3. • INTRODUCTION
Psychology is an offspring of subject philosophy.
Psychology is a Greek word, ‘psychic’ and ‘logos’.
`psychi` means `soul` and `logos` means the ‘study of ’
or ‘knowledge’ - study of soul. Williams used the term
‘mind’ which replaced soul. As years went by, the
meaning of psychology changed. The influence of
physiology made some scientists like Wilhelm Wundt of
Germany define psychology as the study of
• Meaning of behavior-
• Motor activities(walking, swimming, dancing etc.)
• Cognitive activities(thinking, reasoning, imaging etc.)
• Affective activities(feeling happy, sad angry etc.)
• Psychology is the study of behavior and mental processes and how
they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and
• Psychology is a science, which aims to give us better understanding
and control of the behavior of the organism as a whole.
• Psychology is a science of human behavior.
• Psychology is the science of human and animal behavior, it include
the application of behavioral science to human problems.
(Walter Bowers Pillsbury-1911)
5. Scope of psychology
• As psychology has involved as a science, its fields of specialization
have multiplied and its educational and training requirements have
become formalized .
• Psychologists work in a variety of fields in academic and professional
• Psychologists who use their knowledge of psychology to aid
individuals or groups by providing certain serviced, often in from of
therapy or Counselling.
• The are employed in colleges and university and typical engaged in
teaching and research.
• The are employed in agencies industries where the examine diverse
such as effect of toxic environmental substances on process of
learning and memory.
6. • 1. Physiological Psychology:
In the most fundamental sense, human beings are
biological organisms. Physiological functions and the
structure of our body work together to influence our
behavior. Biopsychology is the branch that specializes in
the area .
• 2. Developmental Psychology :
Here the studies are with respect to how people grow
and change throughout their life from prenatal stages,
through childhood, adulthood and old age.
Developmental psychologists work in a variety of
settings like colleges, schools, healthcare centres,
business centres, government and non-profit
7. 3. Personality Psychology:
This branch helps to explain both consistency and
change in a person’s behavior over time, from birth till
the end of life through the influence of parents, siblings,
playmates, school, society and culture.
4. Health Psychology:
This explores the relations between the psychological
factors and physical ailments and disease. Health
psychologists focus on health maintenance and promotion
of behavior related to good health such as exercise, health
habits and discouraging unhealthy behaviors like
smoking, drug abuse and alcoholism.
8. • 5. Clinical Psychology:
It deals with the assessment and intervention of
abnormal behaviour. As some observe and believe that
psychological disorders arise from a person’s
unresolved conflicts and unconscious motives, still
others are contend with the knowledge of thinking that
there are biological basis to certain psychological
disorders, especially the more serious ones. Clinical
psychologists are employed in hospitals , clinics and
private practice. They often work closely with other
specialists in the field of mental health .
9. 6. Counselling Psychology :-
This focuses primarily on educational, social
and adjustment problems . Counselling
psychologists advise students on effective study
habits and the kinds of job they might be best
suited for , and provide help concerned with mild
problems of social nature and strengthen healthy
lifestyle, economical and emotional adjustments .
10. • 7. Educational Psychology:
Educational psychologists are concerned with all the concepts of
education. This includes the study of motivation, intelligence,
personality, use of rewards and punishments, size of the class,
expectations, the personality traits and the effectiveness of the
teacher, the student-teacher relationship, the attitudes, etc. It is
also concerned with evaluate student performance.
• 8. Social Psychology:
This studies the effect of society on the thoughts, feelings and
actions of people. Our behaviour is not only the result of just our
personality and predisposition. Social and environmental factors
affect the way we think, say and do. Social psychologists conduct
experiments to determine the effects of various groups, group
pressures and influence on behaviour.social psychology work
largely in colleges and universities and also other organizations.
• Pure psychology :-
• General psychology :-
general psychology deals with the fundamental rules
.principles and theories of psychology in relation to the
study of behavior of a normal adult .
• Abnormal psychology :-
abnormal psychology deals with the behavior of
individuals who are unusual . It studies mental
disorders,their causes and treatment
• Social psychology :-
social psychology deals with the group behavior
and interrelationship of people with other people .it studies
various types of group phenomena such as public
opinion,attitudes beliefs and crowd behavior .
