Organisation behaviour

Organisation
 Behaviour
Definition and Meaning:
• “Organisational Behaviour is concerned with the
  study of the behaviour of people working in an
  organization. It involves the understanding,
  predicting and controlling of human behaviour and
  the factors which influence the performance of these
  people.”

  “Fred Luthans”
• “Organisation is the study of the organizational
  components and their impact on human behaviour
  and oranisational performances. Such study can be
  benefited from various behavioural nad social
  sciences.”
                  “S.P.Robbins”
Features of OB-
• OB is the study of human behaviour.
• Study of behaviour in an oraganisation.
• Knowledge would be useful in improving
  an oraganisation’s effectiveness.
For exp. When we talk about caring
  oranisation we actually caring about the
  philosophy, attitude and action of top
  managers.
Characteristics of OB:
•   Action and goal oriented discipline.
•   Science as well as art.
•   Multidisciplinary Integrated approach.
•   It’s a human tool for human benefits.
•   Three levels of analysis- Individual, group and
    organization behaviour.
•   Wholistic concept of whole system.
•   Mutual interest of people and organization. Individuals
    view organization as a means to achieve their goals
    while at the same time organization wish that
    individuals must work towards the achievement of
    organizational goal.
Essential elements of OB:
The study of OB involves consideration of
 interaction among the formal structure, the
 task to be undertaken, the technology
 employed and the methods of carrying out
 work, the behaviour of people, the process
 of management and the external
 environment.
Essential elements of OB

People-individual &
                      Ext Environment
group




 Organisation’s       Technology
 Structure
• People- Individual: The individual is the central theme of
  OB
• Group: Groups exists in organization can be small and
  large, official and informal. They are dynamics in
  nature.OB studies the groups in organization.
• Organisation Structure: Every organisation has an
  structure aims to establish the relation between people
  and organization. People play different roles in
  organization and they have different relation with each
  other.OB is the study of these relations.
• Environment: External environment affects the
  organization through developments, political activities,
  social and cultural influences and governmental actions.
• Technology: Technological changes influences the work
  and working conditions. It affects the behaviour of people
  in organization.
Scope of OB:
It includes the effects of organization on human being and of human beings on
     organizations. It includes three levels these are-Individual, Group and
     Organisation.
• Individual process-
• Learning
• Perception
• Motivation
• Personality
• Group process-
• Leadership
• Communication
• Attitude
• Group Behaviour
• Organisational Process-
• Organizational structure
• OD
• Organisational theories
• Rewards
Contribution of other sciences to
                OB:
Psychology-
• Personality
• Perception
• Attitude
• Learning
• Motivation
• Job Satisfaction
Sociology-
• Group Dynamics
• Communication
• Leadership
• Conflict
• Power and Politics
• Organisation Structure
• Formal and Informal Organization
Anthropology-
• Individual Culture
• Organisational Culture
• Organisational Environment
• Climate
IMPORTANCE OF OB:
•   OB helps an individual understand himself and
    others better.
•   Helps to maintain cordial relation in the
    organization. OB helps to understand the
    reasons of poor industrial relations and take
    step to improve relations.
•   The job of a manager is to get things done
    through others. OB helps the manager to
    understand the basis of motivation and the
    step to motivate the subordinates.
•   OB helps to fulfill both employees’ and
    organisation need.
• OB suggest the approaches to create
  organizational climate in totally rather than
  merely improving the psychological conditions.
  Helps to create the atmosphere of mutual trust
  and the sense of accomplishment.
• OB helps improving communication in
  organization. To achieve organizational
  effectiveness the communication must be
  effective.
• OB offers the career opportunity in the
  management as a profession.
• Understanding human behaviour could yield the
  understanding of market scenario. The
  understanding of consumer behaviour helps to
  grow the business.
Concepts of OB:
•       Concepts related with nature of man:
    –     Individual differences- OB is based on the assumption that
          individual differ in intelligence, aptitude,attitude,personality,
          skill etc. Which helps organization in selection and placement
          of right people for various jobs.
    –     Whole person- The person comes to the work place as a
          complete person, he has his background, emotions,
          sentiments which can not be separated from the skills he is
          used on the job. So OB studies the whole person for using his
          skills in best way.
    –     Causation of Human behaviour- human behaviour is caused
          by needs which can be directed and controlled in order to get
          the desired results from human being.
    –     Human Dignity- A Person has mind to think and heart to feel.
          He has emotions which should be respected by the
          organization for better achievements.
• Concepts relating to Nature of
  Organisation:
  – Social System- Organisation is a social
    system which co-ordinates the activities of its
    members for the achievement of common
    goals. OB is dynamics in nature as groups are
    there in organization.
• Mutual Interest- Mutual interest is defined
  that “organizations need people and
  people need organizations
Motivation:
It is an inner striving condition which activate or moves individual into
     action and continues him in the course of action enthusiastically.
Each person is uniquely different and complex entity. What motivates
     one person may not motivate the other.
Rensis Likert has defined motivation as the core of management.
     Motivation is an important function performed by manager for
     actuating the people to work for the accomplishment of
     organizational objectives.
Work motivation is a set of energetic forces that originate both within as
     well as beyond an individual’s being to initiate work-related
     behaviour, and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and
     duration.
“Motivation is something that moves the person to action, and
     continues him in the course of action already initiated.”
                                                     Dubin
Motivation is the process of attempting to influence other to do your will
     through the possibility of gain or rewards.”
                                                     Fllippo
Functions of motivation:
• Proper utilization of HR
• Willingness to work leading to greater job satisfaction.
• An effective instrument.
• Good human relations.
• Lower turnover and absenteeism.
• Better public image.
• Lesser grievances
• The incentives activate the motives. Incentive is the mean to motivation.
Need is the starting point of motivation. An unsatisfied need creates tension that
   stimulate drive within the individual.

