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Human Values and Professional Ethics

  1. What areValues?
  2.  Core of personality.  Strong force affecting behaviour.  Judgemental in nature.  Content and Intensity Attributes.  Dynamic, not static.  Relatively Stable and Enduring.  Separate Hierarchy of values forming various value systems.
  3. Sources ofValues Fellow Workers Family Friends The Law Regions of Country Profession Employer Society at Large Religious Beliefs The Individual Conscience Culture
  4. Classification ofValues According to Edward Spranger, there are six types of values:  Theoretical  Economic  Aesthetic  Social  Political  Religious
  5. According to Rokeach, depending on nature, values can be of two types:  Terminal  Instrumental
  6. Urban suggested values like :  BodilyValues  Economic  Values of Recreation  CharacterValues  AestheticValues  IntellectualValues  ReligiousValues
  7. Types of values Temporal Cultural Political Economic Corporate Social Universal Human Moral Spiritual
  8. Essence ofValues
  9. Breathe in Love Spread Love
  10. Hands in Society  Hands in Society ◦ Live WITH others ◦ Live FOR others
  11. Heart in work Work wholeheartedly which is acceptable to your heart.
  12. Head in forest Live in calm and peace with Selflessness.
  13. KeyValues rooted deep in Indian Culture and Society  The individual must be respected  Cooperation and trust  Jealousy is harmful for mental health  Purification of mind  Top quality product or service  Work is worship  Containment of greed  Ethico-moral soundness  Self-discipline and Self-Restraint  Customer Satisfaction  Creativity  Inspiration to give  Renunciation and detachment
  15. Culture  Crosby defines culture as patterns of behaviour, which suggests some sort of naturally accruing patterns of structure and repeatability.  Juran defines culture as the creation of values, beliefs and behaviour necessary for success, which suggests culture is an entity man creates to meet the needs of the group at the time according to a large body of knowledge.  Hofstede observed culture is the collective programming of the mind, which distinguishes the members of one group pr category of people from those of another.
  16. Characteristics of Culture  Learnt  Shared  Continuous – passes from 1 generation to next  Symbolic – use one thing to represent another  Integrated – inter related, inter dependent, change in leads to change in another  Adaptive – adaptability, creative, innovation, imagination  Regular – use of common language, terminology and accepted form of behaviour  Norms – distinctive standards of behaviour  DominantValues – advocated and accepted  Philosophy – policies concerning beliefs & standards of performance, attitude, behaviour, conduct  Rules – formal and informal
  18. Values in Indian Culture and Management  Basic fact of life ◦ Naturally and instinctively desire to be happy ◦ Overcome suffering  Yet we undergo painful experiences.Why?  Perceiving and relating to others
  19. At the root of this life Buddhism identified following four false views : FalseView Reality  Eternal and Permanent  Pleasurable and true sources of Happiness  Tend to apprehend as pure and desirable things  Tendency to project a notion of real existence upon events and things  Impermanent and Transient  Sources of dissatisfaction and suffering  Impure  Lack any such autonomy
  20. Values in Indian Culture and Management  Fundamentally flawed views of reality lead to certain false ways of relating to the world and to oneself, which in turn leads to confusion, misery and suffering.  Indian culture is very rich in values which if practiced lead to success, prosperity and peace.  Some are presented in value tree as follows:
  21. ValuesAcross Culture Individualism versuscollectivism Quantityof lifeversus qualityof life Uncertaintyavoidance Long-term versus short-termorientation Hofstede studied culturalvalues across 50countries A frameworkfor assessingcultures;five value dimensionsof nationalculture… A Powerdistance B C D E
  22. Hofstede’s Framework forAssessing Cultures
  23. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
  24. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
  25. Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which people prefer order and certainty, or uncertainty and ambiguity. The extent to which they feel comfortable or threatened by which a common good is perceived and tendency and the willingness to work towards this.
