• Bhaishajya kalpana is the branch of ayurveda, which
primarily deals with the different kinds of dosage
forms and their therapeutic utility.
• Arka kalpana is described as one among the
panchavidha kashaya kalpana by Lankapati ravana in
his text arka prakasha.
• The word arka is derived from ‘Ru-gatau’. Every
word contains meaning. Gati(motion) denotes three
meanings i.e. Gyan, gamana and prapti.
3. • The knowledge of the contents of the drug is first thing (i.e.
Gyan), then the motion is given to the contents through water
(i.e. Gamana) and lastly reqquired amount of active content is
obtained(i.e. Prapti). Thus, arka caontains the complete
aspect of its manufacturing process by root word ‘Ru-gatau’.
• some of the drugs contain active principles in the form of
volatile oil hence by using these drugs if kwatha is prepared
,while doing preparation itself active ingredients may get
evapourated .Arka kalpana is prepared with such drugs. For
eg.gulabi pushpa,pudina etc.
• Yunani system of medication uses such medications in larger
• From 18th century onwards these preparations were widely
adopted in books of ayurveda
4. Literature review
Samhita kala References are not avilable
Adhunika kala : Gada nigraha Asava
arista vignana, sahasrayoga
In Kharjurasava an equipment similar to arka
yantra and preparation of Arka from asava is
Ayurvedic Formulary of India The definition, method of preparation,
characteristics and examples of Arkas are
mentioned in both the volumes
Rasatantra sara and siddha Prayoga
Examples of 21 arkas are mentioned in the first
volume. In this book the practical experiences of
the author is also mentioned along with dose.
Bharateeya bhaishajya kalpana Synonyms, history, method of preparation,
precautions, samyak lakshana and eight different
examples of arka kalpana
5. In Arka Prakasha, different ratios for distilling,
reference for 196 single drugs and 192 aushada
yogas for preparation of Arka with their
indication is described with details about Varuni
Yantra for preparation of Arka.
• Ayurveda : Arka
• Unani : Arkquites
• Siddha : Tineer
• Hmeopathy : Tincture
• Allopathy : distillate
6. Importance of arka kalpana
• Compared to the pancha vidha kashaya kalpana it can be
preserved for longer duration.
• Possess good palatability and attractive colour
• It is the more sterile method compared to other preparations.
• As it is liquid dosage form it is having faster absorption than
solid dosage forms
• The yield during kashaya preparation is only 1/4th of the water
taken. But in Arka, it is about 3/4th of initial water.
• In the economic view point, Arka can be prepared much
cheaper than that of a kashaya.
• Arka kalpana can be defined as a liquid preparation
obtained by distillation of certain liquids or of drugs
soaked in water using the arka yantra or any
convenient modern distillation apparatus.
Classification of arka
According to contents :
• Sthira arka: non volatile drug extraction e.g.triphala
• Gandha arka: fragrant or volatile oil extraction
• Drava arka: liquid – liquid extraction e.g. gomutra
8. According to duration of preparation :
• Nyuna arka : 3 hrs
• Madhyama arka : 6 hrs
• Shreshta arka : 9hr
According to part used :
• pushpa arka
• Sattu dhanya arka
• Kshiri vruksha arka
• Visha varga arka
• Taila dhanya arka
• Sugandha gana arka
• Tandul arka
• Arka is prepared by the process of distillation
of water soaked raw drugs with help of
Distillation apparatus (Arka Yantra).
• The volatile constituents which are evolved,
admixture with water vapour. Then, they are
condensed and collected.
• The still consists of a basal receptacle to contain the
drugs, and a cover with an exhaust tube which is
conveniently bent to drain the distillate into the bottle.
• A copular reservoir is provided at the region where the
exhaust leaves the lid portion.
• The receptacle of the retort may be an earthen pot or
preferably a metallic one. When made of metals like
brass or copper, the interior should be tin coated.
• Iron should not be used because it gets rusted
and corroded in a short period.