Need------- Tension------Search-----Performance------Reward

                               Need Satisfaction

These motives or needs can be Primary and Secondary-
Primary-These are basic need as food, water, sleep, clothing etc.
Secondary- These are related to mind and spirit, rather than physiological these are
    psychological needs as self-esteem, recognition, belongingness etc.
Models of Motivation or Motivation
           Theories
• 1. McGregor’s Participation Model.
• 2. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model.
• 3. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Model.
McGregor’s Participation Model-
Douglas Macgregor put forward 2 sets of assumptions about human being
   which he thought were implied by the actions of autocratic and permissive
   managers. The first set of assumptions is contained in “Theory X” and
   second set of assumptions in “Theory Y”. These sets were not based on any
   research.
Theory X- It believes that autocratic managers often make the following
   assumption about their subordinates. According to this theory managers
   think that their subordinates generally have these characteristics-
• People have an inherent dislike for work and generally avoid it.
• They are lazy by nature and avoid responsibility.
• They prefer to be directed, have relatively little ambition and wants security
   above all.
• These average human being indifferent to organizational goals.
According to this theory management has to offer reward and punishment to
   the workers to make the productive and motivate them to do their job. This
   is called carrot and stick approach to motivation. It suggests the autocratic
   style for leadership. People who come under this theory, their physiological
   and security needs satisfaction are the ways to motivate them.
•   Theory Y- People whose social, esteem and self actualization needs
    are becoming important, for them theory Y will be applicable.
    According to the assumptions of this theory people are in general-
•   Does not inherently dislike the work. Depending upon conditions,
    work may be source of satisfaction or a source of punishment.
•   These human beings will exercise self-direction and self-control in
    the service of objectives to which he is committed.
•   They learn under proper conditions, not only to accept but also to
    seek responsibility.
•   Commitment to the objectives is a function of the rewards
    associated with their achievements.
•   They have capacity to exercise high degree of imagination and
    creativity to solve the organizational issues.
•   The basic problem of any organization is to secure the commitment
    from the workers to organizational goals. That is directly related to
    the satisfaction of their needs. This theory does not rely on the use
    of authority as an instrument of command and control. According to
    this theory employees could be motivated by delegating authority,
    job enlargement, empowerment.
Theory Z- It is given by William Ouchi which focuses on
  Japanese style of management.
• Strong bond between organization and employees.
• Group participation.
• Mutual interest.
• Non- hierarchical organization structure.
• Human resource development.
Application of theory X and theory Y- Practically no man
  would belong completely to either theory X or theory Y.
  These theories are the best tool to understand human
  behaviour and to design the program to motivate the
  employees. Theory X is more applicable on unskilled
  employees whose basic needs are more important for
  them. And theory Y is applicable on the higher level
  skilled employees who understand their responsibility
  and are self controlled. Thus management can use the
  amalgamation of both the theories to motivate the
  employees.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model
Maslow developed a theoretical framework
 for understanding human motivation.
 According to him, person’s effectiveness is
 a function of matching man’s opportunity
 with the appropriate position of hierarchy
 of needs. Process of motivation begins
 with the assumption that behaviour s
 directed towards the satisfaction of needs.
 He has given a hierarchy of needs.
 Hierarchy is as-
•   Basic physiological needs- these are related with the survival and
    maintenance of human life. These needs includes such things as
    food, clothing, air, water and other necessaries of life which are
    biological in nature. These are primary needs.
•   Safety and Security needs- After satisfying the physiological
    needs, people want the assurance of maintaining a given
    economics level. They want job security, personal bodily security,
    security of source of income, provision for old age, insurance
    against risks etc.
•   Social needs- man is a social animal. He is therefore, interested
    in conversation, sociability, exchange of feelings and grievances,
    companionship, recognition, belongingness etc.
•   Esteem and status needs- These needs include self-confidence,
    independence, achievements, competence, knowledge and
    success. These needs boost the ego of individual. They are also
    known as egoistic needs. They are concerned with prestige and
    status of the individual.
•   Self-Actualization or Self- Fulfillment- The final step in this
    hierarchy of needs model is self- fulfillment need or the need to
    fulfill what a person consider to be his mission in life.
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene
               Model-
A significant development in motivation was distinction between
   motivational and maintenance factors in job situation.
A research was conducted by Herzberg based on interview of 200
   engineers and accountants who worked for eleven different
   companies in Pittsburgh. That helped to conclude to draw a
   distinction between what are called as “motivators” and
   “Hygiene Factors”.
Thus Hygiene factors provide no motivation to the employees, but
   the absence of these serves as dissatisfier.
Hygiene factors can be called maintenance factors in job because
   these are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of
   satisfaction among the employees.
Another set of conditions helps to build strong motivation and
   high job satisfaction. These conditions are motivational
   factors.
Herzberg has given 6 Motivational Factors and 10 Hygiene Factors
Hygiene Factors-
•   Company policy and administration
•   Technical supervision
•   Inter-personal relations with supervisors
•   Inter-personal relations with peers
•   Inter-personal relations with subordinates
•   Salary
•   Job security
•   Personal Life
•   Working conditions
•   Status.
Motivational Factors
•   Achievement
•   Recognition
•   Advancement
•   Work itself
•   Possibility of Growth
•   Responsibility
Hygiene factors include such things as wages, fringe
    benefits, physical conditions of work etc. On the other
    hand Motivational Factors are essential for increasing
    the productivity.
Herzberg also said that to-days’ motivational factors can be
    tomorrow’s Hygiene factors. It should also be noted
    that one’s hygiene may be motivators for others.
Morale-
• Morale is a fundamental psychological concept. Its can
  be defined as the attitude towards work for the
  accomplishment of organization goals.
• It’s a Co-operative attitude or mental health of number of
  people who are related to each other on some basis.
• Morale is the capacity of a group of people to pull
  together persistently in pursuit of a common purpose.
• Morale is a degree of enthusiasm and willingness with
  which the member of group pull together to achieve
  group goals.
• High morale needs not to be associated with high
  productivity. High morale may be associated with low
  productivity and low morale with high productivity.
Nature of Morale-
• Generally morale is used to describe an overall climate
  prevailing among the members of a group. It is not an
  absolute concept which can convey a specific meaning.
  It is a relative concept, we can only refer to the degrees
  of morale. Morale is dynamic in nature. Managers can
  not establish high morale once and can forget about it for
  months and years. Building it is a continuous effort.
• It represents the collective attitude of workers. High
  morale represents attitude of satisfaction with the desire
  to continue in the group and willingness to strive for the
  achievement of group goals.
• Morale is multidimensional in nature in the sense that it
  is a complex mixture of several elements.
Significance of moral-
• Its an important part of organizational climate. It is a vital
  element of success bcoz it reflects the attitude of
  members towards organization.
• Morale is a total satisfaction a person derives from his
  job, his work group, his boss, his organization and his
  environment.
• High morale exists when his attitude is favourable
  towards his job and other things. Low morale exists
  when attitude inhibits the willingness to attain the
  objectives of organization.
• A state of high morale reduces labour turnover, waste
  and disharmony
Morale of employee must be kept
high to attain the following benefits
• Willing cooperation towards the
  organizational objectives.
• Loyalty to the organization and its
  leadership.
• Good discipline.
• High degree of employees’ interest in their
  job.
• Pride in the organization.
• Reduction in rate of labour turnover.
RELATION BETWEEN MORALE
    AND PRODUCTIVITY

HIGH MORALE        HIGH MORALE
LOW PRODUCTIVITY   HIGH PRODUCTIVITY




LOW PRODUCTIVITY   HIGH PRODUCTIVITY
LOW MORALE         LOW MORALE
Four combinations of morale and
          productivity
• high morale and high productivity
• high morale and low productivity
• low morale and low productivity
• low morale and high productivity
First one is the ideal state and make the
best possible use of human resources.
Suggestions to building high
               morale-
•   two way communication
•   incentive system
•   welfare measures
•   social activities
•   training
•   workers’ participation
GROUP DYNAMICS
•   The social process by which people interact face to face in
    small groups is called group dynamics.
•   What is group-
•   A group consists two or more persons who interact with each
    other, consciously for the achievement of certain common
    objectives.
•   The members of group are interdependent and are aware that
    they are part of a group. They influence and influenced by each
    other.
•   Groups are social settings that offer a variety of information,
    expectation and opportunities that relate to individual need
    satisfaction.
•   A group is a set of two or more people who are jointly
    characterized by a network of relevant communications, a
    shared sense of collective identity and one or more shared
    dispositions with associated normative strength.
Conditions for being a group
•   people must interact with each other
•   psychologically aware of one another
•   should perceive themselves as a group
•   Common objective or task
•   Agreed values and norms
Group process
• Given by Tuckman in 1960-
• Forming ---Storming---Norming--
  Performing--Adjourning
Characteristics of Groups
• Leadership- in a group there will be a leader
  formally selected or informally emergent.
• Activities- they perform certain activities. Eg.
  Watching a movie together. Group must be
  active but not necessarily all members will be
  active.
• Norms- Norms are accepted standards of
  behaviour within a group shared by all members.
  there are certain norms in every group that
  present its culture or ethics. By these norms it
  has the recognition in society. These are fixed
  by group members
• Cohesiveness- people come together to satisfy their
  need. The more needs it satisfies, the more group
  attracts the members. This attraction called
  cohesiveness. Members are highly attached to each
  other and are attracted towards each other.
• Interaction- a very common characteristics of a
  group is mutual interaction between members of a
  group.
• Communication- Some communication must be
  there in a group may be oral or by gestures or by
  nodding the head.
• Task- people come together to achieve certain goal
  or to perform certain task is given to them.
• Size- group has a size which can be large or small.
• Conformity- conformity is adjusting one’s behaviour
  to align with norms of the group. There must be
  conformity between individuals and group goals
THEORIES OF GROUP
          FORMATION
•   Propinquity theory
•   Homan’s theory
•   Balance theory
•   Exchange theory
Propinquity Theory-
•   Individuals affiliate with each other bcos of the
    geographical proximity. In an organization
    employees who works in a same area or
    departments would more probably forms into
    groups than those who are not physically
    located together. This theory explain a basic
    factor that is proximity of people at workplace
    which leads to formation of groups.
•   However it is not necessary that group must
    come up bcos of proximity of people at
    workplace only. There are several other
    reasons of group formation.
Homan’s Theory-
•   According to George C. Homan “the
    more activities persons share, the more
    numerous will be there interactions and
    the stronger will be there shared
    activities and sentiments, and the more
    sentiments persons have for one another
    the more will be there shared activities
    and interactions.”
• Interaction Theory of Group Formation


