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E_English Grammar Course  Unit 7 Lecture 7 - Adverbials
<ul><li>Units realizing adverbial functions </li></ul><ul><li>Classes of adverbials </li></ul><ul><li>Adjuncts </li></ul><...
Units realizing adverbial functions 1 1/7 See more in 8.1 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositio...
Units realizing adverbial functions 1 2/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Fini...
Units realizing adverbial functions 1 3/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Fini...
Units realizing adverbial functions 1 4/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Fini...
Units realizing adverbial functions 1 5/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Fini...
Units realizing adverbial functions 1 6/7 Non-finite clause Verbless clause Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun ...
Units realizing adverbial functions 1 7/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Fini...
Classes of Adverbials 2 1/7 Integrated  in clause structure  Peripheral  in clause structure See more in 8.2 ADVERBIALS AD...
Classes of Adverbials 2 2/7 1. can’t appear initially in a negative declarative clause. E.g.  Quickly , they didn’t leave ...
Classes of Adverbials 2 3/7 2. can be contrasted with another  adverbial in an alternative  interrogation (as focus of cla...
Classes of Adverbials 2 4/7 3. can be contrasted with another  adverbial in alternative negation  (as focus of clause nega...
Classes of Adverbials 2 5/7 1. can appear initially before a  negative clause in most cases E.g.:  Naturally , he didn’t c...
Classes of Adverbials 2 6/7 2. cannot be contrasted with  another adverbial in alternative  interrogation.  3. cannot be f...
Classes of Adverbials 2 7/7 ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS Can serve as a response to an Y-N  question. E.g.: A: ...
Adjuncts <ul><li>Adjuncts can come within the scope of predication pro-form  </li></ul><ul><li>or predication ellipsis. </...
Adjuncts <ul><li>2.  Adjuncts can be the focus of  limiter adverbials  such as “ only ”.  </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: They  on...
Adjuncts <ul><li>3. Adjuncts can be the focus of  additive adverbials  such as “ also”. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: They will ...
Adjuncts <ul><li>1. Can constitute a comparative construction </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: John speaks English  more fluently t...
Adjuncts <ul><li>3. Have premodifying “ how ” </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.:  How often  does she wash her hair?  </li></ul><ul><...
Adjuncts 3 6/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF  ADJUNCTS
Adjuncts 3 7/21 + = ‘if we consider what we are saying from a [adj. phrase] point of view’ + usually in initial position E...
Adjuncts 3 8/21 alone, just, only, purely, simply chiefly, especially, mainly, etc. also, either, even, neither, nor, too,...
Adjuncts 3 8/21 - Cannot be modified Eg. *very only, *extremely also - Cannot be coordinated Eg. *just and exactly, *equal...
Adjuncts 3 9/21 clearly, definitely, etc. by far, well, etc. maximizers boosters completely, etc. compromisers diminishers...
Adjuncts 3 10/21 + = in that way/ that way + favor final conditions + co-occur with dynamic verbs, not stative verbs E.g.:...
Adjuncts 3 E.g.: They walked  in single file . E.g.: I go to school  by car . E.g.: You can cut the apple  with that knife...
Adjuncts 3 general volitional formulaic With great unease , they elected him as  their leader. deliberately, intentionally...
Adjuncts 3 + denote position, direction,  movement, and passage + most are prepositional phrases;  adverb phrases and noun...
Adjuncts 3 direction  position  I take the book  from the shelf . She ran  past the church . I live  in a small village . ...
Adjuncts 3 other relationships  when duration  frequency  15/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time ...
Adjuncts 3 other relationships  when duration  frequency  + point of time E.g.: today, tomorrow + boundary of time E.g.: a...
Adjuncts 3 other relationships  when duration  frequency  + length of time E.g.: briefly + from the preceding  point in ti...
Adjuncts 3 other relationships  when duration  frequency  + definite - period: E.g.: daily - number: E.g.: twice + indefin...
Adjuncts 3 other relationships  when duration  frequency  first, still, yet, already, etc. 19/21 viewpoint focusing intens...
Adjuncts 3 + expressing purpose, cause, reason, source or origin E.g.: He took the book  from me . They  symbolically  bur...
Adjuncts 3 21/21 RELATIVE POSITION OF ADJUNCTS 1. In final position: process - place - time E.g. He was working with his s...
