1. A PROJECT REPORT
Internal Guide Develop by
•PROF. HEMAL PAREKH 1)PATEL TAPAN (130513106009)
2)PATEL NILESH (130513106006)
3)RAVAL GHANSYAM (130513106011)
In fulfillment for the award of the degree
BACHERAL OF ENGINEERING
2. It is indeed pleasure and a moment of satisfaction for
us to express our gratitude and sincere thanks to our
project guide HEMAL PAREKH madam of Civil
Engineering Dept. of alpha College of Engineering &
technology, BOL GRAM PANCHAYAT, MIHIR
MAHADEVIA who have been constant source of
inspiration, guidance and encouragement. And we
thank all the associates and colleagues who helped us
directly or indirectly. They have extremely co- operated
us in preparation and in motivating us
3. CH:-1 INTRODUCTION
CH:-4 SOIL TEST
4.1- CBR TEST
4.2- PROCTOR TEST
CH:-5 DESIGN CRITERIA
5.1- DESIGN PROCEDURE
5.2- TRAFFICK DATA
5.3- TRAFFICK GROWTH RATE
5.4- DESIGN LIFE
5.5- VEHICLE DAMAGE FACTOR
4. CH:-6 PAVEMENT COMPOTITION
6.2- SUB BASE
6.3- SUBBASE LAYER
6.4- BASE LAYER
6.5- CEMENTITION LAYER
6.6- BITUMINOUS SURFACING
CH:-7 DRAINAGE PAVEMENT
CH:-9 CONCLUTION AND FUTURE SCOPE
5. Village networking and road development is connecting road from
village to highways and other villages, due to no connectivity of roads
villagers face problems in getting basic amenities.
The road network has been plan in pervious semester. The detail
design of all details construction plan which include cost of material,
labor, equipment use other cost. The details construction planning will
be carried out.
The guidelines on design of flexible pavement were first brought out
in 1970, which were based on California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of sub
grade and traffic in terms of number of commercial vehicles.
These guidelines were revised in 1984 in which design traffic was
considered in terms of cumulative number of equivalent standard axle
load of 80 kN in millions of standard axles (msa) and design charts
were provided for traffic up to 30 msa using an empirical approach.
6. The design of flexible pavement involves the interplay of
several variables, such as, the wheel loads, traffic, climate,
terrain and sub grade conditions. With a view to have a unified
approach for working out the design of flexible payment in
the country, the IRC first brought out guideline in 1970.This
large spectrum of axle load.
The guidelines on design of flexible pavement were first
brought out in 1970, which were based on California Bearing
Ratio (CBR) of sub grade and traffic in terms of number of
The revised guidelines used a semi-mechanistic approach
based on the results of the MORTH's research scheme R-56
implemented at NT Kharagpur.
7. The design of flexible pavement is based on the principle that
for a load of any magnitude, the intensity of a load diminishes
as the load is transmitted downwards from the surface by virtue
of spreading over an increasingly larger area, by carrying it
deep enough into the ground through successive layers of
8. Kumar, C.Kishor, Kumar, S.N.V. Amar, Reddy, M.A., Reddy, K.
Sudhakar, "Investigation of Cold-in-place Recycling Mixes in
India", International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 1, 2007, pp
Asphalt Institute (2003), 'Performance Graded Asphalt Binder-
Specification and Testing, Super pave Series No.1 (SP-1).
Amaranth Reddy, M., Sudhakar Reddy, K. and Pandey B.B(2001),
'Design CBR of Subgrade for Flexible Pavements', IRC Highway
Research Bulletin No.64, June 2001 pp. 61-69.
IRC: SP:89-2010 Guidelines for Soil and Granular Material
Stabilization Using Cement, Lime & Fly Ash.
Krishna, M. (2010), 'Investigations on Long Life Bituminous
Pavements' M.Tech. “IIT" Kharagpur.
10. These guidelines will apply to design of flexible pavements for
expressways, national highways, state highways, major district
roads and other categories of roads predominantly carrying
For the purpose of the guidelines, flexible pavements are consider
to include the pavements which have bituminous surfacing and
granular base and sub-base courses conforming to IRC standards
or to sections 500 & 400 specifications for road and bridge works,
ministry of road transport and highway.
For design of strengthening measure or overlay for existing
pavement the design procedure described in IRC:81 “Tentative
guideline for strengthening of flexible road pavement.
To determine the CBR value of soil
STANDARD REFERENCE: IS: 2720 (Part XVI)
Moulds with base plate, stay rod and wing nut, collar, spacer
disc, metal rammer, expansion measuring apparatus, weights,
loading machine, penetration plunger, dial gauges, IS sieves
12. Testing Procedure:-
To prevent upheaval of the soil specimen into the hole of the
surcharge weights, place 2.5 kg annular weight on the soil
surface prior to the seating the penetration the plunger, after
which the remainder of the surcharge plate shall be placed.
Place the plunger under a load of 4kg so that full contact is
established between the surface of the specimen and the
Apply the strain rate on the base plate and allow penetration
of plunger so that the penetration is approximately 1.25mm
Note the reading proving ring at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 4, 5,
7.5, 10, 12.5 mm. the maximum load of penetration is
recorded if occurs for a penetration of less than 12.5mm.
15. Sr. No., 12
Load = P.R x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Load(KN) CBR test chart
16. Design procedure
pavement design are given for subgrade CBR value ranging
from 2% to 10%.
Design traffic ranging from 1 msa to 150 msa for an average
annual pavement temperature of 35c.
Design of road are depend following two value are under.