        Activities                Interactions




                     Sentiments
Balance Theory-
•   this theory is proposed by Theodare
    Newcomb. He says persons are attracted to
    one another on the basis of similar attitude
    towards commonly relevant objects and goals.
    Once a relationship is formed, it strives to
    maintain a systematic balance between the
    attraction and the common attitude. If an
    imbalance occurs, attempts are made to
    restore the balance. If the balance can not be
    restored, the relationship dissolves.
• Mr. A                                Mr. B



                 C
             Common attitudes

{Authority, work, lifestyle, religion, politics etc.}
Exchange Theory-
• this theory is based on reward- cost outcomes of
         interactions. To be attracted towards a
  group, a person thinks in terms of what he will
  get in exchange of interaction with the group
  members. A minimum positive level (rewards
  greater than cost) of an outcome must exist in
  order for affiliation to take place. Rewards from
  interaction gratify need and costs are frustration,
  embarrassment, or fatigue. All other theories
  have role in exchange theory
Types of Groups
Formal groups
Informal groups
Command and task groups(committees)
Interest and friendship groups
Group Think-
• When too much cohesiveness is dangerous.
  Some time bcos of high cohesiveness the
  members become more concerned about
  maintaining positive group spirit than about
  making the most realistic decisions- this
  phenomenon known as group think. When
  members become fiercely loyal to each other
  they may ignore the potential use of information
  from other sources that challenges the groups’
  decisions. Then group decisions can be
  completely uninformed, irrational or even
  immoral
To remove this
•   Use open communication
•   Use sub groups
•   Admit short comings
•   Hold second chance meetings
Teams:
•   Team and team work have emerged popular terms in management circles these
    days. The team approach to managing organizations is having a diverse and
    substantial impact on organisations and individuals. In IT companies teams are client
    or project based.
•   Teams are small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a
    common purpose, common performance goals, and an approach for which they hold
    themselves mutually accountable.
•   Number should be small, if more people will be involved, there will be difficulty in
    interaction and influencing each other.
•   A team comes together to pursue a goal, unlike groups, in which members report to
    the same supervisor or work in the same department.
•   The team hold themselves mutually accountable for results, rather than merely
    meeting a manager’s demand for results.
Features-

•   They are empowered to share various management and leadership
    functions
•   They plan control and improve their own work process
•   They set their own goals and inspect their own work
•   They often create their own schedules and review their performance
•   They are frequently responsible for acquiring any new training they might
    need
•   They take responsibility of quality of their product
•   Teams are also known as empowered teams, self directed teams and self
    managed teams etc.
Benefits from teams-

•   Enhanced performance- can come in many forms as
•   Increased productivity, improved quality and improved customer services. It enable
    worker to avoid wasted effort, reduced errors, and respond better to customer.
•    Employees get benefited from teams as they can improve their quality of work life
    and reduced stress.
•   It helps organization to get better quality decisions
•   It results in improved processes bcos of the coordination and transfer of learning
    among team members.
•   Team work contributes to global competitiveness to the firm.
•   Organizational development is certain to result of teams.
•   Innovative and creative ideas to solve problems
Types of teams
Work teams
Problem solving teams
Management teams
Virtual teams
Guidelines to enhance team
             performance
• Have a small team- of max 12 members.
• Members should have at least three types of skills-
  technical skills, problem solving and decision making
  skills, interpersonal skills.
• Let the teams have specific goals and develop
  commitment.
• Have proper leadership and structure for teams.
• Establish appropriate performance evaluation.
• Create a sense of urgency in first meeting.
• Set clear rule of behaviour.
• Regularly challenge the teams with new projects r
  problem to solve
CONFLICTS
• Conflicts occur at different levels within the
  individuals, between the individuals, in a group
  and between groups. A manager has to
  experience the most uncomfortable moments
  when he has to deal with conflicts or differences
  among people or groups of people at work.
• The term conflict is used by different people to
  convey different meanings.

• “Conflict in mind” conveys that the individual is in
  a state of dilemma over a certain issue and is
  not able to arrive at any decision.
• The term conflicting views means
  differences of opinions between two or
  more persons.
• Conflict may broadly be viewed as a
  breakdown in the standard mechanism of
  decision making.
• In simple words conflict is the tension that
  is experienced one feels when one’s need
  or desire is or likely to be thwarted.
In management conflict has the
          characteristics
• Antecedent condition e.g. scarcity of resources,
  policy differences among people.
• Effective state of individuals involved, e.g.
  stress, tension, anxiety etc.
• Cognitive states of individuals, e.g. their
  perception of awareness of conflict situations
• Changed behaviour ranging from passive
  resistance to overt aggression.
Traditional view of conflicts- Harmful and must
    be avoided.
  Human Relation view- is natural and inevitable
    outcomes in any group.
  Internationalists’ view (modern view)- a position
    force in a group, absolutely necessary for
    performance.
• “Conflict could be defined as the
  appearance of differences, difference of
  opinions, of interest, and the fear of
  difference is dread of life itself”

 “Follett”
Nature of conflicts
• Conflict between two individuals implies
  that they have conflicting perceptions,
  values and goals.
• Conflict arises when individuals are not
  able to choose among the alternative
  course of actions.
• Conflict is dynamic process and episodic
  in nature.
• Awareness of conflicts is there in parties
Conflict as a process-
          Five stages are there-
•   Latent conflict- some conditions arise which
    develop conflicts as-communication barriers,
    role ambiguities etc. these antecedent
    conditions start the conflicts first stage.
•    Perceived conflict- next stage is when parties
    start to perceive the situations. May be there is
    no latent condition but parties perceive that
    conflict is there.
•   Felt conflict- they feel that there is a conflicts
    between two parties. They are aware about
    conditions also.
• Manifest conflict- it means the conflictful
  behaviour such as- aggression, sabotage,
  withdrawal etc.
• Conflict aftermath- conflict is genuinely
  resolved to the satisfaction of all
  participants. If the conflict is merely
  suppressed not resolved the latent
  conditions can be aggravated and explode
  in more serious form until they are
  rectified.
Types of Conflicts
•       Intra-personal or individual conflicts- within an individual himself.
        Here can be 2 types of conflicts within a individual.
    –      Role conflict- arises due to so many roles (role overload) one has to
           play at a time. Or when a person is not able to satisfy others by his
           performance in a particular role. Or he is not aware about his duties in
           a particular role.
    –      Goal conflict- can be of 3 types-
•       Approach- approach conflict- when a person has to choose from
        two equally attractive goals
•       Avoidance -avoidance conflict- when has two alternative each
        with negative aspects. For example a person does not like his
        present job and alternatives are if he should resign from this job
        or search for new job both are equally unattractive for him.
•       Approach- avoidance conflict- in this type an individual has a
        choice which has both positive and negative sides. Ex- person
        may be offered promotion but away from his home town.
•   Inter-personal conflicts or conflicts between
    individuals- several factors can be there as
    arising some dislike or personality differences,
    opinions differences for task related matters
    etc.
•   Important factors for interpersonal conflicts-
•   Difference in perceptions
•   Information differences
•   Difference in status
•   Difference in resources
•   Divergent roles or goals
•   Inter- groups conflicts or organizational
    conflicts- conflicts between groups or task
    groups as union Vs management groups,
    union Vs other union, one functional area Vs
    other functional area etc. such conflicts arise
    when-
•   Joint decision making
•   Difference in goals
•   Competition for limited resources
•   Organization reward system
•   Introduction to change
•   Nature of communication etc.
Positive aspects of
    conflict( constructive conflicts)
The conflicting parties should think conflict as a problem
  solving term rather than a ‘win- lose’ term.
Modern writers feel that minimum level of conflict is
  necessary for keeping members alert and creative.
  Conflicts are supposed to serve the following functions-
• Release of tension
• Creativity
• Stimulation of change
• Identification of weaknesses
• Group cohesiveness
• Challenges
Distractive conflicts or dysfunctional
              conflicts
• The negative consequences of conflicts
  are not uncommon. Just as conflict in
  individual can destroy his ability to
  function, similarly conflict within
  organization may result in some sort of
  blocks in decision making.
• The undesirable consequences are-
•   Resignation of key personnel- some time conflict can compel to
    resign some dynamic personnel. Then the organization will be the
    sufferer in the long run by the loss of key personnel.
•   Tensions- may create high tension among individuals and groups.
    Which can create the feeling of anxiety, uncertainty, frustration
    among them.
•   Discontentment- can be a source of dissatisfaction. As result the
    productivity will suffer.