Disjuncts 4 1/3 DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts Most disjuncts are prepositional  phrases or clause See mo...
Disjuncts 4 2/3 DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts <ul><li>convey the speaker’s comment on  </li></ul><ul><li...
Disjuncts 4 3/3 <ul><li>convey the speaker’s comment on the  </li></ul><ul><li>content  of what he is saying </li></ul><ul...
Conjuncts 5 CONJUNCTS 1. Most conjuncts are adverb phrases  or prepositional phrases. 2. The normal position for most conj...
Conjuncts 5 2/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformula...
Conjuncts 5 first, second, third…; one, two, three…; for one thing,  for another thing; for a start, to begin with, next, ...
Conjuncts 5 also, furthermore, moreover, in addition, above all, what is more, then (informal), etc. 4/15 CONJUNCTS Enumer...
Conjuncts 5 equally, likewise, similarly, in the same way, etc. 5/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transition...
Conjuncts 5 by the way, incidentally, etc. 6/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Appositi...
Conjuncts 5 then, (all) in all, in conclusion, to sum up, etc. 7/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitiona...
Conjuncts 5 namely, in other words, for instance, that is, that is to say, for example, etc. 8/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Re...
Conjuncts 5 consequently, hence, thus, so, therefore, as a result, etc. 9/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Tr...
Conjuncts 5 else, otherwise, then, in other words, in that case, etc. 10/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Tra...
Conjuncts 5 better, rather, in other words, etc. 11/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative A...
Conjuncts 5 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory ...
Conjuncts 5 instead, then, on the contrary, in contrast,  by comparison, on the other hand, etc. 13/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerati...
Conjuncts 5 anyhow, anyway, besides, else, however, still nevertheless, yet, in any case, at any rate, after all in spite ...
Conjuncts 5 15/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformul...
Homework <ul><li>Exercises 121-147 Workbook </li></ul>
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Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 1 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 2 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 3 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 4 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 5 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 6 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 7 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 8 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 9 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 10 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 11 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 12 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 13 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 14 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 15 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 16 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 17 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 18 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 19 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 20 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 21 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 22 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 23 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 24 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 25 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 26 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 27 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 28 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 29 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 30 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 31 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 32 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 33 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 34 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 35 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 36 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 37 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 38 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 39 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 40 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 41 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 42 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 43 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 44 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 45 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 46 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 47 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 48 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 49 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 50 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 51 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 52 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 53 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 54 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 55 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 56 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 57 Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Slide 58
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Adverbial: Adjuncts, Conjuncts, Disjuncts
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Week 11 adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts

  1. 1. Homework checking
  2. 2. E_English Grammar Course Unit 7 Lecture 7 - Adverbials
  3. 3. <ul><li>Units realizing adverbial functions </li></ul><ul><li>Classes of adverbials </li></ul><ul><li>Adjuncts </li></ul><ul><li>Disjuncts </li></ul><ul><li>Conjuncts </li></ul>Issues
  4. 4. Units realizing adverbial functions 1 1/7 See more in 8.1 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause
  5. 5. Units realizing adverbial functions 1 2/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: I have never been there .
  6. 6. Units realizing adverbial functions 1 3/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: I saw her last week .
  7. 7. Units realizing adverbial functions 1 4/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: She sat in a dark corner.
  8. 8. Units realizing adverbial functions 1 5/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: When I came to the club , I saw James sitting alone at the window table.
  9. 9. Units realizing adverbial functions 1 6/7 Non-finite clause Verbless clause Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause infinitive -ing participle -ed participle He plays to win . Seeing Tom , she smiles. Whenever left alone , he cried.
  10. 10. Units realizing adverbial functions 1 7/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: The baby was playing, unaware of the danger.
