards have been set up in many states. • The function of the Boards : • To construct new houses to reduce the shortage of houses. • To increase the standard of the types of houses to be constructed by other agencies. • To implement the Housing schemes of State and Central Government as are entrusted to it from time to time.
  46. 46. State Housing Board
  47. 47. Co-operative Housing • It is a society or a legal body indulging in house construction on co-operative basis. The legal body functions according to the rule and regulations framed by the society. • A number of Housing Societies have come a long way in solving the housing problem successfully.
  48. 48. Co-operative Housing
  49. 49. Private enterprisers • Now a days many private enterprises have entered the field of house construction. They invest their own money for the construction of houses, flats, which are later sold at fancy prices. Usually these enterprisers are interested to get high returns.
  50. 50. Private enterprisers
  51. 51. Individuals • Many Individuals also try to contribute to solve housing problem.
  52. 52. References • Fundamentals of Town Planning : G.K. Hiraskar • Internet Websites
  53. 53. Thanks…