  26. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
  27. ValuesWest can learn from the East  The individual must be respected  Cooperation and trust  Jealousy is harmful for mental health  Purification of mind  Top quality product or service  Work is worship  Containment of greed  Ethico-moral soundness  Self-discipline and Self- Restraint  Customer Satisfaction  Creativity  Inspiration to give  Renunciation and detachment
  28. Values East can learn from the West • Accountability • Attitude to Corruption • Believe in Best • Civic and HygieneValue • Don’t rationalise failures • Environment Friendly • Equality of Sexes • ExtensiveTarget • Independence • Listen to better performers • National Service through industry • Professionalism in Dealings • Proud of Work • Public Apathy • Quality Imperative • Respect for the Public Good • Respect to Contractual Obligation • Time Conscious • Unity and Solidarity
  29. Values for Global Managers  Pascale and Athos indentified following main values : National Service Fairness Harmony and Cooperation Struggle for Betterment Courtesy and Humility Adjustment and Assimilation Gratitude
  30. Values for Global Managers  Peters andWaterman indentified following main values : Being the Best Importance of details of execution People as individuals Superior quality and service Innovators Informality to enhance communication Economic Growth and Profits
  31. Values for Global Managers  Globalisation has become a reality today.  One of the major tasks of global managers is to identify similar cultural values and beliefs among host and home countries.  To make this internationalism a success and fruitful to all it must practice certain values as follows:
  32.  Secularism  International Cooperation  Peaceful Coexistence  Pursuit of Excellence  Quality  National Integration Policy  ScientificTemper  Protection of the environment  Common cultural Heritage  Equality of the sexes  Removal of economic and social barriers  Unity and Solidarity  Respect for local cultures  SocialValues  EnvironmentValues
  33. Leading forces of Globalisation Technology Trade
  34. UNIT 2 Ethics
  35. Concept  Ethics are behavioural norms or patterns that spring from one’s view of good or bad, right or wrong. It is an activity based concept.
  36. Concept  Ethics and morals relate to ―right‖ and ―wrong‖ conduct.While they are sometimes used interchangeably, they are different: Ethics refer to rules provided by an external source, e.g., codes of conduct in workplaces or principles in religions. Morals refer to an individual's own principles regarding right and wrong. Morality governs private, personal interactions. Ethics governs professional interactions.
  37. Character of a Man Good or bad, Right or wrong, Moral or immoral Series of Actions Conduct of a person Moral Standards Decided by Leads to Taken together Considered as Known as moral judgemen t By which we can judge Requires
  38. Concept  Personal Ethics  Business Ethics  Managerial Ethics  Work Ethics
  39. Five P’s of Ethical Power • Reflects in corporate mission flows from faith in professional management to transform society. Purpose • Establish ethical credibility, enhancing quality of life individually, professional attainment, mission in line with national goals, respects for laws and excellence through moral and performance touchstone. Perspectives • Wait for the right time. • Long term existence and survival has to be the governing philosophy. Patience • Uncertainty, pressure and failures come in the way of ethic approach but one need to persist and struggle. Persistence • Self-esteem on individual and collective basis is the basic tenet of ethical power. Pride
  40. OrganisationTools to Cultivate Ethics  Suri and Joshi identified following practices to cultivate work ethics: ◦ A well developed information system ◦ A wide spectrum of off-job welfare and cultural activities ◦ Fair incentive payment system ◦ Carefully designed three tier grievance procedure for quick redress of grievances ◦ Adopting problem solving approach ◦ Adopting MECOM : management employee communication meetings
  41. OrganisationTools to Cultivate Ethics ◦ A rational wages system with assured seniority wages for all ◦ Absorbing wards of old employees ◦ Developing union-management forum ◦ Enriched role for front line supervisors ◦ Easy access to top management ◦ Frequent dialogue and communication/interaction among employee at all levels ◦ Instituting consultative mechanism and open organisational culture
  42. OrganisationTools to Cultivate Ethics ◦ Open style of management ◦ Applying quality circles ◦ Open door policy ◦ Uniform application of personnel rules and procedures- including recruitment, training, discipline, etc. ◦ Provision of welfare and civic amenities ◦ Make people more committed and loyal ◦ Workers involvement in decision making
  43. Theories of Ethics Ethical Theories Teleological Deontological
  44. Teleological (Consequentialist Ethics)  The Teleological Ethical Theories are concerned with the consequences of actions which means the basic standards for our actions being morally right or wrong depends on the good or evil generated.  Greek Origin :telos = end and logos =science  It derives duty or moral obligation from what is good or desirable as an end to be achieved. Thus, a moral theory that maintains that the rightness or wrongness of actions solely depends on their consequences is called as a teleological theory.
