At present, we have two types of vehicles exist in nature.
They are: 1. FUEL ENGINE BASEDVEHICLES
2. ELECTRICENGINE BASEDVEHICLES
Fuel based vehicles means vehicles which depends on fuels like gasoline and
Around 93% of today automobiles run on petroleum based product which
are estimated to be depleted by 2050.
Moreover, current automobiles utilizes only 25% of energy released from
petroleum and rest is wasted into atmosphere.
Due to this reason, the atmosphere get polluted and it proves its efficiency
at higher speeds in highways and waste a lot of energy in urban areas.
Electric vehicles can be a breakthrough after fuel vehicles and it means vehicles
which uses one or more electric motors for propulsion.
An electric vehicle is a pollution free and is efficient at low speed conditions
mainly in high traffic areas.
It may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle
sources, or may be self-contained with a battery, solar panels or a generator to
convert fuel to electricity.
EXAMPLE: Rail vehicles, Electric aircraft and Electric space aircraft.
Battery charging is time consuming in electric vehicles.
Any vehicle which combines two or more sources of power can be called as HYBRID
Ex: 1. Diesel - Electric
2. Nuclear - Electric
3. Gasoline - Electric
Any vehicle that uses two sources of power - gasoline and battery can be called as
HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE.
A hybrid electric vehicle is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle which relies
not only on batteries but also on an internal combustion engine which drives a
generator to provide electricity.
The combination of both the power makes the vehicle dynamic in nature over
Depletion of fossil fuel
Rising price of fuel – Extraction , Distillation , Purifying & Distribution
Problems due to pollution
Stringent automotive norms
A change needed
Rise of automotive field
Rise of new technology – EV & HEV
Promising growth in near future
8. HEV advantages over conventional engines
Reduction in engine and vehicle weight
Fuel efficiency is increased
Emissions are decreased
Reduce the dependency on fossil fuels
More efficient than conventional engines
Designing of HEV depends on the following points:
Type of combination (power sources)
Use of the vehicle :- frequency
Degree of hybridization
13. HEV DESIGN
Energy storage systems usually batteries, are essential for electric drive vehicles like
HEVs, EVs & Plug-in HEVs(PHEVs).
TYPES OF BATTERIES:
1. Lithium– ionbatteries( mostly preferred in HEVs and PHEVs ) :-
Because of high power to weight ratio, high energy efficiency, good high temperature
performance and low self discharge.
2. Nickelmetalhybrid batteries(widely used in HEVs) :-
Because of high cost, high self discharge and heat generation of high temperature.
3. Lead – acidbatteries(used in commercially available EVs) :-
Because they can be designed to power & are inexpensive, safe and reliable.
14. MOTORAND CONTROLLERS:
Motor and its control technology are one of the main components of HEV.
To meet HEVs speed specifications and to control speed of vehicle we use
TYPESOF MOTORAND DRIVESFORHEV :
1. AC Induction Motor and their Drives
2. Permanent Magnet Motors and Drives
3. Switch Reluctance Motors and Drives
4. Brushless DC Motor and Drives
15. HEV TYPES AND LEVELS
Many configurations are possible for HEVs. The two power sources found in hybrid vehicles
may be combined in :
4. PLUGIN (PHEV)
16. HEV TYPES
SERIES HYBRID :
Gasoline motor turns
Generator may either
charge the batteries
or power an electric
motor that drives the
transmission at low speeds is
powered only by the
17. PARALLEL HYBRID :
Batteries can also powers an
Both can power the
transmission at the same
Electric motor supplements
the gasoline engine.
18. HEV LEVELS
A micro HEV is a vehicle with an integrated alternator/starter that uses start/stop
During cruising, the vehicle is propelled only by the internal combustion engine.
Typical fuel efficiency is increase around 10% compared to non-hybrid.
EXAMPLES: BMW 1 and 3 series, Fiat 500, SMART car, Ford Focus and Transit, and
Mercedes-Benz A-class etc.
A mild HEV is very similar to a micro HEV with the exception that the integrated
alternator/starter is upgraded with electric components that assist in propulsion.
Compared to micro HEV, the electric motor, alternator, and battery pack are larger plays
a greater role in the operation of the vehicle.
Typical fuel efficiency is increase around 20-25% compared to non-hybrid.
EXAMPLES: BMW 7 Series Active Hybrid, Honda Civic and Insight Hybrid.
19. HEV LEVELS
A full HEV is similar to mild HEV because it utilizes same electric components but they
are much larger in size.
It uses a smaller engine, has the ability to propel the vehicle solely off the electric motor
and utilizes a more sophisticated control system to optimize efficiency than mild HEV.
Typical fuel efficiency increase is around 40-45% compared to a non-hybrid.
EXAMPLES: Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid, Ford C-Max, Honda CR-Z etc.
A PHEV is essentially the same configuration as a full HEV, but utilizes a more
downsized engine and even larger electric components capable of charging off the
electrical grid through a plug.
PHEVs are ideal in urban commuting where trips are short, but are also equipped for
EXAMPLES: Chevy Volt, Frisker Karma, Toyota Prius Plug-in etc.
Hence, by all the above advantages and objectives of HEV we can say that HEVs can be a
breakthrough and promising technology in automobiles production in future.