• Stainless steel stills are excellent for this
• It is advisable to provide a perforated false
bottom in the receptacle to keep the drug
intended for extraction and to avoid charring.
• The copular reservoir over the lid is filled with
cold water during distillation and it serve as a
sort of crude type of condenser.
• This crude device could be replaced by a good
condenser in the form of a water jacket
around the exhaust tube, or even a spiral type
of condenser could be provided.
14. Methode of preparation
Coarsely powdered drug + prescribed quantity of water
soak drug overnight + drug turns soft
transfer to arka yantra and boil
vapour is condensed
distillate is collected in receiver
15. End of the process
• The end of the process of Arka preparation is
marked by the escape of dark fumes from the
exhaust. Further attempts to heat and collect
the remnants of condensate should not be
made once this phenomenon is noticed.
• Usually the volume of the distillate is 3/4th of
the total volume of the drug and water
mixture taken for distillation.
16. Final product
• Thus produced Arka is a suspension of the
distillate in water having slight turbidity.
• Depending upon the nature of the crude drugs
under going for the distillation, the Arka will
have characteristic colour and odour.
• While doing Arka preparation, distillation apparatus
should be exposed with Mandagni, because boiling of
the drugs with excessive heat will lead to water getting
vaporized early. There by spoiled kwatha like
preparation will be produced.
• Because of more heat, very soon the water content will
get vaporized and there is a chance of burning and
spoilage of arka dravya, then little bit arka is produced
which contains improper taste, smell and which will
not be up to mark.
• The lid should be tightly placed and sealed
around to prevent vapors from escaping.
• Heat is applied to the drug mixture and the
distillate is collected in large bottles and mixed
well to ensure uniform concentration of the
medicine because the first distillate is much
concentrated compared to that collected at the
end of the process when the drugs are depleted
of the medicinal principles.
• Continuous water current should be maintained
in the condenser.
• When a copular type of condenser is used, water
is replaced by cool water when it becomes
• The vessel or bottle in which the distillate is
collected is placed in a container containing cold
20. Shad Agnis in preparation of Arka
Sl. no. Type of agni Total time
Quantity of fuel feature
1 dhumagni 2 yama Not mentioned Wihtout any flame if
there is huge amount
2 deepagni 1 ½ yama 2 Part of the
If the flame of
increasesed to 2 or 4
3 mandagni 1 yama Quarter of one
If the flame of dipagni
is again increased to 4
4 madhyamagni Between diptagni
½ mushti The agni in which the
flame is in between
dipagni and mandagni
21. 5 kharagni 1 muhurtha 2 ½ mushti Fifth part more than
that of madhayamagni
is kharagni, this agni is
used for all purposes
6 Bhatagni 1 muhurtha Not
The agni in which the
flame spreads all over
22. Different methods of preparation of arkas
Type of drug quantity of water exmples
Atyanta khatina 3 parts chandana
khatina 2 parts ajamoda
Sarasa nala 20 part Nirgundi, eranda
patra 100 part vasa
nirasa 20 part Vata, ashwatha
Mridu dugdhika 4 parts Dugdhika
23. Tikshna dugdhika 10 parts satala
phala not added Amra
Kashta oushadas 80 parts of water, udumbara
Atipakwa phala not added kadali
pushpa 16 parts Gulab arka
Katu phala 40 parts pippali
Drava dravya not added Gomutra
24. Prashasta Arka Lakshana
SìurÉÉSÍkÉMüxÉÉæaÉlkrÉÇ rÉÎxqÉ³ÉMåïü mÉëSÛzrÉiÉå |
eÉÏhÉÉïÎxjÉmÉÉ§ÉxÉÇÍ¤ÉmiÉÉå SìurÉuÉhÉï: mÉëSÛzrÉiÉå ||
ÎeÉÀûÉåmÉËUaÉiÉ: xuÉÉSÇ S±ÉSèSìurÉpÉuÉÇ iÉÑ rÉç:
• Clear and transparent
• Must have taste of ingredients
• It must comprehend the odour of ingredients
• It must have the same colour of drugs if kept in
• If kept in other vessels it should have the colour of shanka and
25. QUALITIES OF AN ARKA UNFIT FOR
THERAPEUTIC USE :
aÉÑhÉÉrÉ mÉ¶ÉÉixÉåuÉåiÉ iuÉlrÉjÉÉÅmÉaÉÑhÉÉå pÉuÉåiÉ |
SÒaÉïlkÉÇ pÉ¤ÉrÉåSMïü rÉÌS qÉÉåWûÉiMüjÉgcÉlÉ ||
iÉSÉÅxrÉ eÉÉrÉiÉå asÉÉÌlÉuÉÉïliÉqÉÉsÉxrÉMÇü iÉjÉÉ |
iÉ¬ÉåwÉxrÉ ÌuÉlÉÉzÉÉrÉ MÑürÉï²ÉÎliÉqÉiÉÎlSìiÉ:
• Unpleasant odour
• If it causes giddiness
• If it is turbid
• If taste colour etc… have changed.
