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8th standard-social-science-tamil-medium-1

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8th standard-social-science-tamil-medium-1

  1. 1. jkpH;ehL muR rK:f mwptpay;© Kjw;gjpg;g[ - 2005 kWgjpg;g[ - 2006 FGj; j iyth; f s;tuyhW (k)Foikapay; g[ t papay; (tuyhW ? Foikapay; ? g[tpapay;)nguhrphpah; Kidth ;jpU/gp/ uhkehjd; . rh/, uhzp bre; j hkiu.tuyhw;Wj;Jiw. g[tpapay;Jiw.khepyf;fy;Y}up (jd;dhl;rp). khepyf;fy;Y}hp (jd;dhl;rp).brdid - 600 005/ ; brdid - 600 005/ ; vl; l hk; tFg; g [ nkyha; t hsh; f s;Kidth; f/tp$ah. jpU/ V/ jkpHurd;.KJepiy tphpt[iuahsh;. KJepiy tphpt[iuahsh;.tuyhw;wpay; Jiw. g[tpapay; Jiw.fhapnjkpy;yj; muR kfsph; fy;Y}hp. khepyf;fy;Y}hp (jd;dhl;rp). ;brdid - 600 002/ ; brdid - 600 005/ ; E}yhrphpah; f s;jpUkjp.P.C. ghDkjp/ jpUkjp. V. kPdhl; r p/KJfiy Mrphpia-tuyhW/ tphptiuahsh;/ [vd;.nf.o njrpa bgz;fs; khtl;l fy;tp kw;Wk; jP z ; l hik xU ghtr; b ray;nky;epiyg;gs;sp/ gapwrp epiyak;/ FKSh;/ ; jP z ; l hik xU bgU’; F w; w k;jpUty;ypf;nfzp/ jpUr;rp khtl;lk;brdid - 600 005/ ; jP z ; l hik kdpjj; jd; i kaw; w bray;j p U k j p . S. b $ a y l ; R k p / jpUkjp. K . nrhgdh/gl;ljhhp Mrphpah;/ KJfiy Mrphpia (g[tpapay;)/muR nky;epiyg;gs;sp/ vd;.nf.o. njrpa bgz;fs;/mUk;ghf;fk;/ brd;id - 600106/ nky;epiyg;gs;sp/ jpUty;ypf;nfzp/ brdid - 600 005/ ;jpU. T.S. gf; j tr; r yk; /gl;ljhhp Mrphpah;/murpdh; cah;epiyg;gs;sp/Rg;ghbul;o ghisak;/jpUts;s{h; - 600 120 jkpH; e hl; L g; ; ghl’fs; jahhpgg[ ; ; ; ; ; jkpHehL muRffhf gsspffytp ,afffk. jkpHehL/ ; ; ; ; ghlE]y; f Hfk; fy; Y ]hpr; r hiy. brd; i d-600006. ,eE}y; 60 $p/v!/vk/ jhspy; mrrplgglLssJ/ ; ; ; ; ; ; ;btg; Mg; b rl; Kiwapy; mr; r pl; n lhh; :
  2. 2. bghUslf; f k; g[ t papay; gffk; ; tuyhW Kft[iu 187 gffk; ; 1/ gtpapd; cssikgg[ [ ; ; 1881/ jkpHfjjpwF Inuhggpah; tUif ; ; ; 1 2/ gtp efutfs; [ ; [ 1952/ ghisaffhuhfs; gulrp ? ntY}hfyfk; ; ; [ ; ; 15 3/ vupkiyfs; 2083/ M’fpnyah; Mjpffjjpd; fH; jkpHfjjpd; ; ; ; P ; bghUshjhu epiy 27 4/ epy eLff’fs; ; ; 2254/ tpLjiyfF Kd; jkpHfjjpy; fytp tshrrp ; ; ; ; ; 37 5/ ghiwfs; 2385/ tpLjiyg;nghuhl;lj;jpy; jkpHfj;jpd; g’;F 48 6/ MWfs; 2486/ 19 kwWk; 20 Mk; E}wwhzLfspy; jkpHfjjpy; ; ; ; ; 7/ epyjjo eu; ; P 265 Vwgll rKjha rhjpUjj ,aff’fs; ; ; P ; ; ; ; 58 8/ gdpahWfs; 2807/ tpLjiyfF gpd; jkpHfjjpy; fytp tshrrp ; ; ; ; ; 69 9/ bgU’fly; miyfs; ; 2938/ jkpHfjjpy; bghUshjhu tshrrp ; ; ; 83 10/ fhwW ; 3019/ jkpHf murpd; rKf eyjjpll’fs; : ; ; ; 98 11/ bgU’;fly;fs; 31210/ jwfhy jkpHfjjpy; ,yffpak; kwWk; ; ; ; ; gzghlod; tshrrp ; ; ; ; 112 12/ ,aw;if nghplh; tot’;fs; I 326 Foikapay ; 13/ kdpj?Mf;f nghplh; tot’;fs; II 3541/ ekJ njrpaf; Fwpfnfhsfs; ; ; 1212/ njrpa xUikgghL ; 1353/ njrpa ghJfhgg[ Kiw ; 1434/ ekJ rKfg; gpurridfSk; jhtfSk; : ; P ; [ 1545/ ekJ bghUshjhug; gpurridfs; ; 1666/ kdpj chpikfs; ? bgz; chpikfs; 178 iii iv
  3. 3. tuyhW nghh;r;Rf;fy; kw;Wk; !;bgapd; ehLfs; j’; f Sila khYkpfis fly; t Hpg; ghlk; 1 gazk; nkw;bfhs;s Cf;Ftpj;jd/ jkpHfj ; j pw ; F Inuhg ; g pah ; tUif 1/nghh;r;Rf;fPrpah;fs; tUif : Kjd; Kjypy; ,e;jpahtpw;F fly; tHpiaf; th!;nfhlfhkh fw; w y; nehf; f ’; f s; fzLgpojjthfs; nghhrRffrpahfs; Mth/ ; ; ; ; ; ; P ; ; 1/ Inuhg; gpah; f s; tUif gw; wp mwpjy ; / nghh;r;Rf;fy; kd;dh;. khYkp b~d;wp.fly;tHpg;gazk; 2/ M’; f pnyaUf; F k; . gpbu”; R f; f huh; f Sf; F k; nkw; bfhs;s khYkpfis Cf;Ftpj;jhh;/ mjd; tpisthf ,ilna ele;j Mjpf;fg; nghl;oapidg; gw;wp 1498 Mk; Mz;L th!;nfhlfhkh vd;w nghh;rRf;frpa khYkp ; P g[hpe;J bfhs;Sjy;/ nkw;F flw;fiuapYs;s nfhHpf;nfhL vd;w ,lj;ij 3/ uhgh;l; fpistpd; rhjidfisg; gw;wp mwpjy;/ mile;jhh;/ nfhHpf;nfhL gFjpia Mz;l rhkhpd; vd;w kd ; d h ; th! ; n fhlfhkhit md ; g [ l d ; tuntw ; w hh ; / ,e;epfH;r;rp nghh;r;Rf;fPrpah;fs; j’;fsJ gw;wpl’;fis rpwe;j gz;ghl;oidf; bfhz;l ,e;jpa jkpH;ehl;oy; mikj;Jf;bfhs;s tHp tFj;jJ/khepy’;fspy; xd;whd jkpH;ehL. r’;f fhyj;jpy; gy g[fH; th!;nfhlfhkhtpd; fly;tHp fz;Lgpog;g[ ,e;jpabgw; w murh; f shy; Msg; g l; l J/ jkpH; e hl; o d; tuyhw;wpy; xU jpUg;g[ Kidahff; fUjg;gLfpwJ/gz;ghl;ow;Fk;. ehfhPfj;jpw;Fk; mth;fs; Mw;wpa gzpFwpg;gplj;jf;fJ/ gz;ila jkpH;kf;fs; fpnuf;f kw;Wk; gpuhd;rp!;nfh?o?my;bka;lh (1505?1509):nuhkhdpa ehLfSld; thzpfj; bjhlhg[ bfhzoUejhhfs/ ; ; ; ; ; ,ejpahtpy; ,Uej nghhrRffrpag; gwwpl’fspd; Kjy; ; ; ; ; ; P ; ;nkYk; btdpR efu gazp khh;f;nfh nghnyh ,uz;lhk; MSeuhf ,th; epakpffggllhh/ ,ejpag; bgU’flypy; ; ; ; ; ; ;ghz;oa muR fhyj;jpy; jkpHfj;jpw;F tUif je;jhh;/ nghh;r;Rf;fPrpah;fs; Mjpf;fk; bgw;wth;fsha;,e;jpa th;j;jfg; bghUs;fshd thridj; jputpa’;fs;. tps’fntzLbkd mth; tpUkgpdhh/ mth; gpdgwwpa ; ; ; ; ; ;gUj;jp kw;Wk; gl;L nghd;w bghUs;fisg; gw;wp mth; bfhs;if ePyf;fly; bfhs;if vd miHf;fg;gl;lJ/Fwpg;g[fs; je;Js;shh;/ mtuJ Fwpg;g[fs; kw;w Inuhg;gp my; n ghd; n rh ? o ? my; g [ f h; f ; F (1509?1515): ,th;ah;fisj; jkpHfj;Jld; tpahghuj; bjhlh;g[ bfhs;s nghh; r ; R f; f P r pa gw; w pl’; f spd; ,uz; l htJ MSeuhfCf;Ftpj;jd/ epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ ,th; ,e;jpahtpy; nghh;r;Rf;fPrpahpd; Mjpf;fk; tsu moj;jskpl;ltuhthh;/ ,th; fp/gp/ 1510 fp/gp/ 1453 Mk; Mz;L JUf;fpah; fhd;!;lhd;o Mk; Mz;L gp$g;g{h; Ry;jhdplkpUe;J nfhthitf;nehgpisf; ifg;gw;wp. kj;jpa jiuf;fly; tHpiaa[k; ifg; g w; w pdhh; / mjd; g pd; nfhth nghh; r ; R f; f P r pahpd;milj;;jdh;/ vdnt Inuhg;gpah;fs; fpHf;F ehLfSf;Fr; jiyikaplkhf mike;jJ/bryy gjpa fly; tHpia fzLgpoff ntzoajhapwW/ ; [ ; ; ; ;15 kw; W k; 16 Mk; E}w; w hz; o d; fz; L gpog; g [ f s; nghh;r;Rf;fPrpahpd; tsh;r;rp: fhyg;nghf;fpy;Inuhg;gpah;fs; fPiHehLfSld;. Fwpg;ghf ,e;jpaht[ld; nghh; r ; R f; f P r pah; f s; j”; i ria Mz; l brt; t g; gthzpfj ; bjhlh ; g [ bfhs ; s tHp tFj ; j J/ nkYk ; ehaf;fhplkpUe;J ehfg;gl;odj;jpy; tpahghuk; bra;a[k; 1 2
