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Objective
 Discuss the nature of psychology
 Goals of Psychology
 Importance of Psychology
 Historical Development of ...
Psychology
 Etymological Definition
 Psyche – mind
 Logos – study
-the study of the mind or cognitive processes that un...
Wilhelm Wundt
 Psychology is the study of conscious experience.
William James
 Psychology pertains to finding out how psychological
nature helps people adapt themselves to a complex
and...
John Watson
 Asserts that psychology is focused on the study of
covert (unobservable) and overt (observable) behavior
tha...
STUDY of BEHAVIOR and MENTAL PROCESSES
 Psychology pertains not just on what people do.
 Thoughts
 Feelings
 Perception
 Reasoning
 Memories
 Biological a...
 Psychology tries to explain, predict, modify,
and ultimately improves the lives of the
people and the world where they l...
Human Behavior
Stimulus
Response
Internal
External
Physical
mental
glandular
Goal of Psychology
 To describe behavior
 This helps one to know what is the nature of behavior
 To understand behavior...
Importance of Psychology
1. It makes a person fully aware that no two individuals
are exactly alike.
2. It makes a person ...
Historical Development of Psychology
1. Psychology as a Traditional Belief in Philosophy
 During the old days, psychology...
2. Psychology as Science
 As science, psychology started only in the latter part of 19th
century when German psychologist...
3. Psychology in Modern Era
 Modern psychology started with the opening of Wilhelm
Wundt’s laboratory at the university o...
 William James
 An American philosopher who brought psychology in
America. This made him the first American Psychologist...
 John B. Watson
 American psychologist who set the direction of modern
experimental psychology .
Schools of Psychology
1. Structuralism
 Headed by Wilhelm Wundt and Eduard Tichener
 According to structuralism, human b...
2. Functionalism
 William James
 Concern with the utility of how conscious processes function
in the adjustment of man t...
3. Behaviorism
 John Watson and Edward Thorndike
 Rejected the view of structuralism and functionalism
 Behaviorism str...
4. Psychoanalysis
 Sigmund Freud
 Freud’s theory stated that much of our behavior is governed
by hidden motives and unco...
5. Gestalt
 Max Weithemer
 It maintains that behavior is a whole pattern of organized
experience.
 “the whole is more t...
Branches of Psychology
1. General Psychology
- study the underlying principles of human behavior.
2.Experimental Psycholog...
4. Educational Psychology
- deals with psychological problems in the field of
education and how educational process affect...
7. Industrial – Organizational Psychology
- study that deals with the psychology of the workplace,
the employees’ motivati...
10. Clinical Psychology
- involves the application of clinical method of diagnosis
and treatments to persons who are sever...
13. Community Psychology
- Focuses on mental health of community.
14. Health Psychology
- examines the relationship of psy...
17. Consumer Psychology
- concern with the buying habits of consumers and the
effects of advertisement to people.
18. Lega...
General Concepts of Psychology
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General Concepts of Psychology

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Publicada em

University of Northeastern Philippines
Prof. Dexter B. Cargullo

Publicada em: Educação
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General Concepts of Psychology