  11. 11. Classes of Adverbials 2 1/7 Integrated in clause structure Peripheral in clause structure See more in 8.2 ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS
  12. 12. Classes of Adverbials 2 2/7 1. can’t appear initially in a negative declarative clause. E.g. Quickly , they didn’t leave home. ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS
  13. 13. Classes of Adverbials 2 3/7 2. can be contrasted with another adverbial in an alternative interrogation (as focus of clause interrogation) E.g. Does he write to his parents because he misses them, or only because he wants some money? ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS
  14. 14. Classes of Adverbials 2 4/7 3. can be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative negation (as focus of clause negation) E.g. We didn’t hate him because of his appearance, but because of his bad behavior. ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS
  15. 15. Classes of Adverbials 2 5/7 1. can appear initially before a negative clause in most cases E.g.: Naturally , he didn’t come. (disjunct) Therefore , he couldn’t come. (conjunct) ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS
  16. 16. Classes of Adverbials 2 6/7 2. cannot be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative interrogation. 3. cannot be focus of clause negation ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS
  17. 17. Classes of Adverbials 2 7/7 ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS Can serve as a response to an Y-N question. E.g.: A: Will he be there? B: Yes, probably .
  18. 18. Adjuncts <ul><li>Adjuncts can come within the scope of predication pro-form </li></ul><ul><li>or predication ellipsis. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: John greatly admires Bob, and so does Mary. </li></ul><ul><li> John greatly admires Bob, and Mary greatly admires Bob. </li></ul>3 SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS 1/21 See more in 8.4 - 8.46
  19. 19. Adjuncts <ul><li>2. Adjuncts can be the focus of limiter adverbials such as “ only ”. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: They only want the car for an hour (for an hour not for longer). </li></ul>3 SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS 2/21
  20. 20. Adjuncts <ul><li>3. Adjuncts can be the focus of additive adverbials such as “ also”. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: They will also meet afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Adjuncts can be the focus of a cleft sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: It was because of his injury that Mary helped Tony. </li></ul>3 3/21 SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS See more in 14.15 - 14.16
  21. 21. Adjuncts <ul><li>1. Can constitute a comparative construction </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: John speaks English more fluently than his brother does . </li></ul><ul><li>2. Have premodifying “ however ” </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: However strongly you feel about it, you should be cautious </li></ul><ul><li>in the way you talk. </li></ul>3 4/21 ADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS
  22. 22. Adjuncts <ul><li>3. Have premodifying “ how ” </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: How often does she wash her hair? </li></ul><ul><li>How carelessly he drives! </li></ul><ul><li>4. Have premodifying “ so ” (+ inversion) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: So monotonously did he speak that everybody felt asleep. </li></ul>3 5/21 ADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS
  23. 23. Adjuncts 3 6/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  24. 24. Adjuncts 3 7/21 + = ‘if we consider what we are saying from a [adj. phrase] point of view’ + usually in initial position E.g.: Geographically (speaking), Vietnam is a diverse country. Business-wise , it’s not a good idea to open a fast food restaurant in this area. viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  25. 25. Adjuncts 3 8/21 alone, just, only, purely, simply chiefly, especially, mainly, etc. also, either, even, neither, nor, too, as well as, in addition viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS limiters additives exclusives particularizers
  26. 26. Adjuncts 3 8/21 - Cannot be modified Eg. *very only, *extremely also - Cannot be coordinated Eg. *just and exactly, *equally and likewise Exception : purely and simply viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  27. 27. Adjuncts 3 9/21 clearly, definitely, etc. by far, well, etc. maximizers boosters completely, etc. compromisers diminishers minimizers approximators kind of, quite, etc. partly, slightly, etc. a bit, barely, etc. almost, nearly, etc. viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS emphasizers amplifiers downtoners
  28. 28. Adjuncts 3 10/21 + = in that way/ that way + favor final conditions + co-occur with dynamic verbs, not stative verbs E.g.: They live frugally . Tear gas was indiscriminatively sprayed on the protesters. viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  29. 29. Adjuncts 3 E.g.: They walked in single file . E.g.: I go to school by car . E.g.: You can cut the apple with that knife . 11/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS manner means instrument