  45. Types of Teleological Ethics
  46. Ethical Egoism The ethical egoism is a teleological theory that posits, an action is good if it produces or is likely to produce results that maximize the person’s self-interest as defined by him, even at the expense of others. It is based on the notion that it is always moral to promote one’s own good, but at times avoiding the personal interest could be a moral action too. This makes the ethical egoism different from the psychological egoism which holds that people are self-centered and self-motivated and perform actions only with the intention to maximize their personal interest without helping others, thereby denying the reality of true altruism (sacrificing one’s personal interest in the welfare of others).
  47. Utilitarianism The Utilitarianism theory holds that an action is good if it results in maximum satisfaction for a large number of peoplewho are likely to get affected by the action. Suppose a manager creates an annual employee vacation schedule after soliciting the vacation time preferences from all the employees and honor their preferences, then he would be acting in a way that shall maximize the pleasure of all the employees.
  48. Eudaimonism Eudaimonism is a teleological theory which posits, that an action is good if it results in the fulfillment of goals along with the welfare of the human beings. In other words, the actions are said to be fruitful if it promotes or tends to promote the fulfillment of goals constitutive of human nature and its happiness. Suppose manager enforce employee training and knowledge standards at work, which are natural components of human happiness.
  49. Deontological  The morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the action.  Greek Origin: Deon = Duty, Logos = Science  Relationship between duty and the morality of human actions.  Thus, a theory asserts that the rightness or wrongness of actions does not depend on the goodness or badness of their consequences.
  50. Types of Deontological Theory
  51. Negative and Positive Rights Theories The negative rights theory asserts that an action is right if it protects the individual from harm or unwarranted interference from other people or the government while exercising his right. Suppose an individual has the right to use, sell or dispose of his personal car then the other persons have the correlative duty to not to prevent him from doing whatever he want to do with his car. The positive rights theory posits that an action is right if it provides or tends to provide an individual with anything that he needs to exist. Suppose an individual has the right to adequate health care services to survive this means other agents, perhaps the government has the correlative duty to provide him with the necessary health care services.
  52. Social ContractTheories  The social contract theories posit that people contract with each other to abide by the moral and political obligations towards the society in which they live. This theory is based on the notion that if there is no order and law in the society, then people will have unlimited freedoms, i.e. the right to all things and will resort to all misdeeds such as rape, murder, plunder, etc.  Thus, there will be an endless ―war of all against all‖ and in order to overcome such situation people enter into an agreement with each other to give up some of their freedoms and accept the obligation to respect and safeguard the rights of the others. Thus, an individual gains the civil rights that constitute the social benefits that he is entitled to the extent he fulfills his due obligations towards the society.
  53. Social JusticeTheories  The social justice theories state that the action will be considered right if it confirms the fairness in the distributive, retributive and compensatory dimensions of cost and rewards. The distributive dimension means the perceived fairness in the distribution of social benefits and burden among the group members. The retributive dimension considers the punishment proportionate to the extent of crime while the compensatory dimension is the way people are compensated in relation to the injuries inflicted upon them.  For example, if the second-hand smoke hurts the passive or non- smokers at work, there should be a fair distribution of health risk burden and the proportionate punishment should be imposed on the party responsible for it. Also, the affected parties shall be compensated to the extent they have suffered the injuries.