•   Creation of distrust- if one party loses the settlement process it can
    create the distrust in their mind for organization and create a
    negative approach.
•   Goal displacement- Conflict may distract the attention of the
    members from the organizational goals. They may waste their time
    and energy in finding the ways to be winner of the conflicts.
•   Weakening of organization- conflicts may weaken the organization
    as a whole if the management is not able to resolve them properly.
    Further, resignation of important personnel due to conflict also
    weaken the organization.
Methods for handling conflicts-
       (Conflict Management)
•   avoidance or repression of conflict
•   defusion of conflict
•   containments of conflicts
•   confrontation
•   problem solving
•   conflict stimulation
PERSONALITY
• It is derived from Latin word persona which means to
  ‘speak through’. Persona denotes to the masks worn by
  actors in ancient Greece.
• Personality of an individual is unique, personal and
  major determinants of his behaviour.
• Personality defines as what an individual really is, as an
  internal something that guides and direct all human
  activities.
• “Personality means how a person affects other and how
  he understands and views himself as well as the pattern
  of inner and outer measurable traits, and the person
  situation interaction.”
                            Fred Luthans
• Personality represents whole person
  concept.
• It includes perception, learning, motivation
  and more.
Determinants of Personality
•       Biological Factors-
    –     Heredity
    –     Brain
    –     Physical features
•       Family and Social factors
•       Situational factors
•       Personal factors-
        Temperament
        Interest
        Character
        Schema
        Motive
Personality theories
•       Freud’s Psychoanalytical theory- this theory is based
        on that man is forced more by unseen forces than by
        conscious or rational thoughts. He has given three
        aspects of human behaviour those are-
    –     The Id- this is the source of psychic energy and seeks the
          immediate gratification for biological needs. As the person
          matures, he learns to control the Id. But even then it’s a driving
          force throughout life and important source of thinking and
          behaving.
    –     The Ego- the ego is a conscious or logical part of human
          personality and associated with reality principle. Ego is aware
          about the real world and external environment. The ego keeps
          the id in control through reasons.
    –     The Super- Ego- The super-ego represents the social and
          personal norms and serves as ethical constraints on
          behaviour. Super ego provides norms to ego to determine
          what is wrong or right.
•   Psychosocial theory of Erikson- Erikson identified 8
    stages of life which are-
•   Infancy- during first year of life child resolves the basic
    crisis of trust or mistrust. If child is cared with love,
    learns trust others and if there is lack of love, results
    into mistrust.
•   Early Childhood- in second and third year of life, child
    begins to assert the independence. In this stage if the
    child gets continuous disapproval from parents it
    develops lack of self confidence in him.
•   Play Age- during four to six years the initiatives plays
    an important role in development of personality. The
    creativity and imaginative abilities develop in this
    stage.
•   School Age- from age 6 to 12 child learns many skills
    and social abilities. If a child experiences a real
    progress in this stage, it will develop his sense of
    enterprise. The reverse situation will create sense of
    inferiority.
• Adolescence- this is the stage of 13 to 19 when child
  gains the sense of identity. This is the stage when there
  will be rapid biological changes and teenagers try to
  establish themselves separate from patents. This is the
  stage to prepare them for adulthood crises.
• Young Adulthood- at this stage they face the crises of
  intimacy or isolation. This stage allows the young adult to
  develop deep and lasting relationships.
• Adulthood- this is the stage which develop the general
  activity or self- absorption. Self- absorbed person never
  develop the ability to look beyond himself. General
  people see the world as bigger perspective.
• Mature Adulthood- this stage develops the sense of
  wisdom and perspective that can really guide the
  younger generation.
•  Chris Argyris’s Immaturity and maturity theory-
   he has given the seven characteristics to
   define the immaturity and maturity in
   personalities. These are-
Immaturity Characteristics-
• Passivity
• Dependence
• Few ways of behaviour
• Shallow interests
• Short time perspective
• Subordinate position
• Lack of self awareness
•   Maturity Characteristics-
•   Activity
•   Independence
•   Diverse behaviour
•   Deep interests
•   Long time perspective
•   Super ordinate position
•   Self awareness and control
•   He explained that these seven dimensions
    represent only one aspect of the total
    personality. Mush also depends on individual
    perception, self concepts and adaptation etc.
Personality Traits influencing OB
• Locus of Control- this can be of two types- internal locus
  of control and external locus of control. Person who
  always says that his activities are determined by other is
  a person of external locus of control. And who can guide
  his activities himself is a person with internal locus of
  control. People who are with internal locus of control can
  be good leaders.
• Authoritarianism- high authoritarian people believe in
  holding authorities and have negative views about
  people and intellectually rigid. They are more rules and
  regulation oriented. They will use autocratic or directive
  leadership styles.
• Machiavellianism- it has given by Machiavelli.
  He said people with high Machiavellianism
  manipulate more, win more and persuaded less.
• Introvert and Extrovert- extroversion suggested
  as a managerial trait for leaders. Extroverts are
  social people and introverts are shy, quiet and
  retiring people.
• Type A and Type B- people who are highly
  competitive and impatient and aggressive are
  type A personality and people who are easy
  going and non competitive are type B
  personalities. People who are aggressive can
  not be good team players.
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
• TA is a technique used to help people
  better understand their own and others
  behaviour, especially in interpersonal
  relationship.
• TA is given as training to managers to
  help them to develop their interpersonal
  relation and effectiveness.
• Dr. Eric Berne is credited to develop this
  TA technique.
Ego States
• TA believes that personality of everyone is
  made up of three ego states. An ego state
  is a pattern of behaviour that a person
  develops as he or she grows up, based on
  his accumulated network of feelings and
  experience.
• There are three ego states-
• Parent- state of a person comprises the
  judgmental, value laden, rule making and
  moralizing component of personality.
• Adult- this state is authentic, direct and
  reality based, it is rational, fact seeking
  and problem solving.
• Child- this state is emotional, creative and
  impulsive component of personality.
• Three things about ego states are worth
  nothing that the conversations often are
  the mixture of reactions from all three
  states parent, adult and child. And such
  ego states have both positive and
  negative features. And we can find out the
  ego states by observing the tone and
  postures of the people when they talk.
Transactions
• Transaction is the basic unit of social
  interaction. It consists of an exchange of
  words and behaviour between two
  persons.
• There can be of two types of transactions-
• Complementary transaction- when the
  communication has the same ego states of
  sender and receiver the transaction will be
  complementary. Here the line of transaction will
  be parallel.