  4. 4. chpikia bgw;wdh;/ nghh;rRf;frpah;fspd; fg;gw;gil 1533 ; P ntz; o apUe; j J/ ,jdhy; kf; f splj; j py; mth; f sJMk; Mz;L fpHf;Ff; flw;fiuf;F te;J ehfg;gl;odk; bry;thf;F Fiwa Muk;gpj;jJ/kw; W k; J}j; J f; F o Mfpaj; JiwKf efu’; f isf;ifggwwpaJ/ brdidapYss rhenjhk. nghhrRffrpag; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; P 2/ M’;fpnyah;fspd; fg;gw;gil Mjpf;fj;jpd; tpisthfgw;wpl’;fspy; xd;whf mike;jJ/ kJiu ehaf;fh;fs; lr; R f; f huh; f s; ,e; j pahtpy; j’; f s; gw; w pl’; f isnghh;rRf;frpaiu ehl;iltpl;L btspnaw;w ntz;Lbkd;W ; P M’; f pnyahplk; xg; g ilf; f ntz; o a NH; e piyKaw;rp bra;J mk;Kaw;rpapy; njhy;tpa[w;wdh;/ cUthdJ/ lrRffhuhfs; ,ejpahittpl ,enjhnerpahtpy; ; ; ; ; ; thzpfk; bra;tjpnyna mjpf <LghL bfhz;ldh;/nghh ; r ; R f ; fPr pahpd; t PH ;r ;r pf;fhd fhuz’ ;f s; : 3/ M’; f pnyah; f s; tUif : ,e; j pahtpy; thzpfk; bra;tjw;fhdg; gl;laj;ij ,’;fpyhe;J kfhuhzp 1/ nghh;r;Rf;fy; kpfr;rpwpa ehL/ ,e;jpah nghd;w kpfg;bghpa ehl;il. me;ehl;oduhy; Kjyhk; vyprbgjjplkpUeJ. orkgh; 31. 1600 Mk; MzL ; ; ; ; fl;Lg;gLj;j ,aytpy;iy/ M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpaf; fk;bgdpg; bgw;wJ/ gpwF 1639 Mk; Mz;L gpuhd;rp!;nl vd;gth; re;jpufphp 2/ nghh;rRf;frpa tzpfh;fs; neh;ika[ld; bray;glj; ; P MSehplkpUe;J brd;dg[hp vd;w ,lj;ij (,d;iwa jtwpdh;/ brd;id) bgw;whh;/ me;j ,lj;jpw;fhf fk;bgdp rpwpa 3/ , e ; j p a h t e ; j l r ; R k w ; W k ; M ’ ; f p y bjhifia tUlhe;jpu thlifahf brYj;j Kd;te;jJ/ tzpff;FGf;fs; nghh;r;Rf;fPrpah;fspd; ty;yik tha;e;j nghl;oahsh;fshf khwpdh;/2/lr;Rf;fhuh;fs; tUif : lr;R tzpfh;fs; ~hye;Jehl;il rhh;e;jth;fs;/ ,th;fs; 1608Mk; Mz;L njtdhk;gl ; o zj ; j py ; xU bjhHpw ; r hiyia mikj ; j hh ; f s ; /fhiuf;fhy;. g[ypfhl; kw;Wk; ehfg;gl;odk; Mfpa fpHf;Ff;flw;fiug; gl;oz’;fs; mth;fshy; ifg;gw;wg;gl;ld/nkYk; ,th;fs; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fsplkpUe;J brd;idapy;cs; s rhe; n jhika[ k ; ifg; g w; w pdhh; f s; / mth; f s; g[dpj $hh;$; nfhl;illj’;fSila gw;wpl’;fis tYg;gLj;jpdhh;fs;/ 1689Mk;Mz;L ehfg;gl;odk;. lr;Rf;fhuh;fspd; jiyikaplkhf fp/gp/ 1640 Mk; Mz;L g[dpj $hh;$; nfhl;ilkhwpaJ/ brd;idapy; fl;lg;gl;lJ/ 1654 Mk; Mz;L fpHf;Fg; gFjpapYs;s M’;fpy Fonaw;w’;fspd; jiyikaplkhflr;R f;fhuh; fspd; njhy; tpf; fhd fhuz’; f s; : g[dpj $hh;$; nfhl;il mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ/ gpd; 1681 Mk; Mz;L flY}h;. gu’;fpg;ngl;il Mfpa ,l’;fspy; g[jpa1/ lr;Rf;fhuh;fs; moik tpahghuj;jpy; <Lgl;ljhy;. Fonaw; w ’; f s; mikf; f g; g l; l d/ g[ d pj nltpl;eP j pkd; w tHf; F tptfhu’; f spy; ftdk; brYj; j nfhl;ila[k; flY}hpy; fl;lg;gl;lJ/ 3 4
  5. 5. 4/nldpah;fs; tUif : nldpaf; fpHf;fpe;jpa tzpff;FG Kjy; f h; e hlfg; nghh; (1746?48)1616 Mk; Mz;L bld;khh;f;fpy; epWtg;gl;lJ/ 1620 Mk; fhuz’; f s; : Inuhg ; g pahtpy ; 1744 Mk ; Mz ; LMz; L nldpah; f s; ju’; f k; g ho vd; D kplj; j py; Xh; M!;jphpahtpw;Fk;. gpbuc&;ahtpw;Fk; ,ilapy; M!;jpupagw;wplj;ij mikj;jdh;/ 19 Mk; E}w;whz;od; kj;jpapy;. thhpR chpikg;nghh; Vw;gl;lJ/ ,e;jg; nghl;oapy;j’; f Sila ehl; o ypUe; J epjp cjtp fpilf; f hj M!; j phpahtpw; F M’; f pnyah; f Sk; gpbuc& ; a htpw; Ffhuzj; j pdhy; nldpah; f s; j’; f Sf; F brhe; j khd gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fSk; Mjut[ mspj;jdh;/ mnj neuj;jpy;bjhHpw;rhiyfis M’;fpnyaUf;F tpw;Wtpl;ldh;/ M’;fpnyah;fSk; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fSk; ,e;jpahtpy; j’;fspd;,jdhy; ,th;fs; j’;fSila bry;thf;if ,He;jdh;/ thzpf nkyhjpf;fj;ij tphpt[g; gLj;j tpUk;gpdh;/5/gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; tUif : gpbu”;Rf; fpHf;fpe;jpaf; ghz;or;nrhpia eph;tfpj;j gpbu”;R fth;dh; La{g;ns.fk;bgdp 1664 Mk; Mz;L Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ/ ,e;jpahtpypUe;J M’;fpnyaiu tpul;l vz;zpdhh;;/gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; rhe;njhikf; ifg;gw;wp. mij kPz;Lk;lr;Rf;fhuh;fsplk; xg;gilj;jhh;fs;/ 1674 Mk; Mz;L nghh; e pfH; r ; r pfs; : oa{g; n s brd; i dia nehf; f pgpuhd;rp!; khh;l;od; vd;gth; gp$g;g{h; kd;dhplkpUe;J gilbaLj;Jr; brd;W. M’;fpy fg;gw;giliaj; njhw;foj;Jg[Jr;nrhp vd;Dk; fpuhkj;ijg; bgw;whh;/ Mdhy; 1699 y; g[ d pj $hh; $ ; nfhl; i liaf; ifg; g w; w pdhh; / ,e; jg[Jr;nrhpia lr;Rf;fhuh;fs; ifg;gw;wpdhh;fs;/ gpwF. hp!;tpf; eltof;ifia M’;fpnyah;fs; Mw;fhl;L ethg;ghdcld;gof;ifapd;go g[Jr;nrhpiag; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; md; t hUjP d plk; Kiwapl; l hh; f s; / g[ d pj $hh; $ ;jpUk; g g; b gw; w hh; f s; / 1701 Mk; Mz; L ,e; j pahtpy; nfhl;ilia M’;fpnyahplk; xg;gilf;Fk;go md;thUjPd;gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fspd; jiyikaplkhf g[Jr;nrhp cj; j utpl; l hh; / Mdhy; oa{g; n s mjw; F ,z’; fmwptpf; f g; g l; l J/ j”; r ht{iu Mz; l kuhj; j pa kWj;Jtpl;lhh;/ vdnt oa{g;nsaplkpUe;J brd;idiakd;dh;fsplkpUe;J. 1725 Mk; Mz;L kyghh; kPlf md;thUjPd; xU gilia mDg;gpdhh;/ fp/gp/ 1746Mk; ;flw;fiuapYs;s kh~p gFjpiaa[k;. 1739 Mk; Mz;L Mz;L milahWf;F mUfpy; cs;s rhe;njhk;fhiuf;fhy; gFjpiaa[k; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; ifg;gw;wpdhh;fs;/ vd;Dkplj;jpy; ehthgpd; gilfs; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fshy; njhw;fof;fg;gl;ld/ nkYk; gpbu”;Rg;gilfs; brd;idg;M’;fpnyah; ? gpbu”;Rf;fhuh; ? Mjpf;fg;nghl;o gFjpiaa[k; Niwahor; brd;wdh;/ ,t;btw;wpf;Fg; gpd;dh; 18Mk; E}w;whz;od; Kw;gFjpapy; ,e;jpahtpy; flY}hpy; cs;s g[dpj nltpl; nfhl;ilia ifg;gw;wM’fpnyahfSk. gpbu”RffhuhfSk; typik kpffthfshf ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; Kad;wdh;/ Mdhy; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fspd;,Ue;jdh;/ brd;id. fy;fj;jh kw;Wk; gk;gha; Mfpa ,e; j Kaw; r p M’; f pnyaj; jsgjp nk$h; yhuhd; ! ;,l’;fspy; M’;fpnyah;fs; jkJ Mjpf;fj;ij epiy vd;gthpd; jpwikapdhy; Kwpaof;fg;gl;lJ/ehl;odhh;fs;/ gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; ghz;or;nrhpapy; jkJ gpbu”Rffhuhfs; gdpj nltpl; nfhlilia ifggwwj; ; ; ; [ ; ; ;gw;wplj;ij mikj;jdh;/ ,UtUk; j’;fsJ Mjpf;fj;ij jtwpdhYk;. ,g;nghh; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fspd;,e;jpahtpy; epiyehl;l tpUk;gpdh;/ ,jd; tpisthf nkyhz; i kiaa[ k ; . oa{g; n sapd; jpwikiaa[ k ;fh;ehlfg; nghh;fs; Vw;gl;ld/ btspggLjjpaJ/ ; ; 5 6