  54. Benefits of Managing Ethics in the Organisation  Attention to business ethics has substantially improved society  Ethics programmes help Maintain a moral course in Turbulent times  Ethics programmes cultivate strong teamwork and Productivity  Ethics programmes support employee growth and meaning  Ethics programmes are an Insurance Policy; ensure policies are legal
  55.  Ethics programmes Help avoid criminal acts of Omission and can lower fines  Ethics programmes Help manage values associated with Quality Management, Strategic Planning and Diversity Management  Ethics programmes promote a strong public image  Overall Benefits of Ethics programmes  Last and Most Formal Attention to ethics in the workplace is the right thing to do.
  56. Ethical Leadership Ethical leaders always know how to do the right thing. It may be difficult to define exactly what ―right‖ is, but a leader who is ethical is not afraid to do what they truly believe to be right – even if it is unpopular, unprofitable, or inconvenient.  Here are 10 ethical leadership characteristics: 1. Justice An ethical leader is always fair and just. They have no favorites, and treat everyone equally. Under an ethical leader, no employee has any reason to fear biased treatment on the basis of gender, ethnicity, nationality, or any other factor. 2. Respect others One of the most important traits of ethical leadership is the respect that is given to followers. An ethical leader shows respect all members of the team by listening to them attentively, valuing their contributions, being compassionate, and being generous while considering opposing viewpoints. 3. Honesty It goes without saying that anyone who is ethical will also be honest and loyal. Honesty is particularly important to be an effective ethical leader, because followers trust honest and dependable leaders. Ethical leaders convey facts transparently, no matter how unpopular they may be.
  57. Ethical Leadership 4. Humane Being humane is one of the most revealing traits of a leader who is ethical and moral. Ethical leaders place importance in being kind, and act in a manner that is always beneficial to the team. 5. Focus on teambuilding Ethical leaders foster a sense of community and team spirit within the organization. When an ethical leader strives to achieve goals, it is not just personal goals that they’re concerned about. They make genuine efforts to achieve goals that benefit the entire organization – not just themselves. 6.Value driven decision-making In ethical leadership, all decisions are first checked to ensure that they are in accordance with the overall organizational values. Only those decisions that meet this criterion are implemented. 7. Encourages initiative Under an ethical leader, employees thrive and flourish. Employees are rewarded for coming up with innovative ideas, and are encouraged to do what it takes to improve the way things are done. Employees are praised for taking the first step rather than waiting for somebody else to do it for them.
  58. Ethical Leadership 8. Leadership by example Ethical leadership is not just about talking the talk, this type of leader also walks the walk.The high expectations that an ethical leader has of employees are also applicable on the individual level. Leaders expect others to do the right thing by leading from example. 9.Values awareness An ethical leader will regularly discuss the high values and expectations that they place on themselves, other employees, and the organization. By regularly communicating and discussing values, they ensure that there is consistent understanding across the organization. 10. No tolerance for ethical violations An ethical leader expects employees to do the right thing at all times, not just when it is convenient for them. Don’t expect a leader of such high values to overlook or tolerate ethical violations.