  30. 30. Adjuncts 3 general volitional formulaic With great unease , they elected him as their leader. deliberately, intentionally, on purpose, willingly, with reluctance, etc. please, humbly, cordially, kindly, etc. 12/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  31. 31. Adjuncts 3 + denote position, direction, movement, and passage + most are prepositional phrases; adverb phrases and noun phrases used frequently + used only with verbs of motions or other dynamic verbs denoting direction E.g.: She works a long way from here . We’re moving some furniture into the kitchen . 13/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  32. 32. Adjuncts 3 direction position I take the book from the shelf . She ran past the church . I live in a small village . He is over there . 14/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  33. 33. Adjuncts 3 other relationships when duration frequency 15/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  34. 34. Adjuncts 3 other relationships when duration frequency + point of time E.g.: today, tomorrow + boundary of time E.g.: afterwards 16/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  35. 35. Adjuncts 3 other relationships when duration frequency + length of time E.g.: briefly + from the preceding point in time E.g.: since 17/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  36. 36. Adjuncts 3 other relationships when duration frequency + definite - period: E.g.: daily - number: E.g.: twice + indefinite - usual occurrence: E.g.: usually - continuous/continual: E.g.: always - high: E.g.: often - low/zero: occasionally, never 18/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  37. 37. Adjuncts 3 other relationships when duration frequency first, still, yet, already, etc. 19/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  38. 38. Adjuncts 3 + expressing purpose, cause, reason, source or origin E.g.: He took the book from me . They symbolically buried the car as a protest against pollution. 20/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  39. 39. Adjuncts 3 21/21 RELATIVE POSITION OF ADJUNCTS 1. In final position: process - place - time E.g. He was working with his shears (process) in the garden (place) the whole morning (time). 2. The normal relative order can be changed to suit the desire for end-focus. 3. A clause normally comes after other structures to avoid ambiguity E.g. We stood talking for a very long time (A1) where the fire had been (A2). 4. Longer adjuncts tend to follow shorter adjuncts. E.g. I was studying earlier (A1) in the university library (A2). See more in 8.3
  40. 40. Disjuncts 4 1/3 DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts Most disjuncts are prepositional phrases or clause See more in 8.47 - 8.52
  41. 41. Disjuncts 4 2/3 DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts <ul><li>convey the speaker’s comment on </li></ul><ul><li>the form of what he is saying, </li></ul><ul><li>defining in some way under what </li></ul><ul><li>conditions he is speaking </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Seriously , do you intend to retire? </li></ul><ul><li>Personally , I don’t approve of her. </li></ul><ul><li>Very frankly , I am tired. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Disjuncts 4 3/3 <ul><li>convey the speaker’s comment on the </li></ul><ul><li>content of what he is saying </li></ul><ul><li>generally appear only on declarative </li></ul><ul><li>clauses </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Obviously , no one expected us. </li></ul><ul><li>Understandably , they were all </li></ul><ul><li>annoyed when reading the letter. </li></ul>DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts
  43. 43. Conjuncts 5 CONJUNCTS 1. Most conjuncts are adverb phrases or prepositional phrases. 2. The normal position for most conjuncts is initial. 3. Conjuncts often have a separate tone unit. 1/15 See more in 8.53 - 8.56
  44. 44. Conjuncts 5 2/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  45. 45. Conjuncts 5 first, second, third…; one, two, three…; for one thing, for another thing; for a start, to begin with, next, then… 3/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  46. 46. Conjuncts 5 also, furthermore, moreover, in addition, above all, what is more, then (informal), etc. 4/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  47. 47. Conjuncts 5 equally, likewise, similarly, in the same way, etc. 5/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  48. 48. Conjuncts 5 by the way, incidentally, etc. 6/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  49. 49. Conjuncts 5 then, (all) in all, in conclusion, to sum up, etc. 7/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  50. 50. Conjuncts 5 namely, in other words, for instance, that is, that is to say, for example, etc. 8/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  51. 51. Conjuncts 5 consequently, hence, thus, so, therefore, as a result, etc. 9/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  52. 52. Conjuncts 5 else, otherwise, then, in other words, in that case, etc. 10/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  53. 53. Conjuncts 5 better, rather, in other words, etc. 11/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  54. 54. Conjuncts 5 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition alternatively, rather, on the other hand, etc. 12/15
  55. 55. Conjuncts 5 instead, then, on the contrary, in contrast, by comparison, on the other hand, etc. 13/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  56. 56. Conjuncts 5 anyhow, anyway, besides, else, however, still nevertheless, yet, in any case, at any rate, after all in spite of that, on the other hand, all the same, etc. 14/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  57. 57. Conjuncts 5 15/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition meantime, meanwhile, in the mean time, etc.
  58. 58. Homework <ul><li>Exercises 121-147 Workbook </li></ul>
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