  6. 6. tpist[fs; : 1748 Mk; Mz;L ifbaGj;jplg;gl;lva;?yh?rhg;ngy; cld;gof;ifapd;go Kjy; fh;ehlfg; nghh;Kotile;jJ/ M’;fpnyau;fSf;Fk;. gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fSf;Fk; Be¡X - ©ùWgÑ úTôh¥,ilna Vw;gl;l xg;ge;jj;jpd;go gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs;brd;idia M’;fpnyahplk; xg;gilj;jdh;/,uz; l hk; fh; e hlfg; n ghh; (1749?54)fhuz’;fs; : i~juhghj;ij Ml;rp bra;J te;j ep$hk;1748 Mk; Mz;L ,we;Jtpl;ljhy;. mtUila kfd; úLôRôY¬ehrh;$’; gjtp Vw;whh;/ ,jw;F ep$hkpd; ngudhd Krgh;$’; vjph;g;g[j; bjhptpj;jhh;/ ,ijg;nghd;nw Mw;fhl;oy;md;thUjPd; jd;Dila khkhthfpa re;jh rhfpg;igvjphjjhh/ Krgh; $’; kwWk; rejh rhfpg; ,UtUk; xdwhf ; ; ; ; ; ; YeLô[,ize;J gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fspd; cjtpia ehodh;/ Ijuhghj; ¡ÚxQô ®¬ÏPôkw;Wk; Mw;fhl;Lg; gFjpfspy; Vw;gl;l mhpaiz VWk; ùTinghl;ona nghUf;F fhuzkhapw;W/ Qôßnghhpd; nghfF : 1749 Mk; Mz;L gpbu”;Rg;gilfs; ; AW©dLPpMw;fhL vd;Dkplj;jpy; re;jh rhfpg; kw;Wk; K$gh;$’;Mfpnahh;fspd; gilfSld; ,ize;jJ/ ,f;Tl;Lg;gilfspd; Kaw;rpahy; md;thUjPd; njhw;fof;fg;gl;Lf; LôúY ¬ 8bfhy;yg;gl;lhh;/ gpwF re;jh rhfpg; fh;ehlf ethghfepakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ vdnt oa{gnsapd; cjtpf;Ff; ifkhwhf ; 1. TZúYtLôÓ ûYûLtGjht{h. tpy;ypaD}h; kw;Wk; ghz;or;nrhpf;F mUfpYs;s ; 2. ùNuû] (AûPVôo)ghTh; Mfpa ,l’;fis re;jhrhfpg; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fSf;Ff; 3. BtLôÓbfhLj;jhh;/ 4. YkRYô£ 5. Tôi¥fúN¬ ,e;jr; NHypy;. md;thUjPdpd; kfd; KfkJ myp 6. LPío CXeûLfh;ehlfj;jpypUe;J jg;gp Xor;brd;W jpUr;rpuhg;gs;sp Ck§VlùTÚeLPp 7. TWe¡lúThûPnfhl;ilapy; j”;rk; g[Fe;jhh;/ mf;nfhl;il re;jhrhfpg;ghy; 8. LôûWdLôpKw; W ifaplg; g l; l J/ KfkJ myp M’; f pnyahplk; 9. SôLlTh¥]mjk;ikf; fhg;ghw;Wk;goa[k;. Mw;fhl;ilj; jhf;Fk;goa[k; 10. Ls°dúLôhûPnfl;Lf;bfhz;lhh;/ 7 8
  7. 7. M’ ; f py ,uhQqt mjpfhhp ,uhgh ; l ; f pist ; cld ; g of ; i fapd ; g o. ,e ; j pahtpYk ; ghz ; o r ; n rhp.Mw; f hl; i lj; jhf; f pdhh; / re; j hrhfpg; Mw; f hl; i lf; fhiuf;fhy; Mfpa ,uz;L gFjpfSk; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fsplk;ifg;gw;Wtjw;fhf jpUr;rpuhg;gs;spapypUe;J xU gilia kPz;Lk; xg;gilf;fg;gl;ld/ Mdhy; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs;mDg;gpdhh;/ Mdhy; ,uhgh;l;fpist;. M’;fpyj; jsgjp nfhl;ilfisg; gGJ ghh;f;f TlhJ vd;W epge;jidyhud;Rld; ,ize;J jpUr;rpuhg;gs;sp kPJ gilbaLj;J tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ/ 1763 Mk; Mz;L M’;fpnyah;fSf;Fk;re; j h rhfpg; i gj; njhw; f oj; j hh; / nkYk; Muzp. gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fSf;Fk; ,ilnaahd Mjpf;fg;nghl;ofhnthpg;ghf;fk; Mfpa ,l’;fspy; gpbu”;Rg;gilfs; KotilejJ/ ;njhw;fof;fg;gl;ld/tpistfs; : ,g;nghhpy; M’;fpnyah; btw;wp bgw;wdh;/ [ M’;fpnyahpd; btw;wpf;fhd fhuz’;fs; :1755 Mk; Mz;L Vw;gl;l ghz;or;nrhp cld;gof;if 1/ gp b u ” ; R g ; g i l j; js g jp fs ; xw ; W i kn a hL,g; n ghiu Kot[ f ; F bfhz; L te; j J/ KfkJ myp bray;gltpy;iy/ Mdhy; M’;fpnyah;fs; xw;WiknahLMw;fhl;L ethghf mwptpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ bray;gl;lhh;fs;/ vdnt M’;fpnyah;fs; btw;wp bgw;wdh;/K:d;whk; fh;ehlfg;nghh; (1758 ? 63) 2/ uhgh;l; fpist;. yhud;!;. mah;Tl; nghd;w rpwe;jfhuzk; : Inuhg;ghtpy; eilbgw;w VHhz;Lg;nghh; jsgjpfs; M’;fpnyah; trk; ,Ue;jdh;/K:dwhk; fh;ehlfg; nghUf;F cldof; fhuzkhf mike;jJ/ ; 3/ Inuhg;ghtpy; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; njhy;tpiaj; jGtpdh;/nghhpd; nghf;F : ft[d;l;?o?yhyp vd;gth; gpbu”;R vdnt fh;ehlfg; gFjpfspy; M’;fpnyaiu vjph;j;JMSeuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ mth; brd;idiaf; ifg;gw;wj; mth;fshy; nghl;oapl ,aytpy;iy/jpl;lkpl;L flY}hpy; cs;s g[dpj nltpl; nfhl;iliaf;ifg;gw;wpdhh;/ gpd;dh; mth; j”;rht{iu jhf;fpdhh;/ 4/ gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fis tpl M’;fpnyahpd; flw;gilbrd;idiaf; ifg;gw;wj; jpl;lkpl;l mth; typik thaejjhf ,UejJ/ Mjyhy; gpbu”Rffhuhfshy; ; ; ; ; ; ;Ijuhghj;jpypUe;J gpbu”;Rj; jsgjp g[!;!pia cjtpf;F M’;fpnyaUld; nghl;oapl ,aytpy;iy/ ,jdhy;miHj;jhh;/ uhgh;l; fpist;. jdJ gilj; jsgjp mah;Tl;vd; g tiu gpbu”; R g; gilfSld; nghhpLtjw; F gpbu”Rffhuhfs; njhytpailejdh/ ; ; ; ; ; ;mDg; g pdhh; / te; j thrp vd; D kplj; j py; gpbu”; R f;fhuh; f Sf; F k; . M’; f pnyah; f Sf; F k; ,ilna nghh; 5/ M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpa fk;bgdp xU jdpahh; epWtdk;Vw ; g l ; l J/ mg ; n ghhpy ; ft [ z ; l ; ? o?yhyp. mah ; T l ; MFk;/ Mdhy; gpbu”;Rf; fpHf;fpe;jpa fk;bgdp xUvd;gtuhy; njhw;fof;fg;gl;lhh;/ gpbu”;Rg;gFjpfis murh’;f epWtdk; MFk;/ Mfnt gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fspdhy;M’;fpnyah;fs; ifg;gw;wpdhh;/ epjp epiyikia nkk;gLj;j ,aytpy;iy/ rh; mah; T l; ‘te; j thrp tP u d; ’ vd; w gl; l g; b gaUld; kjpggL ; P : rpwg ; g pf ; f g ; g l ; l hh ; / ,uhgh;l;fpist; : 1743 Mk; Mz;L uhgh;l; fpist;tpist [ f s ; : 1763 Mk; Mz; L Vw; g l; l ghhp!; M’; f pyf; fpHf; f pe; j paf; fk; b gdp apd; vGj; j uhfcld;gof;ifapd;go VHhz;Lg;nghh; Kot[w;wJ/ mnj ,e;jpahtpw;F te;jhh;/ gpd;dh; mth; ,uhQqtg; gzpapy; 9 10
  8. 8. jk;ik ,izj;Jf; bfhz;lhh;/ g[dpj $hh;$; nfhl;ilapy; fw; w y; tpist[ f s;mike;Js;s fpwpj;Jt nguhyaj;jpy; jpUkzk; bra;J 1 / jkpH; e hl; o w; F te; j Inuhg; g pah; f isg; gw; w pj;bfhz;lhh;/ ,e;jpahtpy; M’;fpy Ml;rp miktjw;F bjhpe;J bfhz;ldh;/moj;jsk; mikj;jth; ,uhgh;l; fpist; Mthh;/nkYk; 2/ M’; f pnyah; ? gpbu”; R f; f huh; Mjpf; f g; n ghl; o f; f hd fhuz’;fis Muha;e;jdh;/ Rakjpg ; g P L I/ rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf : 1/ fhd;!;lhd;onehgps; ifg;gw;wg;gl;l Mz;L (m) 1498 (M) 1453 (,) 1492 (<) 1484 ,uhgh;l; fpist; oa{g;ns 2/ Kjd; Kjypy; ,e; j pahtpw; F fly; t Hpiaf; fzLgpojj Inuhggpahfs; ; ; ; ;,th; ‘,e;jpahit btd;wth;’ vd;Wk; miHf;fg; gLfpwhh;/,uhgh;l; fpist; Mw;fhl;ilf; ifg;gw;wpaJ M’;fpy (m) nldpah;fs; (M) gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs;fpHf;fpe;jpa fk;bgdpapd; tuyhw;wpy; xU jpUg;g[ Kid (,) nghh;r;Rf;fPrpah;fs; (<) M’;fpnyah;fs;ahf mike;jJ/ Mfnt mth; ‘Mw;fhl;L tPuh;’ vdmiHf;fg; gLfpwhh;/ mth; bgw;w btw;wp apd; fhuzkhf 3/ lr;Rf;fhuh;fs; ve;j ehl;ilr; rhh;e;jth;fs;mth; t’; f h sj; j pd; Kjy; MSeuhf (1757?60) (m) ,’;fpyhe;J (M) gpuhd;Repakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/mth; t’;fh sj;jpy; ,ul;il Ml;rp Kiw (,) ~hye;J (<) bld;khh;f;vd;w xU g[jpa eph;thf Kiwia mwpKfg;gLj;jpdhh;/ 4/ Kjy; fh;ehlfg; nghiu Kotpw;F bfhz;L te;joa{gns : ,e;jpahtpy; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fspd; Mjpf;fj;ij ; cldgofif ; ;epiybgwr; bra;tjpy; oa{g;nsapd; g’;F Fwpg;gplj; (m) ma;?yh?rhg;ngy; (M) ghz;or;nrhpjf;fjhFk;/ ,th; 1697 Mk; Mz;L gpwe;jhh;/ 1731 Mk; Mz;Lt’;fhsj;jpy; cs;s gpbu”;Rf; FoapUg;ghd re;jpuehThpd; (,) ghhp!; (<) myfhghj;MSeuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ 1742 Mk; Mz;L ,th; 5/ Mw;fhl;L tPuh; vd miHf;fg;gl;lth;ghz;or;nrhp kl;Lky;yhJ ,e;jpahtpYs;s gpbu”;Rg; (m) oa{g;ns (M) ft[z;l;?o?yhypgw;wpl’;fs; midj;jpw;Fk; MSeuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ (,) g[!;!p (<) ,uhgh;l; fpist;,e;jpa kz;iz tpl;L M’;fpnyah;fis tpul;LtnjmtuJ Fwpf;nfhshf ,Ue;jJ/ ,e;jpahtpy; gpbu”;R Ml;rpepWtntz;Lk; vd tpUk;gpdhh;/ Mdhy; mtuhy; mijepiwntw;w ,aytpy;iy/ 11 12
