1. Distillation & Evaporation
Dr. SHANKAR GOWDA, M.D
PROFESSOR AND HOD (PG),
DEPT OF P.G STUDIES IN
& BHAISHAJYA KALPANA,
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Dr. RAVI R. CHAVAN,
DEPT OF P.G
STUDIES IN RS & BK
TGAMC, BALLARI. Presented by
Dr.Priyanka. B. Patil
1st year PG Dept of RS & BK
2. What is distillation ??
• It’s the process of separating the constituents
of a liquid by vapourizing the liquid and
passing the vapours through a cold surface,
and thereby converting vapours again to
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3. • It’s a process of separating the component
substance from liquid mixture by selective
vaporization and condensation.
• Distillation result in essentially complete
separation (nearly pure components)
• Distillation can only be applied for two
immiscible or non reacting solid and liquid or
liquid and liquid.
• Application of distillation in the fields of
laboratory, Industrial, Perfumery, Medicinals
and food processing.
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5. Pharmaceutical applications
1. Extraction of volatile oils from vegetable
2. Separation of volatile substances from less
3. Separation of one liquid from one or more
other liquids, differing in their vapour
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7. Simple distillation
• Separation of volatile liquids from
non volatile solids or
• Used mainly for purification of
organic liquids and separation of
liquids from non volatile solids.
Ex: a) distilled water
b) preparation of ether, amyl
nitrate and spirit
c) recovery of alcohol
• There should be minimum 25
degree celsius difference between
two component for distillation.
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1. Purification of organic liquids
2. Separation of liquids from non volatile solids.
3. Preparation of ether, amyl nitrate & spirit of
4. Preparation of distilled water.
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11. Fractional distillation
• Process of separating two miscible two volatile liquids
with two different boiling points.
ex: mixture of alcohol and water where alcohol is more
volatile and evaporates faster than water
• The fractionating columns condense the vapours of less
volatile component and return them to still.
• This distillate may not be so pure and may require
repeated distillation(because of very less difference of
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15. Steam distillation
• It’s for the distillation of two
immiscible liquids one of which is
water. An immiscible liquid and water
boil independently at different
• Liquids boils at much lower
temperature than B.P of water when
steam is passed through mixture of
Ex: turpentine with B.P 1600 C0 when
mixed with water ca be distilled at 95.6 C0
the if the current of steam passed through
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• Extraction of volatile oils such as clove oil,
• Purification of volatile oils
• Separation of water immiscible liquids having
high BP like turpentine, aniline
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19. Vacuum distillation
• Method of distillation performed
under reduced pressure, which
lowers the B.P of most liquids so that
it increases the rate of distillation.
• Principle of working: liquid boils
when it’s vapor pressure becomes
equal to atmospheric pressure.
• Specially designed Claiscen flask is
used to carry out this distillation.
Ex: used for distillation of thermo labile
substances & for the concentration
drying of extracts that gets destroyed at
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• Distillation of thermolabile substances.
• Extraction of thermolabile substances.
• Separation of impurities.
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23. Destructive distillation
• Destructive distillation is the chemical process of
the decomposition of unprocessed material by heating
it to a high temperature; the term generally applies to
processing of organic material in the absence of air or
in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen or
other reagents, catalysts, or solvents, such
as steam or phenols. It is an application of pyrolysis.
The process breaks up or 'cracks' large molecules.
• ex Coke, coal gas, gas carbon, coal tar, ammonia liquor,
and "coal oil" are examples of commercial products
historically produced by the destructive distillation of
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• Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs
on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the
• Evaporation is maximum at boiling point of a
Factors affecting rate of evaporation
• Surface area of boiling vessel
• Air moisture content
• Atmospheric pressure
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• Distillation is a very effective method of
separating the constituent parts of the
mixture. Has large application of distillation in
the fields of laboratory, Industrial, Perfumery,
medicine and food processing.
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