• P     P           P       P
• A     A           A       A
• C     C           C       C
  COMPLEMENTARY TRANSACTION
• Non-Complementary transaction- it can be said
  crossed transaction also. The response lines
  here are not parallel but crossed. For example
  the manager wants to deal with the executive as
  Adult to Adult basis but the executive responds
  on the basis of child to parent. Cross transaction
  should be avoided as far as possible.
• P         P                 P            P
• A         A                 A            A
• C         C                 C            C

           CROSSED TRANSACTION
LIFE POSITIONS-
•   in the process of growing up people make basic assumption about
    their own self and about others in their environment. These are
    called life positions.

•   Four life positions are there-
•   I am OK- You are OK- when people tend to feel positive about
    themself and about others also. This is the best position of life. We
    can say this is the ideal life position.
•   I am OK- You are not OK- people tend to watch other closely as
    they think that no is trust worthy as they are.
•   I am not OK- you are OK- they feel that others are more competent
    than they are.
•   I am not OK- you are not OK- people tend to feel bad about
    themselves and feel the whole world miserable. They don’t trust
    others and have no confidence on themselves.
Utility of Transactional Analysis
• Its major benefit is to improve interpersonal
  communication.
• By understanding ego states and life positions
  we can understand the different styles used by
  people.
• Most supervisors use the parental ego state to
  handle the employee as we all see our parents
  as first people who control our behaviour.
• This helps to lead a self development.
• It is also important technique of executive
  development. TA can not guarantee to
  disappear the human problems in organization
  but it will help to improve the relations.
1 de 85