  9. 9. II. nfhol;l ,l’;fis epug;g[f : IV. RUf;fkhd tpilasp : 1/ btdpR efug; gazpahd __________ jkpH;ehl;ilg; 1/ jkpH;ehl;oy; cs;s lr;Rg; gw;wpl’;fs; ahit> gw;wp Fwpg;g[fs; je;Js;shh;/ 2/ Kjy; fh;ehlfg; nghUf;fhd fhuz’;fs; ahit> 2/ ___________ vd ; D kplj ; j py ; 1608 Mk ; Mz ; L 3/ ghz;or;nrhp cld;gof;if ? Fwpg;g[ tiuf/ lr;Rf;fhuh;fs; xU bjhHpw;rhiyia Vw;gLj;jpdhh;fs;/ 4/ K:d;whk; fh;ehlfg; nghUf;fhd fhuzk; ahJ> 5/ te;jthrp tPuh; vd mah;Tl; miHf;fg;glf;fhuzk; 3/ gpbu”;Rf;fpHf;fpe;jpa fk;bgdp ____________ Mk; ahJ> Mz;L Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ/ 4/ ,e;jpahtpy; thzpfk; bra;tjw;fhd gl;laj;ij V. tphpthd tpilasp : ,’;fpyhe;J kfhuhzp ___________ ,lkpUe;J 1/ nghh;r;Rf;fPrpah;fs; jkpH;ehl;oy; jkJ Mjpf;fj;ij ork;gh; 31. 1600 Mk; Mz;L M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpa vt;thW epiyehl;odh;> fk;bgdp bgw;wJ/ 2/ Kjy; fh;ehlfg; nghiu tpthp/ 5/ Inuhg;ghtpy; eilg;bgw;w ______________ nghh; 3/ ,uz;lhk; fh;ehlfg; nghUf;fhd fhuz’;fisa[k; K:d;whk; fh;ehlfg; nghUf;Ff; fhuzk; MFk;/ nghhpd; nghf;ifa[k; tpthp/ 6/ rh; mah;Tl; ___________ vd;w gl;lg;bgaUld; 4/ jkpH;ehl;oy; M’;fpnyahpd; btw;wpf;fhd fhuz’;fs; bfsutpf;fg;gLfpwhh;/ ahit> 7/ 1763 Mk; Mz; L ghhp!; cld; gof; i fapd; go _________ Kot[w;wJ/ bra;Kiwg; gapw;rp 1/ jkpH ; e hL tiu glj ; j py ; nghh ; r ; R f ; f P r pah ; f s ; .III. bghUj;Jf : lr;Rf;fhuh;fs; kw;Wk; M’;fpnyah;fs; mikj;j m/ M Fonaw;w’;fisf; Fwpf;ft[k;. 1/ fhd;!lhd;onehgps; ; flY}h; 2/ fh;ehlfg; nghUld; bjhlh;g[ila ,l’;fis jkpH;ehl;od; tiuglj;jpy; Fwpf;ft[k;/ 2/ gpuhd!p!nfh?o? ; ; my;bka;lh lr;Rf;Fonaw;wg;gFjp 3/ gpuhd;rp!; khh;l;od; JUf;fpah; 4/ g[dpj nltpl; nfhl;il ePyepwf;bfhs;if 5/ ehfgglodk; ; ; ghzornrhp ; ; 13 14
  10. 10. nkw;Fg; gFjpapdh; g[ypj;;njthpd; fl;Lg;ghl;od; fPGk;. ghlk; 2 fpHf;Fg; gFjpapdh; fl;lbghk;kdpd; fl;Lg;ghl;od; fPGk; thH;eJ te;jdh;/ ; ghisaf; f huh; f s; g[ u l; r p ? ntY}h; fyfk; M’; f pyf; fpHf; f pe; j paf; fk; b gdp j’; f sJ thptNypg;ig mjpfhpf;Fk; vz;zj;jpy;. ghisaf;fhuh;fspd; fw; w y; nehf; f ’; f s; thptNy; bra;a[k; Kiwia vjph;j;jJ/ 1792 Mk; Mz;L fh;ehlf cld;gof;ifapd;go M’;fpnyah;fs; 1/ jkpHh ; f s ; M’ ; f pnyaiu vjph ; j ; J Kjd ; Kjypy ; ghisaf; f huh; f is j’; f sJ fl; L g; g hl; o d; fP H ; nghuhoath;fs; vd;gij bjhpe;J bfhs;Sjy;/ bfhz;Lte;jdh;/ bjd; gFjpapd; ghisaf;fhuh;fSf;Fk; 2/ fl;lbghk;kd; kw;Wk; Cikj;Jiu nghd;w ghisaf; M’; f pyf; fpHf; F ,e; j pa fk; b gdpf; F k; ,ilapy; fhuh ; f spd ; jpahfj ; j pid bjhpe ; J bfhs ; S jy ; / eilbgw; w Muk; g fhy nghuhl; l ’; f s; murpay; 3/ M’;fpnyaUf;Fk; kUJ rnfhjuh;fSf;Fk; ,ilna Vw;gl;l Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;jjhf fUjg;gLfpwJ/ M’;fpnyah;fs;. nkhjy; gw; wpj; bjhpe ; J bfhs; Sjy; / ghisaf;fhuh;fis jk;Kila vjphpfshfnt elj;jpdh;/ ghisaf;fhuh;fSk; btspehl;odh; jk; kPJ Mjpf;fk; ghisaf ; f huh ; f s ; g [ u l ; r p brYj;Jtij tpUk;gtpy;iy/ mjd; tpisthf 1799 Mk; Mz;L ghisaf;fhuh;fs; g[ul;rp btoj;jJ/ jkpH;ehl;oy;. kw;w ,e;jpag; gFjpfisg;nghyM’; f pnyaUf; F vjpuhd czh; r ; r pfspd; btspg; g hL g[ul;rpf;fhd fhuz’;fs; :cs;ehl;Lf; fpsh;r;rpfshft[k; vGr;rpfshft[k; njhd;wpd/ 1/ 1792 Mk; Mz;L ifbaGj;jplg;gl;l fh;ehlf kw;Wk;mtwWs; 1799 Mk; MzL M’fpy fpHffpejpaf; fkbgdpfF ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ru’fggllz cldgofiffs; ghisaffhuhfspd; P ; ; ; ; ; ; ;vjpuhfj; njhd;wpa ghisaf;fhuh;fs; fyfnk kPJ M’;fpnyah;fspd; Mjpf;fk; tYg;gl tHpKjd;ikahdjhFk;/ nfhypaJ/ ghisaf; f huh; f s; M’; f pnyaiu jkpH;ehl;oypUe;J tpulLtjwFj; jffj; jUzjij ; ; ; ; jkpH;ehl;oy; tpraefug;nguuR Ml;rp bra;j fhyj;jpy; vjph;ghh;jJf;bfhz;oUe;jdh;/ ;Fwpg; g hf. kJiuia Mz; l tp!; t ehj ehaf; f hpd; 2/ fh;ehlf cld;gof;if K:yk; ghisaf;fhuh;fsplk;Ml;rpf;fhyj;jpy; ghisaf;fhuh;fs; njhd;wpdh;/ thptNypf;Fk; chpikiag; bgw;w M’;fpnyah;fs;.ghisaf;fhuh;fs; vd;gth;fs; ghisak; my;yJ bghpa thp tNypf;f Ml;rpah;fis epakpj;jhh;fs;/epyg;gug;gpw;F chpikahsh;fs; Mthh;/ 3/ ghisaf;fhuh;fs; M’;fpnyaUf;Ff; fl;Lg;gl;L ghisak; vdgJ mthfsJ ,uhQqt nritiag; ; ; gzpg[hpa tpUk;gtpy;iy/ghuhl;o mth;fSf;F mspf;fg;gl;l epyg;gFjp MFk;/ 17kw;Wk; 18 Mk; E}w;whz;Lfspy; ghisaf;fhuh;fs; jkpHf 4/ M’; f pnyah; f s; Mf; f ukpg; g [ f ; bfhs; i fiag;murpaypy; mjpf brythfF bgwwpUejhhfs/ ehsiltpy; ; ; ; ; ; ; gpd;gw;wpdh;/ ,uhkehjg[uk;. kzg;ghiw. gHdp.mth;fs; j’;fis Rje;jpuk; bgw;wth;fshf vuf; n fhl; i l. kw; W k; brd; d y; F o Mfpa gymwptpj;Jf;bfhz;lhh;fs;/ jpUbey;ntypapd; nkw;Fg; ghisa’; f is M’; f pnyah; f s; Mf; f pukpj; j dh; /gFjpapy; thH;e;j ghisaf;fhuh;fs; kwth;fs; vd;Wk; M’;fpnyah;fspd; ,e;j Mf;fpukpg;g[f; bfhs;ifiafpHfFggFjpapdh; ehaffhfs; vdWk; miHffgglldh/ ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ghisaf;fhuh;fs; tpUk;gtpy;iy/ 15 16
  11. 11. I/g[ypj;njth; :,e;jpahtpy; M’;fp nya gh”;rhy’;Fwpr;rp ghisaj;jpd; Ml;rpg;bghWg;gpid Vw;whh;/Mlrpia jkpH; ehloypUeJ Kjd; Kjypy; ; ; ; M’;fpnyahpd; thptNy; bfhs;ifna M’;fpnyaUf;Fk;vjph; j ; j th; vd; w rpwg; g [ bfhz; l th; ; fl;lbghk;kDf;Fk; ,ilna tpnuhjk; Vw;gl Kf;fpaf;g[ypj;njth; Mthh;/ ,th; jpUbey;ntypf;F fhuzkhf mike;jJ/ 1798 Mk; Mz;L brg;lk;gh; khjk;mUfpy; cs;s bew;fl;Lk;brt;ty; vd;w gh”; r hy’; F wpr; r pg; ghisak; M’; f pyf; fpHf; f pe; j paghisaj; j py; Mjpf; f k; brYj; j pdhh; / fk;bgdpf;Fr; brYj;jntz;oa thpj;bjhif epYitapy;M’;fpnyaUf;Fk; Mw;fhl;L ethg;gpw;Fk; ,Ue;jJ/ fLikahd g”;rk; Vw;gl;ljpd; tpisthffl;Lg;gl;L fg;gk; fl;l kWj;j g[ypj;njth;. fl;lbghk;kd; fk;bgdpf;Fr; brYj;j ntz;oa epYitmth; f is vjph; f ; f t[ k ; Muk; g pj; j hh; / thpia brYj; j ,ayhky; my; y Yw; w hh; / Mdhy;M’; f pnyag; gilfSk; . ethg; g pd; uhkehjg [ u k ; Ml ; r pah ; epYit thpia cldoahfgilfSk; gypjnjtiuj; jhffpd/ ,Uthpd; [ ; ; brYjJkhW tughzoa fllbghkkDfFg; gy foj’fs; ; P ; ; ; ; ;gilfSk; g[ypj; njthplk; jpUbey;ntyp vGjpdhh;/ Mdhy; fl;lbghk;kd; mtuJ nfhhpf;iffisvd; D kplj; j py; njhy; t pa[ w ; w d/ ,e; j epuhfhpj;jhh;/btw; w pf; F g; g pd; . M’; f pnyah; ? ethg; gypjnjth; [ ;Tl;lzpia