  59. Indian Ethos and Management Style
  60. Indian Ethos and Workplace
  61. Decision Making Process Identify Existing Problem List Alternative Problem Solutions Select Most Beneficial Alternative Implement Chosen Alternative Feedback
  62. Ethical Considerations in Decision Making
  63. Indian Management Style :A model
  64. Old Practices Emerging Practices  Business performance measured by economic gains only  Emphasis on quantity of production  Authoritarian management style  Short-term intuitive planning  Entrepreneur  Control than innovation  People subordinate structure  Business performance measured by economic and social gains  Emphasis on quality of production  Democratic management style  Long range comprehensive structured planning  Renaissance manager  Creativity  People dominated culture OldVersus Emerging Managerial Practices
  65. Old Practices Emerging Practices  Financial Accounting  Caveat Emptor  Centralized decision-making  Concentration on internal functioning  Decisions based on economic forecasts  Business viewed as a sole system  Local market perspective  Financial and HR Accounting  Ombudsman  Decentralized and small group decision-making  Concentration on external ingredients  Decisions based on social, political, technological as well  Business a system with in the large social system  Global perspective OldVersus Emerging Managerial Practices
  66. Old Practices Emerging Practices  Resource Limitations  Manufacturing Focus  Tall and vertical organisational structure  Huge structures  Intelligence Quotient key factor  Rewards individual basis  Rigid approach  Inhouse manufacturing  Easy access to information, money, technology  Services society  Flat and thin organisation structure  Virtual organisations  Emotional Quotient and Spiritual Quotient key to success  Rewards team basis  Flexible approach  Business Process Outsourcing OldVersus Emerging Managerial Practices
  67. Emerging Managerial Practices  Creating a winning vision  Integrate with the globe  Create a customer-centric organisation  Nurture intellectual capital  Attracting and retaining talent  Building systems to gather, share and retrieve knowledge  Soul of a start-up,heart of a colossus  Prepare for tomorrow, today  Embrace death  Working together  Creating an ethical organisation
  68. Ethical Constraints  Politicians  Bureaucracy  Money Providers  Corporate Accounting  Stake- holders Expectations  Individual Greed
  69. Core Strategies in IndianWisdom  Soul Searching Mantras  Detached Actions  Believe inYourself  Peaceful mind generated power
  70. Unit 5 Spirituality – The relationship one has with one’s self.
  71. Sense of, Personal, Insight, Religious, Interests, Towards, Universal, Acceptance for, Love, Integrity, Truthfulness, and You (God). S P I R I T U A L I T Y
  72. According to Chakraborty (1996), Spirituality means :  A pure mind, a pure heart  A calm head, a cool brain  Smooth, deep, regulated breathing and nervous harmony,  Peace, light, power and Anand,  A core of luminous, and also identical with the self in everyone else,  A weakening of the divisive, selfish ego and strengthening the expansive, inclusive consciousness,  Greater giving, less grabbing  Diminution of pettiness and meanness, and enhancement of dignity and nobility, and  Putting the faltering human intellect in contact with the infallible supreme or universal or infinite intelligence or creative principle called Brahman or Allah or God.
  73. Key Elements  Highly individual and intensely personal.  Basic belief that there is a supreme power (God), a being, force or what ever you call that governs the entire universe.  Everything affects and is affected by everything else.  Everything is a part and expression of this oneness.  Everything in interconnected with everything else.  Spirituality is giving expression to one’s feeling.  It is also the feeling that no matter how bad things get, they will always workout somehow.  There is as much, if not more, goodness in the world as there is evil.  We are put here basically to do good , one must strive to produce products and services that serve all of human kind.  Spirituality is inextricably connected and is the basic faith with
  74. Key Elements  It may not be proved logically or scientifically that these things exist in the universe as a whole.  Faith is exactly the thing that renders their strict proof unnecessary.  Not formal, structured or organised.  Non-denominational, above and beyond denominations.  Broadly inclusive, embracing everyone.  Universal and timeless.  The ultimate source and provider of meaning and purpose of life.  The awe we feel in the presence of the transcendent.  The sacredness of everything, the ordinariness of everyday life.  The deep feeling of the interconnectedness of everything.  Inner peace and calm.  An inexhaustible source of faith and will power.  The ultimate end in itself.
