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Eggs: Solutions to Vitamin D deficiency - Knowledge Day 2016

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Eggs: Solutions to Vitamin D deficiency by Dr. Linda Browning

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Eggs: Solutions to Vitamin D deficiency - Knowledge Day 2016

  1. 1. Dr. Linda Browning Vitamin D Deficiency in Human Health – Eggs may be a Solution
  2. 2. Rickets – Why Vitamin D was discovered? At the end of the 19th Century 90% of dead children in industrialized cities had clinical rickets. A cure had to be found for this cruel disease. This was done in 1925 when a substance was isolated by McCollum from cod liver oil and named Vitamin D.
  3. 3. Vitamin D - Metabolism
  4. 4. Vitamin D - definition The term vitamin D in this presentation designates a group of closely aligned compounds, known as cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and the first metabolite of D3, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) 1 μg D3 = 40 international units (IU) of vitamin D 1 μg 25(OH)D3 = 200 international units (IU) of vitamin D 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 has up to 5 times the biological vitamin D equivalence in human nutrition compared to D3
  5. 5. Function Vitamin D – all vertebrates A major role of Vitamin D is to control calcium and phosphorus homeostasis in the body of vertebrates. This control is exerted by; • Vitamin D controls 85% of the transfer of calcium across the intestinal wall via the calcium binding protein (CaBP). • Vitamin D controls at least 40% of the active transfer of phosphorus across the intestinal wall. • Vitamin D controls re-absorption of calcium from bone • Vitamin D controls re-absorption of calcium from the kidney. • Vitamin D is involved in the immune system with most cells of the body having vitamin D receptors (VDRs). • Vitamin D helps control cell proliferation and differentiation (Cancer).
  6. 6. Definition of vitamin D status in human health • Not deficient vitamin D = serum 25(OH)D3 greater than 50 nmol/L • Mild deficiency vitamin D = serum 25(OH)D3 between 25 - 50 nmol/L • Moderate deficiency vit D = serum 25(OH)D3 between 12.5-25 nmol/L • • Severe deficiency vit D = serum 25(OH)D3 less than 12.5 nmol/L
  7. 7. Vitamin D prevents bone disease Classical role of vitamin D: bone health • Improves bone mineral density through calcium absorption and deposition, necessary to prevent rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis. Healthy bone Osteoporotic bone • Osteoporosis A loss of bone mineralization caused in part by a Vitamin D deficiency affects more than 200 million women worldwide.
  8. 8. Optimum vitamin D status may reduce the risk of various health concerns
  9. 9. Vitamin D helps reduces Lung Cancer • Lung Cancer is responsible for 19.4% of all cancer deaths. Lung cancer is increasing. • The meta-analysis of 10 studies and 2227 lung cancer patients revealed a 5% reduction in risk of lung cancer associated with each 10 nmol/L increase of or vitamin D (25(OH)D) in the blood (Chen et al., 2015).
  10. 10. Scientific evidence supports vitamin D benefits in different segments Bone (14,605 publications) Colon cancer (459 publications) Immunity (1,001 publications) Muscle (1,583 publications) Multiple sclerosis (260 publications) Blood pressure& CVD (2,721 publications) Tuberculosis (493 publications) Diabetes type I & II (1,287 publications) Brain & cognition (1,123 publications) ~3,500 publications in 2011
  11. 11. Who in your community is at extra risk of vitamin D insufficiency? • Darker skinned people have reduced levels of Vitamin D synthesis in their skin. • Older people have a reduced ability to make Vitamin D in their skin. They need more in their diet. • Veiled people who are not exposed to sunlight. • People who are obese. • People who have liver or kidney disease.
  12. 12. Why do we need to increase intake of Vitamin D ? Because there is a chronic deficiency of vitamin D in most countries of the world: 88% of the worlds population has suboptimal vitamin D levels (<75 nmol/L)1,2 1. Bischo-Ferrari H.A. et al. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25- hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):18-28 2. Zittermann A. et al. Vitamin D deficiency and mortality risk in the general population: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan;95(1):91-100. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.014779. Epub 2011 Dec 14
  13. 13. Vitamin D status in India • In India, several studies have demonstrated low serum levels of 25(OH)D3 (< 50 nmol/L) throughout the population (Arya 2004), (Vuppurturi 2006), ( Zargar 2007). • One series of studies in northern India (27 ° N) has shown - 96% of neonates (Sachen 2005), - 91% of healthy school girls ( Puri 2008), - 78% of healthy hospital staff (Arya 2004) and - 84% of pregnant women (Sachen 2005) insufficient in vit D.
