3. • You can use all-purpose flour for
making yeast breads. However,
many yeast bread recipes call for
bread flour. Bread flour contains
more gluten than all-purpose flour.
• When mixed with liquid and
kneaded, the flour develops
gluten which supports the
carbon dioxide produced by the
4. LIQUIDS INYEAST
• You can use plain water,potato water,or milk as
the liquid in yeast breads.You must warm all
liquids to activate the yeast.
• Milk adds nutrients to bread and helps
bread stay fresher longer. It also gives
bread a softer crust.
• Some yeast bread recipes state that you should
scald the milk.This step is unnecessary if you
are using pasteurized milk.(Unpasteurized milk
contains enzymes that can cause doughs to
soften during fermentation).
• If you will be dissolving the yeast
in water,heat the liquids to 105°-
• If you are combining yeast with other
• heat the liquids to 120°-130°.
• Temperatures that are too high will
kill the yeast cells.
• Temperatures that are too low
can slow or stop yeast activity.
• When preparing bread in a bread
machine,liquids should be at room
6. SALT INYEAST BREADS
• Salt regulates the action of the yeast
and inhibits the action of certain
enzymes in the flour.
• Without salt,a yeast dough is sticky
and hard to handle.
Yeast leavens bread. Use
the amount of yeast
specified in the recipe.
Using too much
yeast will cause the dough
to rise too quickly.
Temperatures affect yeast
cells. Temperatures that
are too high will kill the
are too low will slow down
or stop yeast activity.
8. TYPES OF
■ Fresh Yeast-also called
compressed yeast. Usually
purchased in 1 lb. Cakes.
■ Active Dry Yeast-dry,
granular form of yeast. Must
be rehydrated in warm water
■ Instant Yeast-also a dry
granular form of yeast, does
not have to be dissolved in
water before use. Also
called rapid rise or quick rise
Sugar-provides extra food for the yeast so the
dough will rise faster. If too much sugar is
used, the dough will actually rise slower.Sugar
also influences browning,flavor and texture.
Fat-increases tenderness.Most recipes call for
solid fat, such as shortening,butter or
margarine.Some recipes call for oil.Use the
type specified in the recipe.
Eggs-add flavor and richness to yeast breads.
They also add color and improve the structure.
Other ingredients can be added such as raisins,
nuts, cheese,herbs,and spices.These
ingredients add flavor and variety, but they
may also increase the rising time.
• Soften the yeast in warm
• Add the sugar, fat, and salt to the milk.
The milk should be room temperature to
• Combine the yeast with the liquid
mixture and add some of the flour . Beat
the mixture until smooth. Add the
remaining flour gradually to form a
• You can also use the traditional method
to prepare refrigerator yeast breads.
These breads often call for extra yeast,
sugar and salt. Mix and knead the
dough and place in a covered bowl in
the refrigerator. Shape the dough
and bake it the next day.The is
sometimes called the cool-rise method.
• This method works well with active dry or
fast rising yeast.
It also allows ingredients to blend easily
and eliminates softening the yeast.
• Mix the yeast with some of the flour and
all the other
• dry ingredients.
• Heat the liquid and fat together to a
temperature of 120°- 130°F and add to
the dry ingredients with an electric
• Add eggs, if required, and add the
remaining flour to form a dough.
• Using the mixer helps develop the
gluten and shortens the kneading
• Uses less flour,so the
yeast mixture is thinner
than a dough.
• Vigorous stirring,rather than
kneading helps develop the
• If the recipe requires two
risings, rise first in the mixing
bowl, then spread the batter in
the baking pan for the second
Preparing yeast breads requires
the development of gluten and
the formation of carbon dioxide.
The gluten develops during
mixing and kneading.
The gluten will form the
framework of the bread and hold
the carbon dioxide produced by
the yeast during fermentation.
The yeast will produce carbon
dioxide which will give volume
to the bread.
• Although some of the
gluten develops during
develops most of the
• To knead means to press
the dough with the heel
of the hands, fold it,and
18. You must knead yeast dough until
smooth and elastic.
It is important not to add too much flour
during kneading.Too much flour will
make the dough stiff.
Do not be too rough with the dough.Too
much pressure at the beginning of
kneading can keep the dough sticky
and hard to handle.Too much pressure
at the end of kneading can tear or mat
the gluten strands that have developed.
19. KNEADING THE DOUGH
• The dough has been kneaded enough
when it passes the windowpane test.
