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Hello and welcome to this session. My name is Pierre Gorissen from the Fontys University of Applied Sciences in The Netherlands
In the next 10-12 minutes I would like to give you a brief overview of an ongoing PhD research conducated at both the Fontys University of Applied Sciences and the Eindhoven University of Technology.
The research focusses on the use of recorded lectures by students. A recorded lecture is a recording of a live lecture where a teacher, her audio and everything that is displayed on the projector is recorded. The Eindhoven University of Technology has 5 Mediasite recording sets that record about 2,000 recordings per year each about 45 minutes long. They use student operators for the camera’s and though that is cheaper than regular staff, creating these 2,000 recordings per year isn’t cheap. Another important issue for them was that because they now record to the max of their capacity, they want to be sure that they record the right lectures. Fontys University has less recording sets, currently 2 Mediasite sets and a number of other systems, but they too had the same question: are students using the recorded lectures?
Two years ago I was allowed to start a PhD Research called: Facilitating the use of recorded lectures with expert and social tagging The goal of all that is what you see as the third question. I’m going to talk to you about the first two questions.
We came up with a two step approach: let’s ask the students what they do with recorded lectures and if that doesn’t work, see if we can measure their use. I’ll start with step 1 and come back to step 2 later.
We did a survey amongst 1,122 students from both universities. We selected 7 courses that had been recorded during the semester that just ended at the moment the survey was scheduled. Now because Fontys had only just started recording full lecture series at that point, we selected 6 courses from the Eindhoven University and only one from Fontys. We sent the students a personalized mail asking them specifically about that single course. I think it greatly improved our response rate. But it also makes it possible to compare their answer with results from step 2. We also did follow up interviews . Now we asked students at the last page of the online survey if we could contact them for follow up questions. A total of 120 checked YES there. When we then afterwards mailed them to ask if they still wanted to participate, only 14 said YES again. The results are probably not that surprising. Similar to Traphagan (2005, 2006) University of Texas, Veeramani and Bradly (2008) University of Wisconsin and Gosper et al. (2008) in Australia. Bandwidth is not a problem, travel distance isn’t either, so students watch from home, no need to do that at the university. If they miss the occasional lecture they watch (70%) and some use it as a replacement for live attendance all together. Only 13% indicated that they prefer the recordings over the live lecture. And there are a lot of other reasons for students to miss a lecture. Students still prefer live lectures and if they don’t feel that they missed anything, they are way to busy with other things to watch recordings of lectures. But the question “How much of a lecture do you watch” also showed we couldn’t just take their answers at face value. The interviews do suggests it is true for some, but we don’t think it is likely that it is the case for such a large group.
Good thing we had sort of counted on that and had a second option planned: try to measure the use. We first looked at the existing Mediasite reports, but couldn’t find reports that answered our questions. So we had to create our own setup where we combined the data that was stored in the Mediasite database with the log files created by the Windows streaming server. After that we needed to do a lot of cleaning so that we only kept the data related to students (and not other staff, anonymous users, professors etc). We also removed the data related to public seminars, graduation sessions and other not lecture related recordings. And we structured the data in a way that we could use students as our starting point for the analysis, not recordings.
So these are some of the results from that second phase of the research.
So these are some of the results from that second phase of the research.
ALT-C 2011 Presentation
Analysing the use of recorded lectures by students Tuesday, 6 September 2011 Pierre Gorissen Fontys University of Applied Sciences The Netherlands (Session 0067)
<ul><li>PhD Research: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Facilitating the use of recorded lectures ” </li></ul><ul><li>Pierre Gorissen (Fontys University of Applied Sciences) </li></ul><ul><li>Jan van Bruggen (Fontys University of Applied Sciences) </li></ul><ul><li>Wim Jochems (Eindhoven University of Technology) </li></ul>
Recorded Lectures <ul><li>Many </li></ul><ul><li>Long (45 min. Average) </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive to create </li></ul><ul><li>So...are they being used? </li></ul>
Research Questions <ul><li>How do students use recorded lectures? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they say? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they actually do? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which patterns are there in the use of recorded lectures by students? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we better support the use of recorded lectures? </li></ul>
Two step approach <ul><li>How (when and why) do students use the recorded lectures for a course? </li></ul><ul><li>#1 Let’s ask them: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>#2 Measure their use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediasite reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Log files </li></ul></ul>
Let’s ask them <ul><li>Most students watch recordings at home; </li></ul><ul><li>No major technical problems; </li></ul><ul><li>They know where to find the recordings; </li></ul><ul><li>They would prefer for all courses to be recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>Many students claim to watch >75% of lecture </li></ul>
Measure use <ul><li>Students primarily used the recordings to prepare for exams; </li></ul><ul><li>Indications that watching recordings before the exam improved passing rate; </li></ul><ul><li>Not many students watch >75% of a lecture; </li></ul><ul><li>More students than expected watch lectures multiple times / on multiple occasions. </li></ul>
Next step in the research <ul><li>Experiment with providing navigational support aimed at students preparing for their exams; </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Does it help them to find the parts of the recordings they are looking for? </li></ul>
Take away points… <ul><li>“ Views” is a bad measure for use </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t just ask students about their use! </li></ul><ul><li>Combine data if available; </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be afraid to throw out data; </li></ul><ul><li>Take a student centered approach; </li></ul><ul><li>Different students mean different use; </li></ul><ul><li>Different recordings mean different use. </li></ul>
Final comment from one of the interviews: A recording of a bad lecture can actually improve that lecture... … the recording can be replayed at high speed!