26. NATURE OF THE VESSEL FOR STORAGE OF
eÉÏhÉÉïÎxjÉmÉÉ§Éå aÉÚÌºûrÉÉSMïÇ uÉÉ
mÉÉwÉÉhÉMåüÅjÉuÉÉ mÉÉ§Éå ApÉÉuÉå qÉÚlqÉrÉå
lrÉxÉåiÉç || (Aç.mÉë 1/87)
• Jeernasthimrithika patra
27. Mode of administration of arka
• Pana-Shopha :
• Swedana - Shopha ‘’
• Nasya - lasuna arka,aromatherapy
• Gandusha - Dantaroga : nila +katu+kakajangha
• Anjana - sitamanashiladi anjana
• External application - Gulab arka
28. What should be done after consumption of
• ÌmÉoÉåSMïüqÉÌlÉuÉÉïrÉïÇ mÉÏiuÉÉ iÉÉqoÉÑsÉpÉ¤ÉhÉqÉç |
MÑürÉÉïSpÉÑ£üiÉÉqoÉÑsÉÉå sÉuÉÇaÉÇ pÉ¤ÉrÉå¨ÉÑ cÉ
• In arka prakasha it is mentioned that after taking of arka,
Tambula or Lavana sevana should be done.
29. Shelf life / Expiry date:
• 1 year from the date of manufacturing
(Rule 161-B of D&C Act)
• API: 10 to 20 ml per day in divided doses.
• AFI: 12 to 24 ml per day in divided doses.
• Equal amount of water
30. Arka and Mano Gunas
• Avartita arka is tamasika which is taken for
doing nishiddha karmas and to induce nidra. It
is liked by Pishachas
• The arka made from rice water (manda) is
rajasika. It is consumed for doing sahasa
• All others will come under satvika. It is good
for those who are engaged in geetha hasya
31. Modern View
• In modern pharmaceutics, Arka kalpana can be
compared to distillation.
• Distillation is the process of separating the constituents
of a liquid by vaporizing the liquid and passing the
vapors through a cold surface and thereby converting
the vapors again into liquid.
• There are different types of distillation which include
Simple distillation, Fractional distillation, Steam
distillation, Vacuum distillation and Destructive
32. Simple Distillation
• It is the separation of volatile liquids from non-
• It is the conversion of liquid into vapors and again
condensing vapors into liquids
• The apparatus used is simple distillation apparatus .
It consists of still, condenser and receiver.
• It is the process to separate two volatile liquids with
different boiling points
Eg: mixture of alcohol and water where alcohol is
more volatile and evaporates faster than water.
33. Steam distillation
• Steam distillation is a method for distilling
compounds which are heat-sensitive.
• The temperature of the steam is easier to control
than the surface of a heating element, and allows
a high rate of heat transfer without heating at a
very high temperature.
• This process involves bubbling steam through a
heated mixture of the raw material.
• Some of the target compound will vaporize. Then
vapor mixture is cooled and condensed, usually
yielding a layer of oil and a layer of water.