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Organisation behaviour

  • 2. Definition and Meaning: • “Organisational Behaviour is concerned with the study of the behaviour of people working in an organization. It involves the understanding, predicting and controlling of human behaviour and the factors which influence the performance of these people.” “Fred Luthans” • “Organisation is the study of the organizational components and their impact on human behaviour and oranisational performances. Such study can be benefited from various behavioural nad social sciences.” “S.P.Robbins”
  • 3. Features of OB- • OB is the study of human behaviour. • Study of behaviour in an oraganisation. • Knowledge would be useful in improving an oraganisation’s effectiveness. For exp. When we talk about caring oranisation we actually caring about the philosophy, attitude and action of top managers.
  • 4. Characteristics of OB: • Action and goal oriented discipline. • Science as well as art. • Multidisciplinary Integrated approach. • It’s a human tool for human benefits. • Three levels of analysis- Individual, group and organization behaviour. • Wholistic concept of whole system. • Mutual interest of people and organization. Individuals view organization as a means to achieve their goals while at the same time organization wish that individuals must work towards the achievement of organizational goal.
  • 5. Essential elements of OB: The study of OB involves consideration of interaction among the formal structure, the task to be undertaken, the technology employed and the methods of carrying out work, the behaviour of people, the process of management and the external environment.
  • 6. Essential elements of OB People-individual & Ext Environment group Organisation’s Technology Structure
  • 7. • People- Individual: The individual is the central theme of OB • Group: Groups exists in organization can be small and large, official and informal. They are dynamics in nature.OB studies the groups in organization. • Organisation Structure: Every organisation has an structure aims to establish the relation between people and organization. People play different roles in organization and they have different relation with each other.OB is the study of these relations. • Environment: External environment affects the organization through developments, political activities, social and cultural influences and governmental actions. • Technology: Technological changes influences the work and working conditions. It affects the behaviour of people in organization.
  • 8. Scope of OB: It includes the effects of organization on human being and of human beings on organizations. It includes three levels these are-Individual, Group and Organisation. • Individual process- • Learning • Perception • Motivation • Personality • Group process- • Leadership • Communication • Attitude • Group Behaviour • Organisational Process- • Organizational structure • OD • Organisational theories • Rewards
  • 9. Contribution of other sciences to OB: Psychology- • Personality • Perception • Attitude • Learning • Motivation • Job Satisfaction
  • 10. Sociology- • Group Dynamics • Communication • Leadership • Conflict • Power and Politics • Organisation Structure • Formal and Informal Organization Anthropology- • Individual Culture • Organisational Culture • Organisational Environment • Climate
  • 11. IMPORTANCE OF OB: • OB helps an individual understand himself and others better. • Helps to maintain cordial relation in the organization. OB helps to understand the reasons of poor industrial relations and take step to improve relations. • The job of a manager is to get things done through others. OB helps the manager to understand the basis of motivation and the step to motivate the subordinates. • OB helps to fulfill both employees’ and organisation need.
  • 12. • OB suggest the approaches to create organizational climate in totally rather than merely improving the psychological conditions. Helps to create the atmosphere of mutual trust and the sense of accomplishment. • OB helps improving communication in organization. To achieve organizational effectiveness the communication must be effective. • OB offers the career opportunity in the management as a profession. • Understanding human behaviour could yield the understanding of market scenario. The understanding of consumer behaviour helps to grow the business.
  • 13. Concepts of OB: • Concepts related with nature of man: – Individual differences- OB is based on the assumption that individual differ in intelligence, aptitude,attitude,personality, skill etc. Which helps organization in selection and placement of right people for various jobs. – Whole person- The person comes to the work place as a complete person, he has his background, emotions, sentiments which can not be separated from the skills he is used on the job. So OB studies the whole person for using his skills in best way. – Causation of Human behaviour- human behaviour is caused by needs which can be directed and controlled in order to get the desired results from human being. – Human Dignity- A Person has mind to think and heart to feel. He has emotions which should be respected by the organization for better achievements.
  • 14. • Concepts relating to Nature of Organisation: – Social System- Organisation is a social system which co-ordinates the activities of its members for the achievement of common goals. OB is dynamics in nature as groups are there in organization. • Mutual Interest- Mutual interest is defined that “organizations need people and people need organizations
  • 15. Motivation: It is an inner striving condition which activate or moves individual into action and continues him in the course of action enthusiastically. Each person is uniquely different and complex entity. What motivates one person may not motivate the other. Rensis Likert has defined motivation as the core of management. Motivation is an important function performed by manager for actuating the people to work for the accomplishment of organizational objectives. Work motivation is a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individual’s being to initiate work-related behaviour, and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration. “Motivation is something that moves the person to action, and continues him in the course of action already initiated.” Dubin Motivation is the process of attempting to influence other to do your will through the possibility of gain or rewards.” Fllippo
  • 16. Functions of motivation: • Proper utilization of HR • Willingness to work leading to greater job satisfaction. • An effective instrument. • Good human relations. • Lower turnover and absenteeism. • Better public image. • Lesser grievances • The incentives activate the motives. Incentive is the mean to motivation. Need is the starting point of motivation. An unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulate drive within the individual. Need------- Tension------Search-----Performance------Reward Need Satisfaction These motives or needs can be Primary and Secondary- Primary-These are basic need as food, water, sleep, clothing etc. Secondary- These are related to mind and spirit, rather than physiological these are psychological needs as self-esteem, recognition, belongingness etc.
  • 17. Models of Motivation or Motivation Theories • 1. McGregor’s Participation Model. • 2. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model. • 3. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Model.
  • 18. McGregor’s Participation Model- Douglas Macgregor put forward 2 sets of assumptions about human being which he thought were implied by the actions of autocratic and permissive managers. The first set of assumptions is contained in “Theory X” and second set of assumptions in “Theory Y”. These sets were not based on any research. Theory X- It believes that autocratic managers often make the following assumption about their subordinates. According to this theory managers think that their subordinates generally have these characteristics- • People have an inherent dislike for work and generally avoid it. • They are lazy by nature and avoid responsibility. • They prefer to be directed, have relatively little ambition and wants security above all. • These average human being indifferent to organizational goals. According to this theory management has to offer reward and punishment to the workers to make the productive and motivate them to do their job. This is called carrot and stick approach to motivation. It suggests the autocratic style for leadership. People who come under this theory, their physiological and security needs satisfaction are the ways to motivate them.
  • 19. Theory Y- People whose social, esteem and self actualization needs are becoming important, for them theory Y will be applicable. According to the assumptions of this theory people are in general- • Does not inherently dislike the work. Depending upon conditions, work may be source of satisfaction or a source of punishment. • These human beings will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which he is committed. • They learn under proper conditions, not only to accept but also to seek responsibility. • Commitment to the objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievements. • They have capacity to exercise high degree of imagination and creativity to solve the organizational issues. • The basic problem of any organization is to secure the commitment from the workers to organizational goals. That is directly related to the satisfaction of their needs. This theory does not rely on the use of authority as an instrument of command and control. According to this theory employees could be motivated by delegating authority, job enlargement, empowerment.
  • 20. Theory Z- It is given by William Ouchi which focuses on Japanese style of management. • Strong bond between organization and employees. • Group participation. • Mutual interest. • Non- hierarchical organization structure. • Human resource development. Application of theory X and theory Y- Practically no man would belong completely to either theory X or theory Y. These theories are the best tool to understand human behaviour and to design the program to motivate the employees. Theory X is more applicable on unskilled employees whose basic needs are more important for them. And theory Y is applicable on the higher level skilled employees who understand their responsibility and are self controlled. Thus management can use the amalgamation of both the theories to motivate the employees.
  • 21. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model Maslow developed a theoretical framework for understanding human motivation. According to him, person’s effectiveness is a function of matching man’s opportunity with the appropriate position of hierarchy of needs. Process of motivation begins with the assumption that behaviour s directed towards the satisfaction of needs. He has given a hierarchy of needs. Hierarchy is as-
  • 22. Basic physiological needs- these are related with the survival and maintenance of human life. These needs includes such things as food, clothing, air, water and other necessaries of life which are biological in nature. These are primary needs. • Safety and Security needs- After satisfying the physiological needs, people want the assurance of maintaining a given economics level. They want job security, personal bodily security, security of source of income, provision for old age, insurance against risks etc. • Social needs- man is a social animal. He is therefore, interested in conversation, sociability, exchange of feelings and grievances, companionship, recognition, belongingness etc. • Esteem and status needs- These needs include self-confidence, independence, achievements, competence, knowledge and success. These needs boost the ego of individual. They are also known as egoistic needs. They are concerned with prestige and status of the individual. • Self-Actualization or Self- Fulfillment- The final step in this hierarchy of needs model is self- fulfillment need or the need to fulfill what a person consider to be his mission in life.
  • 23. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Model- A significant development in motivation was distinction between motivational and maintenance factors in job situation. A research was conducted by Herzberg based on interview of 200 engineers and accountants who worked for eleven different companies in Pittsburgh. That helped to conclude to draw a distinction between what are called as “motivators” and “Hygiene Factors”. Thus Hygiene factors provide no motivation to the employees, but the absence of these serves as dissatisfier. Hygiene factors can be called maintenance factors in job because these are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of satisfaction among the employees. Another set of conditions helps to build strong motivation and high job satisfaction. These conditions are motivational factors. Herzberg has given 6 Motivational Factors and 10 Hygiene Factors