1) Design traffic in term of cumulative number of standard
2) CBR value of subgrade
17. Following information is needed for estimating design traffic:
Initial traffic after construction in terms of number of
Commercial Vehicles per day.
Traffic growth rate during the design life in percentage.
Design life in number of years.
Spectrum of axle loads.
Vehicle Damage Factor
Distribution of commercial traffic over the carriageway.
18. Design Life
It is recommended that pavements for National Highways
and State Highways should be designed for a minimum life
of 15 years.
Expressways and Urban Roads may be designed for a
longer life of 20 years or higher using innovative design
adopting high fatigue bituminous mixes.
very high volume roads with design traffic greater than 200
msa and perpetual pavements can also be designed using
the principles stated in the guidelines. For other categories
of roads, a design life of 10 to 15 years may be adopted
19. Vehicle Damage Factor
The guidelines use Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF) in
estimation of cumulative msa for thickness design of
pavements. In case of cemented bases, cumulative damage
principle is used for determining fatigue life of cementations
bases for heavy traffic and for that spectrum of axle loads is
Single axle with single wheel on either side = (axle load in
Single axle with dual wheels on either side = (axle load in
Tandem axle with dual wheels on either side = (axle load in
The sub grades is the top 500 mm of the embankment
immediately below the bottom of the Pavement, and is
made up of in-situ material, select soil, or stabilized soil
that forms the foundation of a pavement.
Subgrade shall be compacted to a minimum of 97 per
cent of laboratory dry density achieved with heavy
compaction as per IS: 2720 for Expressways, National
Highways, State Highways, Major District Roads and
other heavily trafficked roads.
Log10 CBR = 2.465 - 1.12 log10 N
23. Sub-base materials may consist of natural sand, moorum,
gravel, laterite, kankar, brick metal, and crushed stone,
crushed slag and reclaimed crushed concrete/reclaimed
asphalt pavement or combinations thereof meeting the
prescribed grading and physical requirements.
When the sub-base material consists of combination of
materials, mixing should be done mechanically either using a
suitable mixer or adopting mix-in-place method. The sub-
base should have sufficient strength and thickness to serve the
Specifications of granular sub-base (GSB) materials
conforming to MORTH Specifications for Road and Bridge
Works are recommended for use
24. The base layer may consist of wet mix macadam, water
bound macadam, crusher run macadam, reclaimed
concrete etc. Relevant specifications of IRC/MORTH are
to be adopted for the construction
MRgranular = 0.2*h0.45 MR subgrade
Poisson's ratio of granular bases and sub-bases is
recommended as 0.35.
25. Cementitious base:-Cemented base layers may consist of
aggregates or soils or both stabilized with chemical
stabilizers such as cement, lime, lime-flaysh or other
stabilizers which are required to give a minimum strength of
4.5 to 7 MPa in 7/28 days.
Bituminous surfacing:-The surfacing consists of a wearing
course or a binder course plus wearing course. The most
commonly used wearing courses are surface dressing. Open
graded premix carpet, mix seal surfacing, semi-dense
bituminous concrete and bituminous concrete
26. Ex:-Design the flexible pavement for construction of a new
road with the following data:
• Two lane single carriage way is to designed in plain area
• Initial traffic in the year of completion of construction = 310
CVPD (sum of both directions) as mentioned
heavy truck three axle: 30
heavy truck two axle: 70
mini truck: 120
large bus: 60
Traffic growth rate = 7.0 %
Design life = 15 years
Vehicle damage factor based on axle load survey.
Design CBR of sub-grade soil = 9.5%
a) Lane Distribution factor = 0.75
b)Cumulative number of standard axle for
design life of 15 years
Vehicle type Number VDF Equivalent
heavy truck three
30 6.50 195
heavy truck two
70 4.75 333
mini truck 120 1.0 120
large bus 60 0.50 30
Bus 30 0.35 11
28. Cumulative Number of standard axles for design riod:
c) Total thickness of the pavement with CBR9. 5% and
4.73 msa = 775 mm
d) Pavement composition:-
i. Bituminous wearing course:- Asphalt Concrete
ii. Bituminous Binder course: - DBM 50 mm
iii. Base course:- Water Bound
Macadam: 150 mm
iv. Sub-base:- Granular sub-base 325 mm
CBR not < 30 %
29. date Work carried out
1-1-16 Visit BOL village for our project purpose
5-1-16 Choose the flexible pavement in IS code(
IRC 37: 2012)
12-1-16 Download literature and research paper
20-1-16 Survey for road and measure the road
1-2-16 Calculate the thickness of road for
7-2-16 Carried out design of bituminous road
27-2-16 Estimation of road
30. This pavement design study will help, if non conventional
pavement design is adopted in the construction of
pavement, there will be improved performance of the
pavement thus increasing the life and leading to financial
savings. The study has focused on finding the suitable
application of fly ash. Lime stone etc. in the non-
bituminous layers of the flexible pavement based on
geotechnical characteristics of mix comprising fly ash,
lime and soils. Since road pavement are important parts
of these projects, costing about 50% of the investment, a
careful evaluation of the alternative is necessary to make
the right choice on a basic.
 IRC: 37-2001 “Guidelines for the Design of Flexible
Pavements”, New Delhi, 2001.
 IRC: SP: 19 - “Manual for Survey, investigation and
preparation of Road Projects”, New Delhi, 2001.
 IRC: 73-1980 “Geometric Design Standards for Rural
Highways”, New Delhi, 1990.
 IRC: SP: 84 – “Manual of Specifications & Standards for
Four Lining of Highways through Public Private
Partnership”, New Delhi, 2009.