• To perform the windowpane test,cut off a
small piece of dough from the batch and
gently stretch,pull and turn it to see if it
will hold a paper- thin translucent
• If the dough falls apart before it
makes the windowpane, continue
mixing or kneading for another
minute or two and test again.
• After kneading a yeast dough, you must allow
it to rest in a warm place. During the rest
time, the yeast acts upon the sugars in the
bread dough to form alcohol and carbon
dioxide.This is called fermentation.
• The alcohol evaporates during baking,the
carbon dioxide causes the bread to rise.
21. • The dough should double in volume.
• To test to see if the dough has doubled,
press two fingers into the dough, if an
indentation remains, the dough has
22. Fermentation time varies
depending on the kind
and amount of yeast, the
temperature of the room,
and the kind of flour.
The room temperature for
fermentation should be
If the kitchen is not warm
enough, place the dough
on a wire rack over
another bowl filled with
23. PUNCHING THE DOUGH
• When the dough has completed
rising, you must punch it down to
release some of the carbon dioxide.
• Punch dough down by firmly pushing
a fist into the dough. Fold the edges of
the dough toward the center and turn
the dough over so that the smooth side
is on top.
• At this point,some doughs require a
second rising time.
After punching the dough down, use
a sharp knife to divide it into
portions as the recipe directs. Allow
the divided dough to rest 10
minutes. After resting, the dough is
easier to handle.
Allow the dough to rise
again after shaping.
25. • To shape dough, first flatten dough into
• The width of the dough should be about
the length of the bread pan.
• Use a rolling pin to help you work out any
large air bubbles.
• Cover the shaped dough and allow to rise in
a warm,draft free place until they have
doubled in bulk.
• Baking times and temperatures vary
depending upon the kind of dough and
size of the loaf.
• Place most yeast breads in a hot oven to
• During baking,the gas cells expands
• The walls of dough around these cells
set and become rigid.
• During the first few minutes of baking,the
dough will rise dramatically-this is called
28. • Shortly after oven spring occurs, you may
reduce the oven temperature so the bread
finishes baking in a moderately hot oven.
This prevents over-browning.
• After baking,immediately remove the
bread from the pans and place it on
cooling racks.Cool thoroughly before
slicing and storing.
• A high-quality loaf has a large
volume,and a smooth, rounded
top.The surface is golden
• When sliced, the texture is fine
• The crumb is tender and
elastic,and it springs back
• If a yeast dough has been under
or over worked,the finished
product will have a low volume.
(The carbon dioxide has leaked
out of the dough.)
30. • If you allow bread to rise for too long
before baking,it may have large,
over-expanded cells. The top of the
loaf may be sunken with over-
hanging sides. The texture may be
coarse, and crumbly.
• Bread that has not been allowed to
rise long enough before baking
may have large cracks on the side
of the loaf, and the texture will be
31. TIME SAVING
• Cool-Rise Doughs
• Prepared from recipes that are
specially designed to rise slowly
in the refrigerator.Mix the
ingredients and knead the dough,
then after a brief rest, you shape
the dough and place it in a pan.
• Cover and refrigerate.
• The dough will rise and be ready
to bake 2-24 hours later.
• Prepared from recipes
that are specially
designed to rise slowly in
• Often uses the batter method.
• Shaped after refrigeration.
• Dough can remain in the
refrigerator for 2-24 hours.Then
you shape the dough, let it rise
and bake it
33. FREEZER DOUGHS
Recipes allow you to
mix and knead the
dough. Then you can
freeze the dough before
or after shaping.
Store the dough in the
freezer for up to one
month.When you are
ready to eat it, thaw,
shape if necessary, let
rise and bake.
• Fastest,easiest way to produce
• Each machine model behaves
• Carefully follow the manufacturers
• You can check the texture of the dough
by opening the machine’s lid partway
through the first knead cycle. The
dough should form a soft ball that is
somewhat sticky to the touch.
35. • If the dough is too moist, the loaf
will collapse during baking.
• To correct, add 1 Tablespoon of bread
flour at a time.
• Weather conditions influence
dough prepared in a bread
37. OTHER TYPES OF
• Challah-the traditional
bread for Jewish
Celebrations. Rich with
eggs and flavored with
honey,it is braided into
oval loaves and topped
with poppy or sesame
38. OTHER TYPES OF
• fat is
d through a
39. OTHER TYPES OFYEAST BREADS
• Brioche-a rich, tender
bread made with lots
of eggs and butter. It
can be a difficult
dough to work with.
It is traditionally
made in fluted pans
and has a topknot of