  14. 14. Vitamin D status in India Vitamin D Status in India - Its Implications and Remedial Measures. Harinarayan C.V. and S.R. Joshi JAPI vol 57 January 2009
  15. 15. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe
  16. 16. Natural Good Sources of Vitamin D in Food Extracted from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2011. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Food IU per serving Cod liver oil, 1 tablespoon 1,360 Swordfish, cooked, 3 ounces ( approx 90 g) 566 Salmon (sockeye) cooked, 3 ounces (approx 90 g) 447 Tuna fish, canned in water, drained, 3 ounces (approx 90 g) 154 Sardines, canned in oil, drained, 2 sardines (approx 35g) 46 Egg, 1 large (vitamin D is in the yolk, (approx wt = 15 -18g) 41 Liver, beef, cooked 3 ounces (approx 90 g) 42 Cheese, Swiss, 1 ounce (30 g) 6
  17. 17. Research Project - Vitamin D in Eggs – PhD Thesis A total of 162 ISA Brown laying hens of 58 weeks of age 9 treatment groups composed of 6 replicates of 3 birds. Fed for 9 weeks after which 30 eggs per treatment analysed for both D3 and 25(OH)D3 content. During the trial, eggs were collected at 0, 3 , 6 and 9 weeks to determine the rate of change of vitamin D uptake by the hens.
  18. 18. Vitamin D content of eggs
  19. 19. Cost of adding 5,000 IU of Vitamin D3/kg feed + 69 μg 25-hydroxyD3/kg feed. Less than 1 cent (US$) per dozen eggs.
  20. 20. Human Dietary Reference Values for Vitamin D IU/day
  21. 21. USA Food & Nutrition Board recommended Daily Vitamin D Allowance 2010 Age Daily Allowance 0 – 12 months 400 IU 1 – 70 years 600 IU > 70 years 800 IU
  22. 22. Vitamin D in standard Eggs One standard egg contains approximately 20 – 60 IU vitamin D
  23. 23. Vitamin D enriched Eggs One 60g EGG could contain at least 250 IU vitamin D
  24. 24. • Because they are naturally rich in vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3. • Eggs contain the highest levels of 25- (OH)D3 of any animal food. • 25-(OH)D3 has 5 times the vitamin D potency of normal vitamin D3 in human nutrition
  25. 25. Eggs and cholesterol in the diet Recent studies show eggs are safe to eat. A major study was conducted by Hu et al., (1999) to examine the association between egg consumption and risk of CHD and stroke in men and women. A total of 37,851 men aged 40 to 75 years at study outset and 80,082 women aged 39 to 59 years at study outset, free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high cholesterol or cancer. The finding was that the consumption of 1 egg per day is unlikely to have substantial overall impact on the risk of coronary heart disease or stroke among healthy men and women. (Hu et al., JAMA. 1999; 281:1387-1394.)
  26. 26. Effect of cooking on the vitamin D content of eggs Means in columns with no common superscript differ significantly † Standard error mean. Each sample (n) is a blend of 10 egg yolks. Whole eggs were boiled for 10 mins in boiling water
  27. 27. Major Nutrients in 1 egg (weighing 60g) Nutrient % r.d.a.* Protein (g) 6.7 12 Energy (kcal) 78 11 Energy (kjoules) 324 11 Fat 6 n/a PUFA (g) 1.17 12 MUFA (g) 2.46 20 Saturated fat 2 n/a PUFA=polyunsaturated fatty acids- MUFA=mono-unsaturated fatty acids.
  28. 28. Nutrients in 1 egg (weighing 60g) • 13 vitamins • 8 minerals VITAMINS % r.d.a.* MINERALS/TRACE ELEMENTS % r.d.a.* Vitamin A(µg) 180 30 Calcium (mg) 35 9 Vitamin D3 (µg) 0.95 19 Phosphorus (mg) 125 18 Vitamin E (mg) 1.6 16 Iron (mg) 1.3 4 Vitamin K (mg) 0.01 0.8 Zinc (mg) 0.8 9 Vitamin C 0 0 Iodine (mg) 0.04 20 Thiamin (Vit.B1)(mg) 0.05 4 Selenium (µg) 0.6 11 Riboflavin Vit.B12 (mg) 0.27 19 Chlorine (mg) 83 3 Niacin (mg) 0.05 0.3 Sulphur (mg) 93 n/a Pyridoxine (mg) 0.14 7 Folic acid (mg) 0.04 40 Vitamin B12 (µg) 1.6 160 Biotin (µg) 12 48 Choline (mg) 410 90 r.d.a Recommended daily allowances
  29. 29. Albumen or Egg white – important fact The protein in egg white or albumen is the best quality protein known to mankind. It has a biological value (BV) of 100 and all other protein eaten by humans is inferior to egg white.
  30. 30. CONCLUSION • Vitamin D deficiency is a global issue affecting both developing and developed countries. • Specific groups like pregnant women, infants, elderly can be even more at risk. • Especially, in Europe, India, S.E. Asia, Africa and Australia vitamin D deficiency is widespread. • Vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy has a detrimental health effect. • By supplementing additional 25-OHD3 into a layer diet – vitamin D enriched eggs are produced. Eggs enriched with vitamin D can help alleviate the chronic vitamin D deficiency in the global human population.
  31. 31. Thank – you for listening Thank-you DSM Nutritional Products for sponsoring my talk here in India today.