vjph;ff. ghisaf;fhuh;fs; midtiua[k; xd;W ; M’fpnya Mlrpah; fhypd; $hfrd; fllbghkkid ; ; ; ; ;jpul;l g[ypj;njth; Kad;whh;/ Mdhy; rptfphp. vl;lag[uk;. uhkehjg[uj;jpy; jk;ik te;J re;jpf;FkhW gzpj;jhh;/gh”;rhy’;Fwpr;rp Mfpa ghisaf;fhuh;fs; g[ypj;njtUf;F fllbghkkd; thpggzjJld; jpUfFwwhyjjpy; fkbgdp ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;Mjut[ mspf;ftpy;iy/ Ml; r pah; $hf; r id re; j pf; f tpUk; g panghJ $hf; r d; fl;lbghk;kidr; re;jpf;f kWj;Jtpl;lhh;/ fl;lbghk;kd;. cah; mjpfhuj;jpw;F vjpuhf nghuhoa tPuDf;F cjhuzkhf rptfphp. rhj; J }h; . mjd; g pd; jpUtpy; y pg[ j ; J }h; Mfpa g[ y pj; n jthpd; thH; f ; i f kw; W k; nghuhl; l k; mikfpwJ/ ,l’;fSf;F Ml;rpah; $hf;ridr; re;jpf;f 23 ehl;fs; gpd; bjhlh;eJ brd;whh;/ mjd;gpd;dh; uhkehjg[uj;jpy; Ml;rpaiu ; ; 1759 Mk; Mz;L ethg;gpd; gilfs; a{Rg;fhd; vd;w re;jpf;FkhW fl;lg;bghk;kDf;Ff; fl;lisaplg;gl;lJ/fhd;rhfpg; jiyikapy; bew;fl;Lk;brt;ty; gFjpiaj; 1798 Mk; MzL brglkgh; khjk; 19 Mk; ehs; fllbghkkd; ; ; ; ; ;jhf ; f pd/ me ; j hey ; Y }h ; vd ; D kplj ; j py ; g [ y pj ; n jth ; kw;Wk; mtuJ mikr;rh; rptRg;ukzpagps;is ,UtUk;njhw;fof;fg;gl;lhh;/ gida{h;. thRnjtey;Y}h; kw;Wk; uhkehjgujjpYss uhkyp’f tpyh!; vdw muzkidapy; [ ; ; ; ; ;bew;fl;Lk;brt;ty; Mfpa ghisa’;fis ethg;gpd; Ml; r pah; $hf; r idf; re; j pj; j dh; / $hf; r d; mth; f isgilfs; ifggwwpd/ caph; jggpjJ jiykiwthf thHej ; ; ; ; ; ; mtkjpj;jnjhL kl;Lkpy;yhky; mth;fis ifJ bra;at[k;g[ypj;njth;. fhd; rhfpg; ,we;jJk;. 1764 Mk; Mz;L Kwgllhh/ fllbghkkd; jd; rnfhjud; CikjJiuapd; ; ; ; ; ; ;bew;fl;Lk;brt;ty; gFjpia kPz;Lk; ifg;gw;wpdhh;/ 1767 cjtpa[ld; jg;gpr;brd;whh;/ Mdhy; mtuJ mikr;rh;Mk; Mz;L nfg;ld; nfk;bgy; vd;gtuhy; njhw;fof;fg; rptRg;gpukzpag;gps;is ifJ bra;ag;gl;lhh;/gl;l g[ypj;njthpd; filrp ehl;fisg; gw;wpj; bjspthfmwpaKoatpy;iy/ fl;lbghk;kd;. Ml;rpah; $hf;rdpd; elj;ijia tpthpj;J brd;idf; ft[d;rpYf;F xU fojk; vGjpdhh;/II.tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; : 1761 Mk; Mz;L nkYk; mth; jd;Dila mikr;rh; tpLjiy bra;ag;gltPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; gpwe;jhh;/ 1790 Mk; Mz;L ntz;Lk; vdt[k; tpUk;gpdhh;/ mg;nghija brd;id 17 18
  12. 12. MSeuhd vl;th;L fpist; fl;lbghk;kid mDg;gpdhh;/ neukpd;ikahy; fl;lbghk;kd; mijmogzpakhW fllisapllhh/ nkYk; vlthL fpist. [ ; ; ; ; ; ; epuhfhpj;jhh;/Ml;rpah; $hf;rdpd; jtwhd elj;ijf;fhf mtiug; gzpePf;fk; bra;J. rptRg;ukzpag; gps;isiaa[k; tpLjiy gh”;rhy’;Fwpr;rpapd; tPH;r;rp :: brg;lk;gh; khjk; 5bra;jhh;/ vdnt fl;lbghk;kd; ruzilaj; jPh;khdpj;jhh;/ Mk; ehs; nk$h; ghdh;nkd; jiyikapy; M’;;fpnyag;Mfnt vl;th;L fpist; xU tprhuizf; FGit epakpj;jhh;/ gilfs; gh”;rhy’; Fwpr;rp nfhl;ilia Kw;Wifapl;ld/1798 Mk; Mz;L ork;gh; 15 Mk; ehs; mf;FGtpd; Kd; ghdh;nkd; gh”;rhy’;Fwp”;rp nfhl;ilf;Fr; bry;Yk; vy;yhfl;lbghk;kd; M$uhdhh;/ tHpfisa[k; Jz;oj;jhh;/ nkYk; uhkyp’;fKjypahiu mDg;gp fl;lbghk;kid ruzila[khW ghdh;nkd;fl;lbghk;kDk; Tl;lzpa[k;: rptf’;if ghisaj;ij nfhhpdhh; / mijf; fl; l bghk; k d; kWj; J tpl; l hh; /rhh;e;j kUJghz;oah; jd; mz;il ghisaf;fhuh;fSld; uhkyp’;fKjypahh; nfhl;iliag;gw;wpa ufrpa’;fisr;,ize;J xU Tl;lzpia Vw;gLj;jpdhh;/ nrfhpj;jhh;/ mjd; mog;gilapy; ghdh;nkd; je;jpukhffl;lbghk;kDf;F ,e;jf; Tl;lzpapy; nru Mh;tk; nfhl;iliaj; jhf;f jpl;lkpl;lhh;/ fhsh;gl;o vd;w,Ue;jJ/ Mdhy; mg;nghija Ml;rpah; Y}c&p’;ld;. ,lj; j py; ele; j nkhjypy; rptRg; g pukzpag; g ps; i sfl;lbghk;kd; kUJ rnfhjuh;fisr; re;jpg;gij jil ifjhdhh;/ g[Jf;nfhl;il murh; fsg;g{h; fhl;oy; xspe;jpUe;jbra;jhh;/ ,j;jilia kPwp kUJ rnfhjuh;fSk;/ tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kidr; rpiwgpoj;J M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpaf;fl;lbghk;kDk; M’;fpnyaiu vjph;ggjw;F xU rjpj;jpl;lk; ; fk;bgdpaplk; xg;gilj;jhh;/jP l ; o dh; / fl; l bghk; k d; rptfphpg; ghisaj; i j jd;Tl;likg;gpy; nrh;jjpl Kad;whh;/ Mdhy; fpsh;rrpahsh;fs; ; ; fl ; l bghk ; k d ; J}f ; f pyplg ; g Ljy ; : gh”; r hy’;Tllikggpy; nru rptfphp ghisaffhuh; kWjJtpllhh/ ; ; ; ; ; ; Fwpr;rpapd; tPHrrpf;Fg; gpwF ghdh;nkd; rpiwf;ifjpfis ; ;vdnt. fl;lbghk;kd; rptfphp nehf;fp ghisaf;fhuh;fs; Kd; epWj;jp tprhuiz bra;J. kuzgilbaLj;Jr;brd;whh;/rptfphp ghisak; M’;fpnyah;fSf;F jz;lida[k; tH’;fpdhh;/ 1799 Mk; Mz;L mf;nlhgh; khjk;jpiw brYj;Jk; ghisakhf ,Ue;jJ/ Mfnt M’;fpyf; 16 Mk; ehs; jpUbey;ntypf;F mUfpy; cs;s faj;jhWfpHf;fpe;jpaf; fk;bgdp fl;lbghk;kdpd; gilbaLg;ig nfhl;ilapy; gy ghisaf;fhuh;fspd; Kd;dpiyapy;jd; mjpfhuj;jpw;bfjpuhd xU rthyhff; fUjpj; jdJ tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; J}f;fpyplg;gl;lhh;/gilfis jpUbey; n typ kP J gilbaLf; F khWfl;lisapl;lJ/ III/kUJrnfhjuhfs; : 18 Mk; E}w;whz;od; gpw;gFjpapy; ; bjd;dpe;jpahtpy; M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhf kUJ rnfhjuh;fs;M’;fpnyag;gilfspd; Kd;ndw;wk; : M’;fpnya fyfk; brajdh/ kUJ rnfhjuhfs; Kfifah gHepaggd; ; ; ; : ; ;jiyik MSeh; bty;y!;yp. 1799Mk; Mz;L nk khjk; kw;Wk; bghd;dhj;jhs; Mfpnahhpd; kfd;fs; Mth;/ K:j;jfl;lbghk;kDld; nghh; bjhLf;f nk$h; ghdh;nkd; rnfhjuh; bghpa kUJ vd;Wk; ,isath; rpd;dkUJjiyikapy; xU gilia mDg; g pdhh; / ghisa’; vd; W k; miHf; f g; g l; l dh; / mth; f Sk; g[ f H; bgw; wnfhl ; i lapy ; brg ; l k ; g h ; 4?Mk ; ehsd ; W jd ; i dr ; rpd;dkUJ ‘kUJ ghz;oad;’ vd;W miHf;fg;gl;lhh;/re; j pf; F khW fl; l bghk; k Df; F fojk; xd; i wa[ k ; rptf’;ifia Mz;L te;j Kj;J tLfehj njthplk; 19 20
  13. 13. rpddkUJ gzpahwwpdhh/ 1772 Mk; MzL MwfhL ethg; ; ; ; ; ; mjd; tpisthfj; jkpH; ehl;ilr; rhh;e;j gyrptf’ifia KwWifaplL ifggwwpdhh/ vdpDk; rpy ; ; ; ; ; ; ghisaf ; f huh ; f s ; M’ ; f pnyanuhL nghuhLtjw ; f hfkhj’fSfFg; gpwF rptf’if kUJ ; ; ; mzpjpuz;L te;jdh;/ M’;fpnyag; gilfisrnfhjuh;fshy; kPz;Lk; ifg;gw;wg; vjph;g;gjw;fhf rpd;d kUJ 20.000 tPuh;fisj; jpul;odhh;/gl;L bghpa kUJ rptf’;ifapd; nk 1801?y; M’;fpnyah;fs; fyff;fhuh;fis j”;rht{h. jpUr;rp ;kd;duhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ Mfpa ,l’;fspy; jhf;fpdh;/ M’;fpnyahpd; gphpj;jhSk; bfhs;if ghisaf;fhuh;fspd; gilfisg; gphpj;jJ/ fl;lbghk;kd; ,we;jgpwF fyff;fhuh;fs; fhisahh;nfhtpy; brd;wdh;/ mth;fs;mtuJ rnfhjuh; Cikj; J iu M’;fpyg;gilfshy; njhw;fof;fg;gl;ldh;/ Cikj;Jiugh”;rhy’; Fwpr;rpia tpl;L ntW gpogl; L rpur; n rjk; bra; a g; g l; l hh; / uhkehjg[ u k;,lj;jp;y; j”;rk; g[Fe;jhh;/ khtl ; l j ; j pYs ; s jpUg ; g j ; J }h ; nfhl ; i