34. • Steam distillation of various aromatic herbs
and flowers can result in two products; an
essential oil as well as a watery herbal
• The essential oils are often used in perfumery
and aromatherapy while the watery distillates
have many applications in aromatherapy, food
processing and skin care.
35. Vacuum distillation
• The distillation carried out under reduced pressure.
• A liquid boils when its vapor pressure becomes equal
to the atmospheric pressure
• So liquids can be boiled at a much lower temperature
than its boiling point if the pressure on the surface of
the liquid is reduced.
• Claisen flask- still for vacuum distillation
36. Destructive distillation
• Destructive distillation or Dry distillation , despite
the name, is not truly distillation, but rather a
chemical reaction known as pyrolysis in which
solid substances are heated in an inert or
reducing atmosphere and any volatile fractions,
containing high-boiling liquids and products of
pyrolysis, are collected.
• The destructive distillation of wood to give
methanol is the root of its common name – wood
38. 8. Test for heavy metals- Pb, Cd, Hg, As
9. Microbial contamination-
Total bacterial count
Total fungal count
10. Test for specific Pathogen-
E. coli, Salmonella spp., S. aureus, Pseudomonas
11. Pesticide residue-
42. Different study’s on arka kalpana
• A study on Medovriddhi (Obesity) and its
management with Medohara Arka
• N.C. Das, Nagendra Prasad and B.K. Das,2005,
• Conclusion : Study reveals maximum
improvement, moderate improvement, mild
improvement and unsatisfactory being 5%, 75%,
15% and 5% respectively.
43. EVALUATION OF JATAMAMSI ARKA
ON ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION
Jatamamsi Arka being Deepaka- Pachaka, Tridosha
hara, Medhya, Rakta dosha hara , Medohara and
Mootrala, acted over all these aspects and thus
proved effective in reducing both systolic and
44. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ERANDAMULADI
NIRUHA BASTI WITH & WITHOUT GOMUTRA
ARKA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF VATA
CONCLUSION:The Basti with GA group is more
potent in mitigating Vata and Kapha and also
45. Antimicrobial Activities of Cow Urine
Distillate Against Some Clinical
• Arunkumar Sathasivam, 1 2M. Muthuselvam
and 1Rajasekaran Rajendran
• Conclusion :Maximum antibacterial activity
was observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
and Salmonella typhi . Antifungal activity of
cows urine distillate was analyzed against
Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus.
46. Arka as Bio-enhancer
• Gurupreet kaur Randhava Department of
Pharmacology, Government Medical College,
• Conclusion: Gomutra arka enhances the
transport of antibiotics, rifampicilin,
tetracycline & ampicilin across the gut wall as
well as across artificial membranes.
47. • The Effect of Rose Water Inhalation on Cardiac
• S. Mehran Hosseini1, Mohsen Jamshir
• In effect of 120 seconds rose water odour
inhalation parasympathetic tone (HF)
increased and heart rate (HR) and sympathetic
tone (LF/HF) decreased. Differential and direct
parasympathetic modulation may account for
part of this effect.
• In the present era, very less people prefer
kashaya because of its palatibility. Arka is nothing
but the lost partof kashaya. So, it can be used at
the place of kashayas with better patient
• Many Arkas are mentioned in various authentic
books of Ayurveda. They are not much popular in
the market. The reason behind it may be the lack
of knowledge about this kalpana.
• Though different modes of administration are
told,its usage is usually limited as Pana, nasya and
• Arka is the most potent preparation included
under the Panchavidha kalpanas of Ravana
• It is the most potent due to dosharahithatva and
its specific gunas. It is having increased potency,
reduced dose, more shelf life and also easy
absorption, fast action and better patient
• Arkas can be prepared from Herbs, Minerals &
Animal origin drugs
• Arka can be used for secondary preparations
• Arka can be prepared from modern distillation
50. • Although 505 arka preparations are mentioned
in arkaprakasa ,only few of the preparations
are used in clinical practice.
• So research works has to done on arka
preparations to bring those excellent remedies
to the main stream.