  • 24. Hygiene Factors- • Company policy and administration • Technical supervision • Inter-personal relations with supervisors • Inter-personal relations with peers • Inter-personal relations with subordinates • Salary • Job security • Personal Life • Working conditions • Status.
  • 25. Motivational Factors • Achievement • Recognition • Advancement • Work itself • Possibility of Growth • Responsibility Hygiene factors include such things as wages, fringe benefits, physical conditions of work etc. On the other hand Motivational Factors are essential for increasing the productivity. Herzberg also said that to-days’ motivational factors can be tomorrow’s Hygiene factors. It should also be noted that one’s hygiene may be motivators for others.
  • 26. Morale- • Morale is a fundamental psychological concept. Its can be defined as the attitude towards work for the accomplishment of organization goals. • It’s a Co-operative attitude or mental health of number of people who are related to each other on some basis. • Morale is the capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently in pursuit of a common purpose. • Morale is a degree of enthusiasm and willingness with which the member of group pull together to achieve group goals. • High morale needs not to be associated with high productivity. High morale may be associated with low productivity and low morale with high productivity.
  • 27. Nature of Morale- • Generally morale is used to describe an overall climate prevailing among the members of a group. It is not an absolute concept which can convey a specific meaning. It is a relative concept, we can only refer to the degrees of morale. Morale is dynamic in nature. Managers can not establish high morale once and can forget about it for months and years. Building it is a continuous effort. • It represents the collective attitude of workers. High morale represents attitude of satisfaction with the desire to continue in the group and willingness to strive for the achievement of group goals. • Morale is multidimensional in nature in the sense that it is a complex mixture of several elements.
  • 28. Significance of moral- • Its an important part of organizational climate. It is a vital element of success bcoz it reflects the attitude of members towards organization. • Morale is a total satisfaction a person derives from his job, his work group, his boss, his organization and his environment. • High morale exists when his attitude is favourable towards his job and other things. Low morale exists when attitude inhibits the willingness to attain the objectives of organization. • A state of high morale reduces labour turnover, waste and disharmony
  • 29. Morale of employee must be kept high to attain the following benefits • Willing cooperation towards the organizational objectives. • Loyalty to the organization and its leadership. • Good discipline. • High degree of employees’ interest in their job. • Pride in the organization. • Reduction in rate of labour turnover.
  • 30. RELATION BETWEEN MORALE AND PRODUCTIVITY HIGH MORALE HIGH MORALE LOW PRODUCTIVITY HIGH PRODUCTIVITY LOW PRODUCTIVITY HIGH PRODUCTIVITY LOW MORALE LOW MORALE
  • 31. Four combinations of morale and productivity • high morale and high productivity • high morale and low productivity • low morale and low productivity • low morale and high productivity First one is the ideal state and make the best possible use of human resources.
  • 32. Suggestions to building high morale- • two way communication • incentive system • welfare measures • social activities • training • workers’ participation
  • 33. GROUP DYNAMICS • The social process by which people interact face to face in small groups is called group dynamics. • What is group- • A group consists two or more persons who interact with each other, consciously for the achievement of certain common objectives. • The members of group are interdependent and are aware that they are part of a group. They influence and influenced by each other. • Groups are social settings that offer a variety of information, expectation and opportunities that relate to individual need satisfaction. • A group is a set of two or more people who are jointly characterized by a network of relevant communications, a shared sense of collective identity and one or more shared dispositions with associated normative strength.
  • 34. Conditions for being a group • people must interact with each other • psychologically aware of one another • should perceive themselves as a group • Common objective or task • Agreed values and norms
  • 35. Group process • Given by Tuckman in 1960- • Forming ---Storming---Norming-- Performing--Adjourning
  • 36. Characteristics of Groups • Leadership- in a group there will be a leader formally selected or informally emergent. • Activities- they perform certain activities. Eg. Watching a movie together. Group must be active but not necessarily all members will be active. • Norms- Norms are accepted standards of behaviour within a group shared by all members. there are certain norms in every group that present its culture or ethics. By these norms it has the recognition in society. These are fixed by group members
  • 37. • Cohesiveness- people come together to satisfy their need. The more needs it satisfies, the more group attracts the members. This attraction called cohesiveness. Members are highly attached to each other and are attracted towards each other. • Interaction- a very common characteristics of a group is mutual interaction between members of a group. • Communication- Some communication must be there in a group may be oral or by gestures or by nodding the head. • Task- people come together to achieve certain goal or to perform certain task is given to them. • Size- group has a size which can be large or small. • Conformity- conformity is adjusting one’s behaviour to align with norms of the group. There must be conformity between individuals and group goals
  • 38. THEORIES OF GROUP FORMATION • Propinquity theory • Homan’s theory • Balance theory • Exchange theory
  • 39. Propinquity Theory- • Individuals affiliate with each other bcos of the geographical proximity. In an organization employees who works in a same area or departments would more probably forms into groups than those who are not physically located together. This theory explain a basic factor that is proximity of people at workplace which leads to formation of groups. • However it is not necessary that group must come up bcos of proximity of people at workplace only. There are several other reasons of group formation.
  • 40. Homan’s Theory- • According to George C. Homan “the more activities persons share, the more numerous will be there interactions and the stronger will be there shared activities and sentiments, and the more sentiments persons have for one another the more will be there shared activities and interactions.”
  • 41. • Interaction Theory of Group Formation Activities Interactions Sentiments
  • 42. Balance Theory- • this theory is proposed by Theodare Newcomb. He says persons are attracted to one another on the basis of similar attitude towards commonly relevant objects and goals. Once a relationship is formed, it strives to maintain a systematic balance between the attraction and the common attitude. If an imbalance occurs, attempts are made to restore the balance. If the balance can not be restored, the relationship dissolves.
  • 43. • Mr. A Mr. B C Common attitudes {Authority, work, lifestyle, religion, politics etc.}
  • 44. Exchange Theory- • this theory is based on reward- cost outcomes of interactions. To be attracted towards a group, a person thinks in terms of what he will get in exchange of interaction with the group members. A minimum positive level (rewards greater than cost) of an outcome must exist in order for affiliation to take place. Rewards from interaction gratify need and costs are frustration, embarrassment, or fatigue. All other theories have role in exchange theory
  • 45. Types of Groups Formal groups Informal groups Command and task groups(committees) Interest and friendship groups
  • 46. Group Think- • When too much cohesiveness is dangerous. Some time bcos of high cohesiveness the members become more concerned about maintaining positive group spirit than about making the most realistic decisions- this phenomenon known as group think. When members become fiercely loyal to each other they may ignore the potential use of information from other sources that challenges the groups’ decisions. Then group decisions can be completely uninformed, irrational or even immoral
  • 47. To remove this • Use open communication • Use sub groups • Admit short comings • Hold second chance meetings
  • 48. Teams: • Team and team work have emerged popular terms in management circles these days. The team approach to managing organizations is having a diverse and substantial impact on organisations and individuals. In IT companies teams are client or project based. • Teams are small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, common performance goals, and an approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. • Number should be small, if more people will be involved, there will be difficulty in interaction and influencing each other. • A team comes together to pursue a goal, unlike groups, in which members report to the same supervisor or work in the same department. • The team hold themselves mutually accountable for results, rather than merely meeting a manager’s demand for results.
  • 49. Features- • They are empowered to share various management and leadership functions • They plan control and improve their own work process • They set their own goals and inspect their own work • They often create their own schedules and review their performance • They are frequently responsible for acquiring any new training they might need • They take responsibility of quality of their product • Teams are also known as empowered teams, self directed teams and self managed teams etc.
  • 50. Benefits from teams- • Enhanced performance- can come in many forms as • Increased productivity, improved quality and improved customer services. It enable worker to avoid wasted effort, reduced errors, and respond better to customer. • Employees get benefited from teams as they can improve their quality of work life and reduced stress. • It helps organization to get better quality decisions • It results in improved processes bcos of the coordination and transfer of learning among team members. • Team work contributes to global competitiveness to the firm. • Organizational development is certain to result of teams. • Innovative and creative ideas to solve problems
  • 51. Types of teams Work teams Problem solving teams Management teams Virtual teams
  • 52. Guidelines to enhance team performance • Have a small team- of max 12 members. • Members should have at least three types of skills- technical skills, problem solving and decision making skills, interpersonal skills. • Let the teams have specific goals and develop commitment. • Have proper leadership and structure for teams. • Establish appropriate performance evaluation. • Create a sense of urgency in first meeting. • Set clear rule of behaviour. • Regularly challenge the teams with new projects r problem to solve
  • 53. CONFLICTS • Conflicts occur at different levels within the individuals, between the individuals, in a group and between groups. A manager has to experience the most uncomfortable moments when he has to deal with conflicts or differences among people or groups of people at work. • The term conflict is used by different people to convey different meanings. • “Conflict in mind” conveys that the individual is in a state of dilemma over a certain issue and is not able to arrive at any decision.
  • 54. • The term conflicting views means differences of opinions between two or more persons. • Conflict may broadly be viewed as a breakdown in the standard mechanism of decision making. • In simple words conflict is the tension that is experienced one feels when one’s need or desire is or likely to be thwarted.
  • 55. In management conflict has the characteristics • Antecedent condition e.g. scarcity of resources, policy differences among people. • Effective state of individuals involved, e.g. stress, tension, anxiety etc. • Cognitive states of individuals, e.g. their perception of awareness of conflict situations • Changed behaviour ranging from passive resistance to overt aggression.
  • 56. Traditional view of conflicts- Harmful and must be avoided. Human Relation view- is natural and inevitable outcomes in any group. Internationalists’ view (modern view)- a position force in a group, absolutely necessary for performance. • “Conflict could be defined as the appearance of differences, difference of opinions, of interest, and the fear of difference is dread of life itself” “Follett”
  • 57. Nature of conflicts • Conflict between two individuals implies that they have conflicting perceptions, values and goals. • Conflict arises when individuals are not able to choose among the alternative course of actions. • Conflict is dynamic process and episodic in nature. • Awareness of conflicts is there in parties