lapy ; kUJjd;Dila rnfhjudpd; kiwtpw;F rnfhjuh; f s; J}f; f pyplg; g l; l dh; / kUJ rnfhjuh; f s;fhuzkhd M’;fpnyaiug; gHpth’;f M’;fpnyaiu btw;wp bfhs;shtpl;lhYk; jkpHfj;jpy;Cikj;Jiu tpUk;gpdhh;/ ,e;jf; njrpa czht[ vdw tpijia KjdKjy; tpijjjthfs; ; ; ; ; ;fhyf;fl;lj;jpy;. kUJ rnfhjuh;fs; Mth;/ vdnt bjd; ,e;jpaf;fyfk; jkpHf tuyhw;wpy; rpd;d kUJ rpwg;gplk; bgWfpwJ/fl;lbghk;kdpd; rnfhjud;Cikj;Jiuf;Fg; ghJfhg;g[ mspj;J j’;fsJ Mjuita[k; 1801 Mk; Mz;L gpufldk; M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhf vy;yheyfpdh/ ; ; ,e; j pah; f isa[ k ; xd; w pizj; j Kjy; gpufldkhFk; / rpd ; d kUJ ‘rptf’; i f rp’; f k;’ vd ; W miHf ; f g ; g l ; l hh ; / ntY}h ; f yfk ; kUJ rnfhjuh;fspd; ,r;bray; M’;fpnyaiu 1806 Mk; Mz;L Vw;gl;l ntY}h; fyfk; 1857 Mk;rwwkilarbrajJ/ M’fpnyahfs; rptf’ifiaj; jhffj; P ; ; ; ; ; ; ; MzL Vwgll ,ejpa rpgghaf; fyfjjpwF Kdndhoahf ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;jahuhapdh;/ kUJ rnfhjuh;fSk; M’;fpnyahpd; ,e;j jpfH;fpwJ/ ,J jkpHf tuyhw;wpy; xU Kf;fpakhdvjph; g ; i g re; j pf; f Maj; j epiyapy; ,Ue; j dh; / epfH;r;rpahf fUjg;gLfpwJ/ _u’;fg;gl;ldk; nghhpy;rptf’;ifapd; kPJ chpikapy;yhj nghJk; rptf’;ifiaf; jpg;g[Ry;jhd; bfhy;yg;gl;lJk;. mjidj; bjhlh;e;Jifg;gw;wp kUJ ghz;oad; Ml;rp elj;jp tUfpd;whh; vd;W Vw;gl;l epfH;r;rpfSk; ntY}h; rpg;gha;f; fyfk; Vw;gl;lf;M’;fpnyah; mth; kPJ Fw;wk; rhl;odh;/ M’;fpnyahpd; fhuz’; f shapd/ ,f; f yfk; Fwpg; g pl; l FWfpa,r;bray; rpd;d kUJit M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhfg; fhyj;jpw;Fs; xLf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lhYk; jkpHf kf;fspd;nghhplj; J}z;oaJ/ vdnt. rpd;dkUJ 1801 Mk; Mz;L kdjpy; xU bgUk; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ/$Pd; khjk; M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhf mwpf;if xd;iwbtspapl;lhh;/ mt;twpf;ifapd; xU goiaj; jpUr;rpapy; 1799 Mk; Mz;L jpg;g[tpd; kiwtpw;Fg;gpwF.ethgpd; muz;kid thapypYk; kw;bwhd;iw _u’;fk; jpg;gtpd; g[jy;th;fSk;. g[jy;tpfSk; ntY}h; nfhl;ilapy; [nfhapy; Rtw;wpYk; xl;odh;/ ,t;thW kUJ rnfhjuh;fs; rpiw itf;fg;gl;ldh;/ ed;F gapw;rp bgw;w gy;ntWM’; f pnyaUf; F vjpuhf vjph; g ; g [ z h; t pid vy; y h ghisa’;fisr; rhh;e;j nghh; tPuh;fs; M’;fpyg; gilapy;,l’;fspYk; gug;gpdh;/ nrh;j;Jf; bfhs;sg;gl;ldh;/ ntY}h; nfhl;ilapy; ,Ue;j 21 22
  14. 14. gil tPuh;fs;. M’;fpnyah;fs; bfhz;L te;j cil fpHpf;fg;gl;lJ/ ntY}h; nfhl;ilapy; jpg;g[ Ry;jhdpd;khw;wj;ij vjph;j;J nghhpLtJ vd;W Kot[ bra;jdh;/ bfho gwf;ftplg;gl;lJ/giltPuh;fs; jiy Koia kHpf;fntz;Lk; vd;Wk;. kpft[k; ,f;fl;lhd ,e;j NH;epiyapy; Mw;fhl;oy;kPiria vLf;fntz;Lk; vd;Wk; fl;lhag;gLj;jg;gl;ldh;/ j’;fpapUe;j fh;dy; fpy!;gp ntY}Uf;F tpiue;J te;Jb e w ; w p i a my ’; f hpf; F k; kj rpd; d ’; f s; j il fyff;fhuh;fisj; jhf;fpdhh;/ Vuhskhd ,e;jpa tPuh;fs;bra;ag;gl;ld/ nkYk; rpYitg; bghwpf;fg;gl;l g[jpa bfhd;W Ftpf;fg;gl;ldh;/ fyfk; KGtJkhfjiyg;ghifia mzpa tw;gWj;jg;gl;ldh;/ ,e;J kw;Wk; [ mlf;fg;gl;lJ/ gpd;g[ ntY}hpy; mikjp jpUk;gpaJ/,!yhkpa tuhfs; ,ij vjphjjdh/ rpYit milahsk; ; P ; ; ; ;j’;fis kjk; khw;Wk; Kaw;rp vd;W ,e;J tPuh;fs; njhy;tpf;fhd fhuz’;fs; :re;njfg;gl;ldh;/ vdnt giltPuh;fs; M’;fpnyaUf;F 1/ cjtpiaa[k;. xj;JiHg;iga[k; nfhhp bjd;dpe;vjpuhf jiyg;ghifiaj; J}f;fp vwpe;jdh;/ mjdhy; jpahtpy; ,Ue;j gy kd;dh;fSf;F fyff;fhuh;fs;M’;fpnyah;fshy; giltPuh;fs; jz;of;fg;gl;ldh;/ foj’;fs; mDg;gpdhh;fs;/ Mdhy; cjtp fpl;Lk; Kd;dnu g[ul;rp btoj;jJtpl;lJ ,e;jpa tPuh;fs; M’;fpnyaiug; gHpth’;f jf;f 2/ g [ u l ; r pahsh ; f is tHp elj ; j pr ; bry ; y j ; jf ; fjUzj;ij vjph;nehf;fp fhj;jpUe;jdh;/ nkYk; ikNh;g; jiyikapy;iy/gilfs; ntY}h; rpgghafSfF Mjut[ mspjjdh/ vdnt. ; ; ; ; ;1805?1806 Mk; Mz;Lfspy; M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhf ntY}hpy; 3/ M’ ; f pnyaUf ; F vjpuhf bray ; g l jpg ; g [ t pd ;fyfk; btoj;jJ/ ike;jh;fsplKk; cwtpdh;fsplKk; nghjpa mst[ jpwik ,y;iy/fyfj;jpd; nghf;F: 4/ M’;fpnyahpd; gphpj;jhSk; bfhs;if ,e;jpah;fspd;jpg;g[ Ry;jhdpd; cw xw;Wikiaf; Fiyj;jJ/tpdh;fs; 1806 Mk;Mz;L $Piy 10 Mk; fw;wy; tpist[fs; 1/ bjd ; ,e ; j paf ; fyfj ; j pw ; f hdf ; fhuz’ ; f isg ; g [ h pe ; Jehs; ntY}h; nfhl; bfhz;ldh;/iliaf; ifg;gw;wj; 2/ g[ypj;njth;. tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; kw;Wk; kUJjpl;lkpl;ldh;/ rnfhjuh;fspd; njr gf;jpiag; g[hpe;J bfhz;ldh;/Mdhy; 1806 Mk; 3/ ntY}h;; fyfk; gw;wp g[hpe;J bfhz;ldh;/Mz;L $Piy 9 Mk;ehs; es; s putpy; . Rakjpg ; g P LntY}h; nfhl; i l I. rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf :apy; ,Ue;j tPuh;fs; ntY}h; nfhl;il 1/ jkpH;ehl;oy; ghisaf;fhuh; Kiw njhd;wpaJj’;fSila Kfhik (m) nrhHh;fs; fhyj;jpy;tpl;L btspte;jdh;/ mth;fs; M’;fpnyaiu vjph;ghuhjtifapy; jhf;fp Jg;ghf;fpr; NLk; elj;jpdh;/ nfhl;ilapd; (M) ghz;oah;fs; fhyj;jpy;fjt[ f s; milf; f g; g l; l d/ nfhl; i lapy; gwe; j (,) gy;yth;fs; fhyj;jpy;/M’;fpnyahpd; bfho. fPnH ,wf;fg;gl;L. Rf;F E}whf (<) tpraefu nguurh; fhyj;jpy; 23 24
  15. 15. 2/ jkpHfj;jpy; M’;fpnyaiu Kjd; Kjypy; vjph;j;jth; III/ bghUj;Jf : (m) g[ypj;njth; (M) tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; m/ M (,) Cikj;Jiu (<) kUJ rnfhjuh;fs;/ 1/ _u’;fg;gl;odk; Mw;fhL ethg;3/ kUJ rnfhjuh;fs; Ml;rp g[hpe;j ghisak; cld;gof;if 2/ KfkJ myp 1792 (m) gh”;rhy’; Fwpr;rp (M) rptf’;if 3/ M’;fpnyah; fllbghkkdpd; rnfhjuh; ; ; (,) bew;fl;Lk;brt;ty; (<) rptfphp 4/ Cikj;Jiu 18064/ ntY}h;fyfk; eilbgw;w Mz;L 5/ ntY}h;fyfk; gphpj;jhSk; bfhs;if/ (m) 1799 (M) 1801 (,) 1806 (<) 1857 IV/ RUf;fkhd tpilasp :II. nfhol;l ,l’;fis epug;g[f : 1/ fl;lbghk;kd; kw;Wk; uhkehjg[uk; Ml;rpah; ,UtUf;Fkpilapy; ele;j re;jpg;ig Fwpg;gplt[k;/1/ ghisaf;fhuh;fs; __________ my;yJ __________ 2/ fl;lbghk;kd; vt;thW J}f;fpyplg;gl;lhh;> f;F brhe;jf;fhuh;fs;/ 3/ kUJ rnfhjuh;fspd; bgw;nwhh; ahh;>2/ M’; f pnyah; f s; ___________ cld; g of; i fapd; go 4/ Cikj;Jiu ? rpW Fwpg;g[ tiuf/ ghisaf;fhuh;fs; kPJ thptNypf;Fk; chpik bgw;wdh;/ 5/ ntY}h; fyfk; njhy;tp mile;jjw;fhd fhuz’;fs; ahit>3/ g[ypj;njth; ___________ vd;w ghisaj;ijr; rhh;e;jth;/4/ bew;fl;Lk;brt;ty; ethg;gpd; gilfshy; ___________ V/ tphpthd tpilasp : Mz;oy; jhf;fg;gl;lJ/ 1/ ghisaf;fhuh; g[ul;rpf;fhd fhuz’;fs; ahit>5/ tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; ____________ Mk; Mz;L 2/ g[ypj;njth; vt;thW M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhf fpsh;r;rp gpwe;jhh;/ bra;jhh;> 3/ ghisaf;fhuh; Tl;likg;gpy; tPu ghz;oadpd; g’;F6/ tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; jpUbey;ntypf;F mUfpy; ahJ> cs;s __________ nfhl;ilapy; J}f;fpyplg;gl;lhh;/ 4/ M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhf kUJ rnfhjuh;fs; bray;gl;l7/ rpd;d kUJ __________ vd;W miHf;fg;gl;lhh;/ tpjj;jpid tpsf;Ff/8/ rpd;d kUJtpd; gpufldk; ,e;jpah;fs; ________ f;F 5/ ntY}h; fyfj;jpd; nghf;if tpsf;Ff/ vjpuhf ,iztjw;fhd Kjy; gpufldkhFk;/ bra ; K iwg ; gapw ; r p9/ 1806 Mk; Mz;L Vw;gl;l ntY}h;fyfk; 1857 Mk; Mz;L jkpH;ehl;ilr; rhh;e;j g[fH;bgw;w ghisaf;fhuh;fspd; Vw;gl;l __________ f;F Kd;ndhoahf jpfH;e;jJ/ gl’;fis nrfhpf;ft[k;/ 25 26
