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  2. INTRODUCTION Avartana means repeating the process several times in order to  Potentiate the final product.  To achieve the maximum result of the drug.  To reduce the dosage.
  3. AVARTANA : AN OVERVIEW  The word kalpana refers to Samskara or yojana.  kalpana is a method or process or kind of modification of preparation of medicines using either a single drug or several drugs.  In Ayurveda we find a number of kalpanas or various methods of preparation of medicines.
  4.  Avartana is such a process which modifies the preparation and its therapeutic properties.  It is mainly explored in the context of sneha kalpanas,Taila kalpana and Ghrita kalpana.
  5. DEFINITION The Avartana technology is the method in which repeated processing of a Sneha is done with prescribed Kalka and Drava dravya and heating it to a specific number of times.
  6. LITERARY REVIEW OF AVARTANA Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Astanga Hridaya : avartana of ghrita and taila. Ratnaprabha Teeka on Chakradatta: classical book which explains the pharmaceutical process of avarthy in the context of Dasha Paka Bala Taila.
  7. OBJECTIVES • Obtain the maximum concentration of phyto- constituents of the drug into the lipid extractive media. • Reduce the oleaginous medicaments into small dosage form • Increasing its potency. • Easy administration and usage.
  8. METHOD OF PREPARATION • The basic ingredients are Kalka, Sneha, Drava Dravya • Ratio 1:4:16 resp. • The procedures are similar to Sneha Kalpana in case of Ghrita Kalpana or Taila Kalpana. • After Sneha paka, the Sneha is filtered and measured.
  9. Cont. • Then, the quantity of Kalka and Drava Dravya for second Avarthy is calculated . • This is added to the above filtered Sneha and paka is done. • Likewise continuously the Sneha paka is done by adding the calculated Kalka and Drava Dravya every time and paka should be continued.
  10. Cont. • After each Sneha paka the quantity of Sneha obtained will be less i.e. there will be loss in each paka. • It is seen that the consistency, the colour and odour of the product changes in each Avarthy.
  11. DIFFERENT OPINIONS REGARDING THE METHOD OF PREPARATION OF AVARTANA 1. ACHARYA GAYADAS’S OPINION : • In the 4th chapter of Sushruta Samhita chikitsa sthana - Sahasrapaka Bala Taila. • Method of preparation  is similar to the general method of Sneha Kalpana  process should be repeated every time by adding the Drava Dravya.
  12. 2.ACHARYA JEJJATA’S OPINION: On commenting Acharya Gayadas opinion, Acharya Jejjata says if the process is • repeated for 100/1000 times the loss will be more and the final yield will be very less. • So the process should be done by adding 100/1000 parts of Drava Dravya at a single stretch.
  13. • Acharya Gayadas substantiates, • Ksheera which is added during the process of Avartana will compensate the loss to some extent. • So the process is repeated for 100/1000 times.
  14. 3. ACHARYA NISCHALAKARA’S OPINION In ‘RatnaPrabha’ Teeka on Chakradatta, Acharya Nishchalakara mentions the • Dashapaka Bala Taila.  ratio of ingredients is - 1:4:16  method - similar to Sneha Kalpana. • This process is repeated for 10 times then it is called as Dashapaka Bala Taila.
  15. • If pharmaceutical process of Sneha Kalpana is repeated for 100 times, then it is said to be Shatapaka Bala Taila . • If this Taila is processed for further 1000 times it is called Sahasrapaka Bala Taila.
  16. REFERENCES REGARDING THE NUMBER OF AVARTANA • Name of the product No. of Avarthy • Amalaka ghrita7 100 • Amalaka ghrita8 1000 • Ksheera bala thaila9 100 • Ksheera bala thaila10 1000 • Bala thaila11 10 • Bala thaila12 100 • Bala thaila13 1000 • Trivrut sneha14 100 • Yashtimadhuka taila15 100
  17. TABLE SHOWING NO OF AVARTY’S IN PRESENT PRACTICE Sl no Name of the product No.of avarty 1 Ksheerabala taila 7,14,21,41,101 2 Sahacharadi taila 7 3 Dhanwantaram taila 7, 21, 41, 101
  18. DISCUSSION • Avartana is a technique of potentiating the formulation. It is not mentioned as a basic concept but the process may be extended to other formulations apart from Sneha Kalpana. • In Samhitas, we find the process being mentioned in the context of Sneha Kalpana and particularly indicated for Vataja disorders. • The reason behind this may be because the property of ghrita to obtain increase in efficiency by the repeated processing as in ‘samskarasya anuvartanat”. • Also Avartana may facilitate easy and proper administration with reduced dose.
  19. • The technique of Avartana is mainly told for Vata disorders, may be because other dosage forms for Vata like kwatha may become more Also the vatahara properties of the sneha kalpas get enhanced by the repeated processing and the simultaneous addition of the kalka dravya may further result in obtaining the maximum concentration of phyto constituents of the drug into the lipid extractive media making the formulation more efficaceous. • The contemporary dosage form like soft gel,capsules are based on this concept. • There is mentioning of dasapaka , shatapaka and sahasrapaka ie,10, 100 and 1000 times in the Samhitas. • But practically we come across 7,14, 21, 41 avarthy preparations. rooksha by repeated processing.
  20. CONCLUSION Avartana technology in Ayurveda provides a greater dimension to the specific formulation concerned. Obtain the maximum concentration of phyto- constituents of the drug into the lipid extractive media. Here the constituent particles of the drugs are imbibed into the medium at the microscopic level, there by augmenting the therapeutic efficacy Reduction of dosage.