  1. 1. Objective  Discuss the nature of psychology  Goals of Psychology  Importance of Psychology  Historical Development of Psychology  Schools of Psychology  Branches of Psychology
  2. 2. Psychology  Etymological Definition  Psyche – mind  Logos – study -the study of the mind or cognitive processes that underlie human behavior.
  3. 3. Wilhelm Wundt  Psychology is the study of conscious experience.
  4. 4. William James  Psychology pertains to finding out how psychological nature helps people adapt themselves to a complex and changing world.
  5. 5. John Watson  Asserts that psychology is focused on the study of covert (unobservable) and overt (observable) behavior that one can see and can be measured scientifically.
  6. 6. STUDY of BEHAVIOR and MENTAL PROCESSES
  7. 7.  Psychology pertains not just on what people do.  Thoughts  Feelings  Perception  Reasoning  Memories  Biological activities
  8. 8.  Psychology tries to explain, predict, modify, and ultimately improves the lives of the people and the world where they live.
  9. 9. Human Behavior Stimulus Response Internal External Physical mental glandular
  10. 10. Goal of Psychology  To describe behavior  This helps one to know what is the nature of behavior  To understand behavior  This tries to explain and interpret facts about behavior.  To predict behavior  This will make one observe how the person who met the accident behaves in the future.  To Control Behavior  This is achieved after describing, understanding and predicting behavior.
  11. 11. Importance of Psychology 1. It makes a person fully aware that no two individuals are exactly alike. 2. It makes a person understand that the way to interpret the environment depends on a number of things. The physiological and psychological structure of the person make him react differently in different situations. 3. It helps one gain deep insights into the significance of many aspect of human desires 4. It helps a person develop himself into a well integrated and happy individual.
  12. 12. Historical Development of Psychology 1. Psychology as a Traditional Belief in Philosophy  During the old days, psychology was based on traditions and superstition. The earliest view of psychology was speculative and metaphysical and related to animism.  ANIMISM - is the belief that everything in the surrounding is inhabited by supernatural being (spiritual being).  Thus, the Greek words, psyche (soul) and logos (study): study of soul.
  13. 13. 2. Psychology as Science  As science, psychology started only in the latter part of 19th century when German psychologists and physicists used measurement techniques to study sensation and thus laid the foundation for scientific psychology.  Thus, psychology is defined as a “science of human behavior”.  It is a science because it is systematic and empirical and is dependent on measurement. It also uses scientific method in determining behavior.
  14. 14. 3. Psychology in Modern Era  Modern psychology started with the opening of Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory at the university of Leipzig, Germany in 1879. This event marked the formal birth of psychology as science.  Wilhelm Wundt – Father of Experimental Psychology or Modern Psychology
  15. 15.  William James  An American philosopher who brought psychology in America. This made him the first American Psychologist who emphasized “functionalism” in the study of behavior.  Functionalism – concern with the utility of how conscious processes function in the adjustment of man to his environment.
  16. 16.  John B. Watson  American psychologist who set the direction of modern experimental psychology .
  17. 17. Schools of Psychology 1. Structuralism  Headed by Wilhelm Wundt and Eduard Tichener  According to structuralism, human behavior can be studied through conscious experience. This conscious experiences consist of three elements or structure: sensations, feeling, and images.  Introspection – is the procedure employed in the study of the mind. Here, the subjects are required to describe in detail their experiences while exposed to the stimuli.
  18. 18. 2. Functionalism  William James  Concern with the utility of how conscious processes function in the adjustment of man to his environment.  Functionalists studied how the mind affects what people do.
  19. 19. 3. Behaviorism  John Watson and Edward Thorndike  Rejected the view of structuralism and functionalism  Behaviorism stressed the importance of learning the environment and events that shape the behavior.  Behavior can be understood in terms of the stimulus-response formula.
  20. 20. 4. Psychoanalysis  Sigmund Freud  Freud’s theory stated that much of our behavior is governed by hidden motives and unconscious desires.  Human behavior is influenced by his libido. Libido is a sexual urge (desire) which is hidden or repressed in the unconscious or subconscious mind of an individual. Such repression, especially if longer, results to abnormal behavior and personality disorder and maladjustment.
  21. 21. 5. Gestalt  Max Weithemer  It maintains that behavior is a whole pattern of organized experience.  “the whole is more than the sum of its part”
  22. 22. Branches of Psychology 1. General Psychology - study the underlying principles of human behavior. 2.Experimental Psychology - studies the process of sensation, perception, learning and thinking. 3. Developmental Psychology - focuses on the various stages of development from pre – natal to old age, specifically how people grow and changes throughout the course of life.
  23. 23. 4. Educational Psychology - deals with psychological problems in the field of education and how educational process affects students. 5. Comparative Psychology - investigated the behavioral differences of various organisms and species to discover similarities and differences between animals and humans. 6. Social Psychology - centers on all aspects of people’s interpersonal behavior.
  24. 24. 7. Industrial – Organizational Psychology - study that deals with the psychology of the workplace, the employees’ motivation and productivity, job satisfaction and leadership. 8. Environmental psychology - connected with the relationship of people to the physical environment. 9. Personality Psychology - Is founded on sound individual differences, characteristics or traits, a persons response to vast range of situation.
  25. 25. 10. Clinical Psychology - involves the application of clinical method of diagnosis and treatments to persons who are severely disturbed and those suffering from emotional and adjustment problems. 11. Cognitive Psychology - study of higher mental processes like thinking, learning, reasoning, decision making,. Etc. 12. Forensic Psychology - is a division of applied psychology that studies legal issues like knowing what criteria determine whether an accused person is mentally competent to stand trial.
  26. 26. 13. Community Psychology - Focuses on mental health of community. 14. Health Psychology - examines the relationship of psychological factors and physical illness ore diseases. 15. Counseling Psychology - Concerned wit normal problems of everyday living and guides the individuals in their normal development. 16. Engineering Psychology - Developing areas in psychology. It is concern with the development of man – machine system.
  27. 27. 17. Consumer Psychology - concern with the buying habits of consumers and the effects of advertisement to people. 18. Legal Psychology - involves the application of psychology in legal proceedings 19. Sport Psychology - studies psychological factors in sports and other exercises.

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