• Physiological psychology :-
This branch of psychology describes and explains the
biological and physiological basis of behavior.it concerns
the structure and function of sense organs , nervous
system,muscles and glands underlying all behavior .
15. • Parapsychology :-
parapsychology deals with extra –sensory perceptions ,
causes of rebirth ,telepathy and allied problems
• Geopsychology :-
this branch of psychology describes and explains the
relation of physical environment purticularly weather
,climate and soil with behavior.
16. • Developmental psychology :-
this branch of psychology describe the processes and factors that
influence the growth and development in relation to the behavior
of an individual from birth to old age . It is further subdivided
into branches like child psychology , adolescent, adult and old age
• Experimental psychology :-
This branch of psychology studies the way and means of carrying
out pyschological experiments by using scientific methods .
experimental psychologist do basic research in an effort to
discover and understand the fundamental and general causes of
They study basic processes such as learning memory , sensation
, perception and motivation
17. • Educational psychology :-
Educational psychology is a branch of applied psychology ,
which tries to apply the psychological principles, theories and
techniques to human behavior in educational situations .
The subject matter of this branch covers psychological ways
and means of im proving all aspects of the teaching / learning
process . Educational psychologists are most often involved in
the increase in efficiency of learning in schools by applying
psychological knowledge about learning and motivation .
• Clinical Psychology :-
This is the largest subfield of psychology . This branch of
applied psychology describes the causes of mental illness ,
abnormal behavior of a patient and suggests treatment and
effective adjustment of the affected person in society .
• Applied psychology
18. • Industrial Psychology :-
This branch of applied psychology tries to seek application of the psychological
principles , theories and techniques for the study of human behavior in relation
to industrial environment Industrial psychologists apply psychological
principles to assist public and private organizations with their hiring and
placement programs , the training and supervision of their personnel and the
improvement of communication within the organization . They also counsel
employees within the organization , who need help with their personal
• Legal Psychology :-
Legal psychology is a branch of applied psychology , which tries to study the
behavior of persons like clients , criminals , witnesses , etc. with the help of
applications of psychological principles and techniques . The root cause of
crime , offence , dispute or any legal case can be properly understood through
the use of this branch of psychology , Legal Psychology Legal psychology is a
branch of applied psychology , which tries to study the behavior of persons like
clients , criminals , witnesses , etc. with the help of applications of psychological
principles and techniques . The root cause of crime , offence , dispute or any
legal case can be properly understood through the use of this branch of
19. • Military psychology :-
Military Psychology This branch of psychology is concerned
with the use of psychological principles and techniques in
military science . How to keep the morale of the soldiers and
citizens high during war time , how to secure better recruitment
of the personnel for the fighting capacities and organizational
climate and with in this branch of psychology.
• Political psychology :-
this branch of psychology relates itself with the use of
psychological principles and techniques in studying politics
and deriving political gains .
20. Applications of psychology
• in the field of Education :-
Theories of learning , motivation and personality , etc. have been
responsible for shaping and designing the educational system
according to the needs and requirements of the students . The
application of psychology in the field of education has helped the
learers to learn , the teachers to teach administrators to administer
and educational planners to plan effectively and efficiently .
• In the field of medicine :-
A Doctor , nurse or any person who attends the patient
need to know the science of behavior to achieve good
results.psychology has contributed valuable therapeutic
measures like behavior therapy , play therapy , group
therapy ,psychoanalysis ,etc .for the diagnosis and cure of
patients suffering from psychosomatic as well as mental
21. • In the field of Business and industry :-
It has highlighted the importance of knowledge of
consumer`s psychology and harmonius interpersonal
relationship in the field of commerce and industry .
• In the field of criminology :-
it has helped in detection of crimes and in dealing with
• In the field of politics :-
it has proved useful to the politicians and leaders to learn
the qualities of leadership for leading the masses.
• In the filed of guidance and counseling :-
• It has provided valuable help in relation to guidance and
counseling in educational , personal as well as vocational
22. • In the field of military science :-
psychology helps in the selection ,tarining
,promotion and classification of defense personnel .
In fighting the enemy,
• In the field of human Relationship and self –
finally is has helped human beings to learn the art
of understanding their own behavior ,seeking
adjustment with their self and other and enhancing ,
as well as actualizing their potentialities to the
most possible .