  75. GOD The Everyday Mystic Generosit y of Spirit The Passion to Serve TheWay to the Heart ThyWill, Not Mine, Be Done Contempl ation and Transfor mation TheWay to Faith Paths to Spirituality
  76. The Everyday Mystic  In the language of yoga, Path one flows from the root chakra, the place where the life-force energy is curled like a serpent, waiting to unfold the creative process of life. Path One is earth-centered, home-centered. It is the domain that sees the creator in every bush and tree, in the gifts of food and shelter, in nurturing and in the fulfillment of the everyday needs of life. It is the path of gratitude and care taking of the earth and all her creatures. At one with the physical world around them, they perceived the interconnectedness of all things, the circular nature of the universe, and the rightness of both birth and death in the overall scheme of creation.
  77. Generosity of Spirit  The summer season of increase and abundance is when the earth bears fruits. This seasonal energy is related to the personal energy of the second chakra: sexuality and birth. Yoga relates the creative second chakra to the leydig cells that occur both in the ovaries and the testes. In this path of creativity and abundance, male and female aspects join. The male aspect provides the space in which the feminine aspect becomes the womb of creativity. In the Hindu tradition, this is called tantra yoga, the sacred marriage of male and female. Offering these gifts to the world is pure joy, and the energy that comes back to one from those who receive them keeps the creativity flowing. The key to path two is generosity of spirit being secure enough in themselves that one can receive from God and give to others in a way that encourages both to bring forth creative gifts.
  78. The Passion to serve  In yoga, this seasonal energy is carried personally within our solar plexus or adrenal center. East is the direction of the rising sun, the new day that brings the energy and power to dream a new world into being. Similarly, the third chakra is the powerhouse of action, the furnace of passion and emotion whose fire fuels our dreams and gives us the stamina to fulfill them.  The basic question for path three mystics is : "Whom do I serve?" If we serve ourselves, to the exclusion of others, as do dictators and power-hungry zealots such as Hitler, we fall into spiritual peril and are likely to add chaos, rather than creativity, to the universe.  If we serve the world, we use our potential as co-creators with God. Path three is what the Hindus call karma yoga, the path to God-union through service.
  79. The Way Of The Heart  The Path four mystic can truly say, "I love God with all my heart, soul, and mind, and I love my neighbor as myself." The Hindus call this path bhakti yoga, the way of devotion. One may be devoted to a personal aspect of God such as Krishna, Jesus, Buddha, or the Mother Mary—or to the realization that, when we see with the eyes of the heart, we can worship God within every person.  Yoga research correlates the heart chakra with the cardiac plexus and the thymus gland. In Eastern thought, the thymus regulates the boundary between earth and heaven. The heart chakra is thus considered the meeting point of earth and heaven, karma and grace. Path four mystics such as Mother Teresa bring about heaven on earth through love.
  80. HisWill, Not Mine, Be Done  The season of winter in which stories are told and we reflect on the natural order of the universe and our place within it. This impersonal energy represents discipline, will, and responsibility.  In Hindu philosophy, this is the path of raja yoga God-union by following the specific moral disciplines that preserve the community, honour life, and lead to personal growth.  The bottom line for path five mystics is whether their acts are kind and compassionate—not in the abstract, but in the particular moment—and for the particular person with whom they are interacting.
  81. Contemplation And Transformation  The fall season when the life-force energy withdraws and nature goes to sleep. The abode of the setting sun, west is the direction of the ego death that makes room for rebirth into spirit. This is often accomplished by undergoing a dark night of the soul, like the Buddha, when our old life is left behind and we enter a period of wandering or searching before the sun of enlightenment rises. When we awaken to our new life, we see things not through our physical eyes, but through the wisdom eye. The dark night of transformation calls out the question : "Who am I? Am I just this body, or I am something more?" In answering this question, the path-six mystic is called to deep meditation and contemplation.  These practices help her to shed the ego's attachments to praise and blame, tragedy and triumph. Through them she develops the contentment, equanimity, and compassion of one who has communed with God and knows the beauty of life, beyond the appearances of suffering and limitation. In the Hindu system, path six corresponds to jnana yoga, the path of insight.