  16. 16. ghlk; 3 epythpj;jpl;lk; : M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpa fk;bgdp. ek; ehl;od; eph;thfg; bghWg;ig Vw;Wf;bfhz;l fhy fl;lj;jpy; gytpjkhd epythp tNypfFk; Kiwfs; mkypy; ,Uejd/ ; ; M’ ; f pnyah ; Mjpf ; f j ; j pd ; f P H ; jkpHfj ; j pd ; jd;Dila tUthia mjpfg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf fk;bgdp bghUshjhu epiy epythp Kiwia tphpt[ g Lj; j paJ/ ,e; j Kiwapy; fk;bgdp gytpjkhd epythp jpl;l’;fis ghprPypj;J fw ; w y ; nehf ; f ’ ; f s ; mkygLjjpaJ/ ; ; 1/ jkpH ; e hl ; o d ; bghUshjhuepiy. epythpj ; jpl ; l ’ ; f s ; . tptrhak; kw;Wk; ePh;g;ghrdk; Fwpj;J mwpe;J epiyahd epythpj;jpl;lk; : M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpa bfhs;Sjy;/ fk; b gdp 1792 Mk; Mz; L tUtha; j ; Jiwapd; 2/ ifj; b jhHpy; f s; eyptile; j jw; f hd fhuz’; f isg; g[hpe;J bfhs;Sjy;/ bray;ghLfis kWrPuikg;g[ bra;jJ/ 1799 Mk; Mz;L j”rht{Uk. 1801 Mk; MzL fhehlfg; gFjpak; fkbgdp ; ; ; ; [ ; bghUshjhu epiy Ml;rpapd; fPH; te;jJ/ M’;fpy MSeh; vl;th;L fpist; ehL KGtJk; xnu khjphpahd thptNypf;Fk; Kiwia j k pH; e hl ; o d; b ghU s h j h u k; t ptrh aj ; i j eilKiwf;F bfhz;L tu ntz;Lbkd;w nehf;fj;njhLmog;gilahff; bfhz;lJ/ kpfg; gH’;fhyj;jpypUe;nj. fhud;thypR gpug[tpd; epiyahd epythpj;jpl;lj;ijbghJ kf;fSk;. murh;fSk;. ePh;g;ghrd’;fs; mikg;gjpy; typa[Wj;jp eilKiwg;gLj;jpdhh;/ ,e;j Kiwapy; thpMh;tj;ijr; brYj;jpdhh;fs;/ gUtkiH jtWjy; kw;Wk; tNiy eph;zapf;Fk; bghUl;L midj;J epyg;gFjpfSk;kiHf;fhyj;jpy; Vw;gLk; bts;sk;. g[ay; Mfpaitfs;cHth;fis kpft[k; ghjpj;jd/ xU’;fpizf;fg;gl;ld/ mt;thW ,izf;fg;gl;l epy’;fs; kpl; l h vd miHf; f g; g l; l d/ me; j kpl; l hf; f s; epythp. murh’;fj;jpd; Kf;fpa tUthahf ,Ue;jJ/ kpllhjhuhfsplk; FjjiffF tplggllJ/ 1802 Mk; MzL ; ; ; ; ; ; ;mYkpdpa ghj; j pu’; f s; . fhyzpfs; . njhypdhyhd ghuhk~hypy; ,e;j epiyahd epythpj;jpl;lk; bfhz;LbghUl;fs; nghd;wtw;iw cw;gj;jp bra;a[k; tug;gl;lJ/ ghisa’;fs; $kPd;fshf khw;wg;gl;ld/bjhHpw;rhiyfSk; fhzg;gl;ld/ M’;fpy fpHf;fpe;jpaf; fk;bgdp thptNypg;gjpy; Fj;jif Kiwiag; gpd;gw;wpaJ/ br’;fy;gl;L. nryk;. jpz;Lf;fy;. ,e;jpa bjhHpw;r’;fr;; rl;lk; (1926). Ru’;fr; rl;lk; uhkehjg[uk; kw;Wk; jpUbey;ntyp Mfpa ,l’;fspy; ,e;j(1935). bjhHpyhsh;fs; ec&;l <L rl;lk; (1923) Kjypa epythpj;jpl;lk; njhy;tpa[w;wJ/rll’fs; bjhHpyhshfspd; eyd; fUjp gpwggpffgglld/ ; ; ; ; ; ; ;,e;j fhyfl;lj;jpy; gy jkpHh;fs; j’;fs; Kd;ndw;wk; fpuhk epyj;jhitj; jpl;lk; :fpHf;fpe;jpaf; fk;bgdpapd; P ;fUjp. ,y’if. knyah. rp’fgg{h. ghkh. bjd; Mggphpffh ; ; ; ; ; ; ; vjph;g;ghh;g;g[fis epiyahd epythpj;jpl;lk; g{h;j;jpKjypa may; ehLfSf;Fr; brd;whh;fs;/ jkpHh;fs; ,y’;ifnjapiyj; njhl; l ’; f spYk; . knyahtpd; ug; g h; bra;atpy;iy/ vdnt 1804 Mk; Mz;L Kjy; 1814 Mk;njhl;l’;fspYk;. bjd; Mg;gphpf;fhtpd; Ru’;f’;fspYk; MzL tiuapyhd fhyjjpy; fpuhk epyjjhit Kiwia ; ; ; P ;ntiy bra;jhh;fs;/ Mdhy; me;j ehLfs; Rje;jpuk; mile;j fpHf; f pe; j paf; fk; b gdp mky; g Lj; j paJ/ ,e; j KiwgpwF. m’; F thH; e ; j jkpHh; f s; gy Jd; g ’; f Sf;F jpUbey;ntyp. jpUr;rpuhg;gs;sp. nfhak;g[j;J}h;. bjd;Mshdhhfs/ ; ; Mw;fhL kw;Wk; tl Mw;fhL Mfpa khtl;l’;fspy; 27 28
  17. 17. eilKiwg; gLj; jg; gl; l J/ ,e; j Kiwapd; K: yk; 3/ epahakhd thp kjpg;gPL bra;ag;gl;lJ/fk;bgdpahdJ tpis epyg;gug;g[fis epyr;Rthd; 4/ jhpR epy’;fs; murh’;fj;jpd; fl;Lg;ghl;od; fPH;jhuh;fsplk; tptrhak; bra;a[k; bghUl;L xg;gilj;jJ/ bfhz;L tug;gl;ld/,e; j epy’; f s; nkYk; gphpf; f g; g l; L cHth; f splk; 5/ cHth;fSf;F. thp tNypf;Fk; mjpfhhpfs; gw;wpFjjiffF tplgglld/ epiyahd epythp jplljjpwFk. ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; KiwaPL bra;a[k; chpik mspf;fg;gl;lJ/fpuhk epyj;jPh;it Kiwf;Fk; mjpf ntWghL ,y;yhjfhuzj;jpdhy; fpHf;fpe;jpa fk;bgdp. brd;id ft[d;rpiy 6/ thpr; R ik mjpfhpf; F k; nghJ murh’; f j; j plk;uaj;Jthhp Kiwia mky;gLj;JkhW gzpj;jJ/ KiwaPL bra;a cHth;fSf;F chpik tH’fggllJ/ ; ; ;uaj;Jthhpj; jpl;lk; : f h u d ;thypR gpug[ thp tNy; Kiwia uaj;Jthhpj; jpl;lj;jpd; epiwfs; :rP h ; j pUj; j k; bra; a [ k ; bghUl; L 1/ cHth;fs; murh’;fj;jplk; neuoahf thpmbyf;rhz;lh; hPl; kw;Wk; jhk!; brYjjpdhhfs/ ; ; ;kd; n wh Mfpa ,Utiua[ k ;epakdk; bra;jhh;/ gytpjkhd 2/ cHth;fs; thp brYj;Jk; bjhif eph;zapf;fg;gl;lJ/epythpf; b fhs; i ffis ed; F 3/ thp tNy; K: y k; murh’; f j; j pw; F epiyahdMuha;e;j jhk!; kd;nwh (1820?27) tUkhdk; fpilj;jJ/brd;id khfhzj;jpy; uaj;Jthhp 4/ jhpR epy’;fs; cHth;fsplk; jpzpf;fg;gltpy;iy/Kiwia mwpKfg; gLj;jpdhh;/gpd;dh; nryk;. j”;rht{h;. kyghh; uaj;Jthhpj; jpl;lj;jpd; Fiwfs; :kw;Wk; uhayrPkh Mfpa 1/ gy ,l’;fspy; epythp kpf mjpfkhfgFjpfspYk; uaj;Jthhp Kiw tpjpffgglljhy; cHthfs; mdwhl brytfSfnf ; ; ; ; ; [ ;mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ/ kd;nwh jhk!; kd;nwh my;yYw;whh;fs;/tpd; Tw;Wg;go murh’;fj;jpw;Fk; cHth;fSf;Fk; ,ilnacs;s neuo bjhlh;ng uaj;Jthhp vd;gjhFk;/ cHth;fs; 2/ epythpj; jpl;l’;fis murh’;fk; cHth;fsplk;murh’;fj;jpw;F neuoahf thp brYj;jntz;Lk; vd;gnj neuoahf mky;gLj;jpaJ/ epyj;ij msg;gjpYk;,jd; Fwpf;nfhshFk;/ vdnt ,k;Kiw uaj;Jthhp vd;W thpia eph;zapg;gjpYk; murh’;fk; epyg;gpug[ffis ;miHf;fg;gLfpwJ/ fyejhnyhrpfftpyiy/ ; ; ; 1857 Mk; Mz;ow;Fs; jkpHfj;jpd; bgUk; gFjpuaj;Jthhpj; jpl;lj;jpd; Kf;fpa mk;r’;fs; : uaj;Jthhp Kiwapd; fPH; bfhz;L tug;gl;lJ/ 1/ thp tNy; bra;ag;gLk; epy’;fs; milahsk; kfythhp Kiw : 1833 Mk; Mz;L kfy;thhp Kiw ; fhzgglld/ ; ; tpyypak; bgzo’; gpugtpdhy; eilKiwggLjjggllJ/ ; ; [ ; ; ; ; 2/ epyj; j pd; kP J cHth; f Sf; F cs; s chpik ,e;j Kiwapy; cHth;fSk;. epy chpikahsh;fSk; ephzapffggllJ/ ; ; ; ; murh’fjjplk; xU Fwpggpll fhyjjpwF xggejk; braJ ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; 29 30