23. Relevance to Nursing
• Psychology has become necessary in every profession including
nursing today . This is because of increasing emphasis being laid out
on the interplay of body , mind and spirit in the health status of every
• The success in life of many people depends on how they get along
with others , influence others and react to others . The ability to
understand ourselves cuidance and others comes from a wise study
of psychology .
• The learning of psychology helps a nurse in the following ways .
24. • To Understand Her Own Self
The knowledge of psychology will help the nurse to get an insight
into her own motives, desires, emotions, feelings, attitudes,
personality characteristics and ambitions. She will realize how her
personality is highly individualistic and complex, arrives at
decisions in her life and solves her own problems. This knowledge
also helps her to understand her strengths and weaknesses. By
knowing these aspects, she can not only try to overcome such
weaknesses, which affect her work, but also develop good
personality characteristics, abilities to carry on her responsibilities
and perform her duties effectively and efficiently, This will let her
direct her own life more productively and relate more easily with
others, enabling her to control situations and attain self-discipline.
25. • To Understand Patients
-The nurses are professionals meant for providing care to
patients. The patient may be suffering from acute or
chronic disease; may be male or female, young or old and
come to the hospital with so many physical and
psychological problems. They may also have tensions,
worries, pains and also many doubts about their illness.
The knowledge of psychology will help the nurse to
understand the problems and needs of patients and attend
to them. She can understand the motives, attitudes,
perceptions and personality characteristics of patients in a
better way. This will help the patient to attain quick relief
and cure, which is the basic motto of a nurse.
26. • To Recognize Abnormal Behavior :-
Psychology is relevant not only in physical health
care, but also highly relevant in the field of mental
health. Presently more and more people are suffering
from mental illness. While some patients may have
minor problems, others suffer with serious illness.
The knowledge of psychology will help nurses to
understand abnormal behaviors and help the patient in
management of mental ilinesses.
27. • To Understand Other People :-
The student nurse has to study, work and live with other nurses, doctors,
patients and their family mem- bers. With her scientific knowledge of human
nature, greater success in interpersonal relationships. She will learn why others
differ from her in their likes and dislikes, in their interests and abilities or in
their reactions to others. She will realize how differences in behavior to some
extent, are due to diffTerences in customs and beliefs or cultural patterns of the
groups to which she belongs or to the way she has been brought up during her
• To Provide Quality Care to Patients :-
A nurse with good knowledge of human psychology can understand what fears
or anxieties the patient faces, what he feels, what he would like to know and
why he bechaves the way he does. It will help the nurse to anticipate and meet
requirements of the patients and his relatives, thus help patients and relatives
adjust to the unavoidable circumstances in the best possible way. A good
understanding of these patients by the nurse can be of best support to him.
28. • Help Patients Adjust to the Situation
iIlness and physical handicaps often bring about the need for major
adjustments. Many discases such as heart disease and cancer, etc.
require special coping skills and health care. A nurse trained in
psychology can be an effective health educator and help in these
kind of adjustments. Help the Student Nurse to Appreciate the
Necessity for Changing the Environment or Surroundings Good
nursing care depends upon the ability of a nurse to understand the
situations properly and
• Help the Student Nurse to Appreciate the Necessity for
Changing the Environment or Surroundings.
Good nursing care depends upon the ability of a nurse to
understand the situations properly and also in obtaining the co
operation of other people concerned. The chang in the environment
is sometimes necessary for better adjustment and happiness exp :-
A boy who is completely denied the affectionate care of his parents
may do better if he is given the care of foster parents .
29. • Methods of psychology :-
psychology is termed as the scientific study of human behavior . Special tools
and procedures help us in gathering and organizing its subject matter or the
essential facts about behavior . These procedures are termed as method which
are used to study human behaviour .
• Introspection or self –observation method :-
this is one of the oldest method of psychology introspection
mean `to look within` this is also know as self –observation
method . It is not possible to understand the inner feelings and
experiences of the person . Here the subject is asked to
systematically observe his own behavior and report the same
:this is later analyed to understand behavior .
for exp :- a patient after an operation may be asked to report
how he feels.the patient will try to look within and recall what
happended and how he is presently feeling . This information
will help for better treatment .