  • 58. Conflict as a process- Five stages are there- • Latent conflict- some conditions arise which develop conflicts as-communication barriers, role ambiguities etc. these antecedent conditions start the conflicts first stage. • Perceived conflict- next stage is when parties start to perceive the situations. May be there is no latent condition but parties perceive that conflict is there. • Felt conflict- they feel that there is a conflicts between two parties. They are aware about conditions also.
  • 59. • Manifest conflict- it means the conflictful behaviour such as- aggression, sabotage, withdrawal etc. • Conflict aftermath- conflict is genuinely resolved to the satisfaction of all participants. If the conflict is merely suppressed not resolved the latent conditions can be aggravated and explode in more serious form until they are rectified.
  • 60. Types of Conflicts • Intra-personal or individual conflicts- within an individual himself. Here can be 2 types of conflicts within a individual. – Role conflict- arises due to so many roles (role overload) one has to play at a time. Or when a person is not able to satisfy others by his performance in a particular role. Or he is not aware about his duties in a particular role. – Goal conflict- can be of 3 types- • Approach- approach conflict- when a person has to choose from two equally attractive goals • Avoidance -avoidance conflict- when has two alternative each with negative aspects. For example a person does not like his present job and alternatives are if he should resign from this job or search for new job both are equally unattractive for him. • Approach- avoidance conflict- in this type an individual has a choice which has both positive and negative sides. Ex- person may be offered promotion but away from his home town.
  • 61. Inter-personal conflicts or conflicts between individuals- several factors can be there as arising some dislike or personality differences, opinions differences for task related matters etc. • Important factors for interpersonal conflicts- • Difference in perceptions • Information differences • Difference in status • Difference in resources • Divergent roles or goals
  • 62. Inter- groups conflicts or organizational conflicts- conflicts between groups or task groups as union Vs management groups, union Vs other union, one functional area Vs other functional area etc. such conflicts arise when- • Joint decision making • Difference in goals • Competition for limited resources • Organization reward system • Introduction to change • Nature of communication etc.
  • 63. Positive aspects of conflict( constructive conflicts) The conflicting parties should think conflict as a problem solving term rather than a ‘win- lose’ term. Modern writers feel that minimum level of conflict is necessary for keeping members alert and creative. Conflicts are supposed to serve the following functions- • Release of tension • Creativity • Stimulation of change • Identification of weaknesses • Group cohesiveness • Challenges
  • 64. Distractive conflicts or dysfunctional conflicts • The negative consequences of conflicts are not uncommon. Just as conflict in individual can destroy his ability to function, similarly conflict within organization may result in some sort of blocks in decision making. • The undesirable consequences are-
  • 65. Resignation of key personnel- some time conflict can compel to resign some dynamic personnel. Then the organization will be the sufferer in the long run by the loss of key personnel. • Tensions- may create high tension among individuals and groups. Which can create the feeling of anxiety, uncertainty, frustration among them. • Discontentment- can be a source of dissatisfaction. As result the productivity will suffer. • Creation of distrust- if one party loses the settlement process it can create the distrust in their mind for organization and create a negative approach. • Goal displacement- Conflict may distract the attention of the members from the organizational goals. They may waste their time and energy in finding the ways to be winner of the conflicts. • Weakening of organization- conflicts may weaken the organization as a whole if the management is not able to resolve them properly. Further, resignation of important personnel due to conflict also weaken the organization.
  • 66. Methods for handling conflicts- (Conflict Management) • avoidance or repression of conflict • defusion of conflict • containments of conflicts • confrontation • problem solving • conflict stimulation
  • 67. PERSONALITY • It is derived from Latin word persona which means to ‘speak through’. Persona denotes to the masks worn by actors in ancient Greece. • Personality of an individual is unique, personal and major determinants of his behaviour. • Personality defines as what an individual really is, as an internal something that guides and direct all human activities. • “Personality means how a person affects other and how he understands and views himself as well as the pattern of inner and outer measurable traits, and the person situation interaction.” Fred Luthans
  • 68. • Personality represents whole person concept. • It includes perception, learning, motivation and more.
  • 69. Determinants of Personality • Biological Factors- – Heredity – Brain – Physical features • Family and Social factors • Situational factors • Personal factors- Temperament Interest Character Schema Motive
  • 70. Personality theories • Freud’s Psychoanalytical theory- this theory is based on that man is forced more by unseen forces than by conscious or rational thoughts. He has given three aspects of human behaviour those are- – The Id- this is the source of psychic energy and seeks the immediate gratification for biological needs. As the person matures, he learns to control the Id. But even then it’s a driving force throughout life and important source of thinking and behaving. – The Ego- the ego is a conscious or logical part of human personality and associated with reality principle. Ego is aware about the real world and external environment. The ego keeps the id in control through reasons. – The Super- Ego- The super-ego represents the social and personal norms and serves as ethical constraints on behaviour. Super ego provides norms to ego to determine what is wrong or right.
  • 71. Psychosocial theory of Erikson- Erikson identified 8 stages of life which are- • Infancy- during first year of life child resolves the basic crisis of trust or mistrust. If child is cared with love, learns trust others and if there is lack of love, results into mistrust. • Early Childhood- in second and third year of life, child begins to assert the independence. In this stage if the child gets continuous disapproval from parents it develops lack of self confidence in him. • Play Age- during four to six years the initiatives plays an important role in development of personality. The creativity and imaginative abilities develop in this stage. • School Age- from age 6 to 12 child learns many skills and social abilities. If a child experiences a real progress in this stage, it will develop his sense of enterprise. The reverse situation will create sense of inferiority.
  • 72. • Adolescence- this is the stage of 13 to 19 when child gains the sense of identity. This is the stage when there will be rapid biological changes and teenagers try to establish themselves separate from patents. This is the stage to prepare them for adulthood crises. • Young Adulthood- at this stage they face the crises of intimacy or isolation. This stage allows the young adult to develop deep and lasting relationships. • Adulthood- this is the stage which develop the general activity or self- absorption. Self- absorbed person never develop the ability to look beyond himself. General people see the world as bigger perspective. • Mature Adulthood- this stage develops the sense of wisdom and perspective that can really guide the younger generation.
  • 73. • Chris Argyris’s Immaturity and maturity theory- he has given the seven characteristics to define the immaturity and maturity in personalities. These are- Immaturity Characteristics- • Passivity • Dependence • Few ways of behaviour • Shallow interests • Short time perspective • Subordinate position • Lack of self awareness
  • 74. Maturity Characteristics- • Activity • Independence • Diverse behaviour • Deep interests • Long time perspective • Super ordinate position • Self awareness and control • He explained that these seven dimensions represent only one aspect of the total personality. Mush also depends on individual perception, self concepts and adaptation etc.
  • 75. Personality Traits influencing OB • Locus of Control- this can be of two types- internal locus of control and external locus of control. Person who always says that his activities are determined by other is a person of external locus of control. And who can guide his activities himself is a person with internal locus of control. People who are with internal locus of control can be good leaders. • Authoritarianism- high authoritarian people believe in holding authorities and have negative views about people and intellectually rigid. They are more rules and regulation oriented. They will use autocratic or directive leadership styles.
  • 76. • Machiavellianism- it has given by Machiavelli. He said people with high Machiavellianism manipulate more, win more and persuaded less. • Introvert and Extrovert- extroversion suggested as a managerial trait for leaders. Extroverts are social people and introverts are shy, quiet and retiring people. • Type A and Type B- people who are highly competitive and impatient and aggressive are type A personality and people who are easy going and non competitive are type B personalities. People who are aggressive can not be good team players.
  • 77. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS • TA is a technique used to help people better understand their own and others behaviour, especially in interpersonal relationship. • TA is given as training to managers to help them to develop their interpersonal relation and effectiveness. • Dr. Eric Berne is credited to develop this TA technique.
  • 78. Ego States • TA believes that personality of everyone is made up of three ego states. An ego state is a pattern of behaviour that a person develops as he or she grows up, based on his accumulated network of feelings and experience. • There are three ego states-
  • 79. • Parent- state of a person comprises the judgmental, value laden, rule making and moralizing component of personality. • Adult- this state is authentic, direct and reality based, it is rational, fact seeking and problem solving. • Child- this state is emotional, creative and impulsive component of personality.
  • 80. • Three things about ego states are worth nothing that the conversations often are the mixture of reactions from all three states parent, adult and child. And such ego states have both positive and negative features. And we can find out the ego states by observing the tone and postures of the people when they talk.
  • 81. Transactions • Transaction is the basic unit of social interaction. It consists of an exchange of words and behaviour between two persons. • There can be of two types of transactions-
  • 82. • Complementary transaction- when the communication has the same ego states of sender and receiver the transaction will be complementary. Here the line of transaction will be parallel. • P P P P • A A A A • C C C C COMPLEMENTARY TRANSACTION
  • 83. • Non-Complementary transaction- it can be said crossed transaction also. The response lines here are not parallel but crossed. For example the manager wants to deal with the executive as Adult to Adult basis but the executive responds on the basis of child to parent. Cross transaction should be avoided as far as possible. • P P P P • A A A A • C C C C CROSSED TRANSACTION
  • 84. LIFE POSITIONS- • in the process of growing up people make basic assumption about their own self and about others in their environment. These are called life positions. • Four life positions are there- • I am OK- You are OK- when people tend to feel positive about themself and about others also. This is the best position of life. We can say this is the ideal life position. • I am OK- You are not OK- people tend to watch other closely as they think that no is trust worthy as they are. • I am not OK- you are OK- they feel that others are more competent than they are. • I am not OK- you are not OK- people tend to feel bad about themselves and feel the whole world miserable. They don’t trust others and have no confidence on themselves.
  • 85. Utility of Transactional Analysis • Its major benefit is to improve interpersonal communication. • By understanding ego states and life positions we can understand the different styles used by people. • Most supervisors use the parental ego state to handle the employee as we all see our parents as first people who control our behaviour. • This helps to lead a self development. • It is also important technique of executive development. TA can not guarantee to disappear the human problems in organization but it will help to improve the relations.

Notas do Editor

  1. Introduction of OB