  82. TheWay Of Faith  Great Sacred, or the Great Spirit  In yoga, it correlates with the seventh, or crown chakra, where the life-force energy enters the body and God becomes manifest in physical form. Our faith is an important determinant of openness to Spirit.  The nature of our faith develops and changes throughout the lifecycle, through the dark nights of the soul when we are challenged to transform, and through the work we do on the different spiritual paths. Eventually we have the faith to recognize that grace is a paradox; apparently wonderful events can curb our growth, while devastating events may spur it. We then receive the higher grace of non-attachment. And since the state of union is sometimes beyond the capacity of our perceptions, its truest measure is in the kindness, creativity, charity, and compassion that are the fruits of Spirit made manifest in our life.
  83.  Thus life is creative, creator (God) is in all things of world, which are interconnected, and nature; cycle pave way to death and vice versa. Man must enjoy abundance, gifts of nature and help in creation. Like God one should endeavour to serve for the welfare of mankind especially the disadvantaged. Thus one will create path to heaven by loving all and performing with morals without looking for fruits/results, for nothing can happen without His will. But this needs great insight of awakening, enlightenment through wisdom eye by way of meditation and contemplation in order to gain contentment, equanimity and compassion. Moreover, fact of the matter is that spirituality is based on faith, a changing emotion, that God is permanent, everywhere and in everything. A true wise man's life is manifested by kindness, creativity, charity and compassion. But ignorant people do not know how to attain spirituality.
  84. Prayer
  85. Meditation
  86. Yoga
  87. Silent Sitting
  88. Chanting Mantras
  89. Listening to Grasping Religious Scriptures
  90. Vedantic Approach to Spiritual and Ethical Development The main characteristics of the approach are:  All religions lead to spiritual and ethical development in their true perspective.  Development up to atomic poor natwa (self-realization).  Goals of life to be four purusharath – Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha.  Holistic approaches towards ethics – morality and values.  In each one of us dwells the divine self, know yourself.  Indian model of holistic development.  Needs create a holistic approach to ethical, spiritual and intellectual development.  The ethics govern decision-making and organisation behaviour.
  91. Vedantic Approach to Spiritual and Ethical Development  The five-fold debt system and obligations of human beings.  The soul is infinite, omnipotent and can be realized by ethical and spiritual discipline.  Theory of nishkama karma and dharm sadhana prevails.  Theory of samskaras and theory of rebirth is a accepted norm.  Vedanta is a sovereign science.  Vedanta is a way of life and its techniques can transform human beings.  Vedanta is basically the science of human energy resources.  Vedanta needs to be taught by enlightened guru
  92. Vedantic Approach to Spiritual and Ethical DevelopmentIn Patanjali's Yoga Sutra, the eightfold path is called ashtanga, which literally means "eight limbs" (ashta=eight, anga=limb). These eight steps basically act as guidelines on Spiritual and ethical development  How to live a meaningful and purposeful life.  They serve as a prescription for moral and ethical conduct and self-discipline  They direct attention toward one's health  They help us to acknowledge the spiritual aspects of our nature.
  93. The Eight Fold Path 1. Yama 2. Niyam 3. Asana 4. Pranayam 5. Pratyahara 6. Dharana 7. Dhyana 8. Samadhi
  94. Yama – Qualities of Observance  Satya – Truthfulness  Ahimsa – Non-violence  Asatya – Non-covetousness  Brahmcharya – Celibacy  Aparigraha – Non-acceptance of others, possessions
  95. Niyama – Rules of Life  Saucha – Purification  Santosha – Contentment  Tapas – Austerity  Svadhaya– Study and learning  Ishwara Pranidhana – Devotion to God
  96. Asana The postures practiced in yoga, comprise the third limb. In the yogic view, the body is a temple of spirit, the care of which is an important stage of our spiritual growth. Through the practice of asanas, we develop the habit of discipline and the ability to concentrate, both of which are necessary for meditation. Pranayama – Breath Control This consists of techniques designed to gain mastery over the respiratory process while recognizing the connection between the breath, the mind, and the emotions. Pranayama ="life force extension," yogis believed that it not only rejuvenates the body but actually extends life itself.