30. • Merits :-
• Introspection is the fundamental method of psychology . Observation
and experimentation are based upon introspection .
• Introspection gives us direct ,immediate and exact knowledge of our
own mental processes.
• This method is inexpensive, easy and does not require any apparatus
• Demarits :
• this method is not applicable for children or animals or mentally
retarded people , because they cannot introspect .
• it is purely private affair and cannot be verified by other observers.
• It many cases ,the patient may not have the insight to know about
their conditions or language to describe them accurately .
• Introspection sometime involves attention to a mental process ,
which is procedure by an external object .
31. • Observational method :-
observation is the objective method of studying the behavior of
individuals . It consists of , preception of an individual`s behavior
under natural conditions by the other individual and the
interpretation and analyzes of this method the observer observes
and collects the data.
example, in the hospital the nurse makes an observation of patient
`s temperature ,pulse ,blood pressure, facial expresasions,
restlessness, etc .
Steps in observation method :-
• observation of behavior
• nothing of behavior
• interpretation and analysis of behavior
32. Merits :-
It is economical , natural , as well as flexible .
The data , which is studied through observation can be analyzed , measured , classified and
The result can be verified and realied.
Observation method is quite suitable for observing developmental characteristic
•There are chances of subjective report and also prejudices of observer may creep in.
• Sometimes to observe the natural behavior the observer may have to spend more
time, energy and money.
• It lacks repeatability, as each natural situation can occur only once.
• Not being able to establish a proper cause-and- effect relationship.
33. • Experimental Method
Experimental method is considered as the most scientific and objective method of
studying behavior. The word experiment comes from a Latin word meaning 'to try',
'put to test'. Therefore, in experimentation we try or put to test the material or
phenomenon, the characteristics of consequences of which we wish to ascertain. The
use of this method has raised psychology to the status of an experimental science
like physics, chemistry and physiology. In psychology, experimental study is used to
study the cause-and-effect relationship regarding the nature of human
behavior , i.e. the effect of anxiety on the human behavior . To study the cause-
and- effect relationship the psychologists use objective observations under
controlled conditions to observe actions or behaviors of individuals . from these
observation certain conclusions are drawn and theories or principles established.
Essential Features of Experimental method
• Requires two persons ,the experimenter and the subject or the person ,whose
behavior is observed .
• experimentation should be done on living organisms.
• all experiments are conducted under controlled conditionds.
34. Merits :-
• Scientific method
• Finds out cause and effect relationship
• Maximum control of phenomena
• Repetition is possible
• All problems of psychology cannot be studied by this
method , as we cannot perform experiments for all the
• Experimental method is a costly and time consuming
method .moreover handling of this method demands
specialized knowledge and skill.
35. • Clinical or case history method:-
this method is used by clinical psychologists , psychiatrist ,psychiatric
social workers in child guidance clinics or mental hygiene clinics and
the allied institutions. It aims at studying the cause and basic of people
anxieties, fear and personal maladjustments. A great deal of relevant
data is collected by using case histories, interviews, home visits and
psychological tests and individual`s difficulties and problems.
in this technique information is collected from the memory of the
individual,his parents,members of his family ,friends ,teacher and all
other available records and reports.
• Case histories will give the clinicial an insight into the causes of the
peoblem and suggest possible solutions.
• Case studies can be productive sources of ideas for further
investigation by other methods .
36. • Demarits :-
• The case history method depends largely on memory of incidents ,
which may have been observed inaccurately or over interpreted .
• Survey method :-
• All problem in psychology cannot be studied by the experimental and other
methods. Some problems like study of opinions , attitudes, health care need , etc
.can be studied by means of survey method. This is commonly employed in
social psychology .the survey method involves collection or gathering of
information from a large number of people by using questionnaires , inventories
, checklist , rating scales and interviews.
A large amount of data can be collected in shorter time .
the behavior is not observed directly .
37. • Genetic or developmental method :-
• Psychology study not only the behavior an individual at a particular
time , but also his development from birth to death ,the influence of
heridity and environment in the development of the person and
condition favorable and unfavrable for normal and abnormal behavior
. Exp :-to understand the learning behavior of an adult ,the study will
start from the childhood and adolescence.
• This is a more useful method to understand the behavior from point of
view of hereditary and environmental influences.
• This method requires more time and energy .