  97. Pratyahara Withdrawal or sensory transcendence. We make the conscious effort to draw our awareness away from the external world and outside stimuli. Keenly aware of, yet cultivating a detachment from, our senses, we direct our attention internally. Dharana Having relieved ourselves of outside distractions, we can now deal with the distractions of the mind itself. We learn how to slow down the thinking process by concentrating on a single mental object: a specific energetic center in the body, an image of a deity, or the silent repetition of a sound.
  98. Dhayana Uninterrupted flow of concentration. Where dharana practices one-pointed attention, dhyana is ultimately a state of being keenly aware without focus. At this stage, the mind has been quieted, and in the stillness it produces few or no thoughts at all. Samadhi - A State of ecstasy The meditator merges with his or her point of focus and transcends the Self altogether. He comes to realize a profound connection to the Divine, an interconnectedness with all living things. With this realization comes the "peace that passeth all understanding"; the experience of bliss and being at one with the Universe.
  99. Dushman – devils of man  Kaam – Lust  Krodh – Anger  Lobh – Greed  Moh – Attachment  Ahankaar – Proud
  100. Pandora’s Box Greek Mythology 7 Sins
  101. Fruits of Spirituality  Kshama – forgiveness, control of mind  Dama – control of sense  Upasati – thoughts,words and deeds  Titikha - endurance  Shradha - faith  Samadhanamental – equilibrium, balance and normalness
  102. Indian Spiritual Tradition Indian Spiritual Tradition Spirituo- Psyche Spirituo- Individual Spirituo- HRD Spirituo- Financing Spirituo- Production Spirituo- Marketing
  103. Spirituo- Psyche
  104. Spirituo - Individual  The social, psychological, spiritual dimensions of human behaviour should be treated as an integrated phenomenon within organizations. A synergistic approach to positive ◦ Personal qualities- humility, modesty, equipoise, a sense of indebtedness to society, emphasis on giving rather than receiving, ◦ Social values- work ethics, effective rewards and punishments, the role of an elder or boss as a trend- setter ◦ Spiritual values- transcendence, the concept of work as sacrifice, search for the ultimate truth can lead to effective functioning of a group and to successful leadership.
  105. Concept of Transcendence  Rising above the day-to-day mental and intellectual characteristics of his work and to look for a spiritual guidance for better management.  Any concern with the spiritual self has to be examined in the background of basic personal qualities and socialization.  A positive approach towards transcendence in the field of management provides hope and promise in the prevailing environment of deceit, greed, and hatred.
  106. Spirituo - HRD  To analyse one’s effectiveness as team-member and leader in terms of the well-known three-fold Indian classification of basic human qualities (gunas) : sattava, rajas and tamas.  An adequate combination of sattava and rajas among members can help a group to absorb shocks and lead it to healthy goals.  The scientific research may help in selection of the right people for given jobs and formation of task forces for various organisational needs.
  107. Spirituo - Financing  The raising and distribution of funds in organisation or country under this concept will be fair, transparent and objective.  The black money, hoarding or any manipulation of stock market has no place.
  108. Spirituo - Production  The transformation of raw material into finished goods should not change natural content or its dominance in final products.  Further, technology or machines have to be used only in situation of man failure or its absence.  The production or manufacturing activity should not damage environment and harm society.
  109. Spirituo - Marketing  To sell the products and services which should not harm and damage people physically and even psychologically.  The present day market economy is more in contradiction to the spirituo- marketing.  People should be provided only with what they need for convenient survival.  The mere and sheer illusions, allurements of publicity campaigns have no place in this marketing.