  18. 18. bfhzldh/ uajJthhp KiwapYk. kfy; thhp KiwapYk. ; ; ; ; ; khfhzj;jpy; bghJg;gzpj;Jiwia mikj;jhh;/ nkYk;cHth;fspd; epiyapy; vt;tpjkhd khw;wKk; 1883 Mk; Mz;L Vhp g[Jg;gpf;Fk; jpl;lk; (Tank Restorationfhzggltpyiy/ ; ;tptrhak; tptrhak; ekJ bghUshjhuj;jpd; KJbfYk;g[MFk;/ 95 tpGf;fhL jkpHf kf;fs; tptrhaj;ij jkJthH; f ; i fapd; Mjhukhff; bfhz; o Ue; j dh; / 18 Mk;E}w;whz;od; kj;jpapy; kf;fs; bjhif Fiwe;Jk;. tpisepy’fs; kpFeJk; fhzggllJ/ vdnt cHthfs; kpFej ; ; ; ; ; ;epyg;gug;gpy; tptrhak; nkw;bfhz;ldh;/ mjpf mstpy;czt[g; gaph;fisna gaph; bra;J te;jdh;/ nkYk; mth;fs;gaph; bra;j KiwfSk;. gad;gLj;jpa bjhHpy;El;gKk;kpfg;gHikahdjhft[k;. kpf gpw;nghf;fhdjhft[k; fhzg;gl;lJ/ tptrhaj;Jiwapy; ,ae;jpu’;fs; gad;gLj;jg; fy;yizgltpy;iy/ tptrha rKjhak; epykhdpa Kiwiagpdgwwpna fhzggllJ/ cHthfs; murUfF thp brYjjp ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Scheme) V h p f s p d ; e p i y i a M u h a ; t j w ; f h fte;jdh;/ M’;fpnyah;fs; gzg;gaph;fshd gUj;jp. rzy;. Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ/ 200 Vf;fh; epyg;gug;gpw;Fk; mjpfkhfmt[hp. fhfpjk;. fUk;g[. g[ifapiy kw;Wk; vz;bza; ePh;ghrd trjp jUk; Vhpfs; bghJg;gzpj;Jiwapd; fPGk;tpj; J f; f s; gaph; bra; t ij Cf; F tpj; j dh; / mjdhy; 200 Vf;fh; epyg;gug;gpw;F Fiwthf ePh;ghrd trjp jUk;gzg;gaph;fs; tpahghu nehf;Fld; mjpf mst[ cw;gj;jp Vhpfs; tUtha;j;Jiwapd; fPGk; bfhz;L tug;gl;ld/bra;ag;gl;ld/ vdnt tptrhak; th;jjfka khf;fg;gl;lJ/ ; Vhpfis gGJ ghhfftk. guhkhpfftk; mej JiwfSfF ; ; [ ; ; [ ; ;tptrhaj; J iwapy; . njapiy. fhg; g p kw; W k; ug; g h; mjpf mstpy; gzk; mspf; f g; g l; l J/ nkYk;njhl;l’;fspd; K:yk; th;j;jf tsh;r;rp Vw;gl;lJ/ jpUf;nfhapY}h; (1895). nrj;jpah njhg;g[ (1895). ghyhh; (1896) bghpahh; (1897) Mfpa mizfs; fllgglld/ 1934 MzL ; ; ; ;e P h ; g ; g hrdk ; fl; l g; g l; l nkl; ^ h; miz Rje; j puj; j pw; F Kd; g [ fl;lg;gl;l kpfg;bghpaj; jpl;lkhFk;/ ePh;g;ghrdKiw ,e;jpahtpy; gH’;fhyj;jpypUe;njfhzg; g LfpwJ/ fy; y iz gz; i lf; f hy miz bjhHpw; r hiyg; b ghUl; f s; tUiftotikg;gpd; mjpraf;fjf;f mk;rkhFk;/ ,J ,uz;lhk;E}w;whz;oy; thH;e;j fhpfhy; nrhHdhy; fl;lg;gl;ljhf 1857 Mk; Mz; L nghuhl; l j; j pw; F g; g pwFek;gg;gLfpwJ/ 1839 Mk; Mz;oy; fhtphpapy; fl;lg;gl;l ,e;jpahtpypUe;j midj;J M’;fpy gFjpfSk; M’;fpynkyiz M’; f pnyah; fhyj; j pd; Kjy; kpfg; b ghpa Koahl;rpapd; fPHf; bfhz;L tug;gl;lJ/ uhzp tpf;nlhhpah ;jpl;lkhFk;/ Vwf;Fiwa mnj Mz;oy; fPH; miza[k; mth;fs; murpahf mjpfhug;g{h;tkhf mwptpf;fg;gl;lhh;/fl;lg;gl;lJ/ ly;b~srp gpug[. 1852 Mk; Mz;L brd;id 31 32
  19. 19. M’;fpy tzpfh;fSf;F ,J xU tug;gpurhjkhf mike;jJ/ KygbghUlfshd gUjjp. rzy. mthp kwWk; njapiy : ; ; ; ; [ ;Kg;gJ nfho kf;fisf; bfhz;l mg;nghija ,e;jpah. Mfpatw;wpid kpFjpahf cw;gj;jp bra;ak; ehlhf khwpaJ/ [M’;fpy tpahghhpfspd; re;ijahf khwpaJ/ M’;fpnyah; ,ae; j pu’; f spd; cjtpahy; cw; g j; j p bra; a g; g l; lMl;rpf;fhyj;jpy;. ,’;fpyhe;J bjhHpw;rhiyapy; cw;gj;jp bghUl; f spd; tuthy; iftpidj; bjhHpw; T l’; f s;bra;ag;gl;l bghUs;fs; jkpH;ehl;ow;F vLj;J tug;gl;ld/ eyptile;jd/ ,ae;jpu’;fspdhy; cw;gj;jpr; bra;ag;gl;lmt[hp. njapiy kw;Wk; fhg;gp nghd;w njhl;lg;gaph;fs; bghUs; f s; re; i japy; Ftpf; f g; g l; l jhy; fpuhk,e;jpahtpy; Kjd; Kjyhf mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;ld/ iftpid”h;fspd; jpwikapdhy; cw;gj;jpr; bra;ag;gl;l fiyg ; b ghUl ; f spd ; njit Fiwe ; j J/ gy fpuhk braw;if ,iHapdhy; bra;ag;gl;l Milfs; iftpid”h;fs; j’;fSila ghuk;ghpakpf;f bjhHpy;fis,e;jpahtpw;F bfhz;Ltug;gl;ld/ mitfs; jtph;j;Jtpl;L efu’;fSf;F Fobgah;e;jdh;/ghuk;ghpakpf;f fjh; MilfSf;F khw;whf mike;jd/nkYk; ,e;jpah;fs; M’;fpnyag;bghUl;fis M’;fpnyah;fshy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l uapy;th’;fntz;Lk; vd tw;gWj;jg; gl;lhh;fs;/ uapy; tz;oapd; [ tz;ofspd; tuthy; iftpidg;bghUl;fspd; cw;gj;jp,af;F bghwpfSk; (vd;$pd;) kw;Wk; ePuhtp ,ae;jpu’;fSk; eyptilaj; bjhl’;fpaJ/ uapy; tz;ofspd; cjtpahy;jkpH; ehl;ow;F bfhz;Ltug;gl;ld/ fk;gpapy;yh je;jp.bjhiyngrp kw; W k; jghy; Kiwa[ k ; mwpKfg; M’;fpnyah;fshy; cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gl;l bghUl;fs; ehLgLj;jg;gl;lJ/ ,Ug;g[g;ghij epWtdj;jpy; xU bgUk; KGtJk; tpw;gid bra;ag;gl;ld/ cs;ehl;oy; cw;gj;jpg [ u l ; r p Vw ; g l ; l J/ 1856 Mk ; Mz ; L brd ; i df ; F k ; bra ; a g ; g l ; l bghUl ; f s ; M’ ; f py murh’ ; f j ; j pdhy ;muf;nfhzj;jpw;Fk; ,ilna ,Ug;g[g;ghij Mjhpf;fg;gltpy;iy/ iftpidg;bghUl;fspd; Kf;fpamikf;fg;gl;lJ/ uhag[uj;jpy; M’;fpnyah;fs; 1856y; Kjy; thofifahshfshftk. Mjuthshfshftk; ,Uej Rnjr ; ; [ ; ; [ ;,uapy;nt epiyaj;ij mikj;jdh;/ uhnk!;tuj;jpw;Fk;. kd;dh;fs; j’;fsJ bry;thf;if ,He;j fhuzj;jpdhy;kz ; l gj ; j pw ; F k ; ,ilna ghk ; g d ; ghyk ; xd ; W k ; jkpHehloy; ifjbjhHpy; tshrrp eyptwj; bjhl’fpaJ/ ; ; ; ; ; [ ;fl;lg;gl;lJ/ xyp gug;g[k; bjhHpy;Jiw tp”;”hdj;ij kl;ghz;l’;fs;. fz;zhog;bghUl;fs;. fhfpjg;bghUl;fs;. ;M’;fpnyah;fs; ,e;jpahtpw;F bfhz;L te;jhh;fs;/ mijj; gUj;jp Milfs;. gidg;bghUl;fs; kw;Wk; fapw;why;bjhlh;e;J ,e;jpa thbdhyp epiyak; 1936 Mk; Mz;L bra;ag;gl;l bghUl;fspd; cw;gj;jpf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk;Muk; g pf; f g; g l; l J/ M’; f py muRf; F tUkhdk; mspf;fg;gltpy;iy/ ifj;bjhHpy;fs; eypt[wwjhy; ntiy ;njhl;lg;gaph;fs;. fdpk bghUl;fs;. t’;fp kw;Wk; Ma[s; apy;yhj; jpz;lhl;lk; Vw;gl;lJ/ M’;fpy Ml;rp bjhl’;fpafhggL. fggy; nghfFtujJ kwWk; rzy; Miyfs; Kyk; ; P ; ; ; ; : miu E}w;whz;ow;Fs;. g[fGk; bgUika[k; tha;ej ,e;jpaf;;fpiljjJ/ 19 Mk; E}wwhzod; gpwgFjpapy; ,ejpahtpy; ; ; ; ; ; ifj;bjhHpy;fs; gog;goahf eyptile;jd/gy bjhHpw;rhiyfs; mikf;fg;gl;ld/ Mdhy; mtw;wpd;tsh;r;rp Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhf ,y;iy/ fw; w y; tpist[ f s; 1/ jkpH;ehl;oy; fhzg;gLk; tptrhak; kw;Wk; ePh; ghrdifj; b jhHpy; eyptiljy; Kiwfis mwpe;J bfhz;ldh;/ 2/ iftpidg ; b ghUl ; f s ; eyptile ; j jw ; f hd fhuz’ ; f is iftpidg; bghUl;fspd; Vw;Wkjpahsh; vd;w mwpe;J bfhz;ldh;/epiyapypUe;j ,e;jpahthdJ Fiwe;j tpiy 33 34
  20. 20. Rakjpg ; g P L 3/ Vhp g[Jg;gpf;Fk; jpl;lk; tpy;ypak; bgz;o’;I/ rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf : 4/ ,e;jpad; ,uapy;nt knyah 1/ ,e;jpa bjhHpw;r’;fr; rl;lk; gpwg;gpf;fg;gl;l Mz;L 5/ g[ifapiy ly;b~srp (m) 1927 (M) 1926 (,) 1934 (<) 1935 2/ epiyahd epythpj; jpl;lj;ij Vw;gLj;jpath; IV/ RUf;fkhd tpilasp : (m) fhud; thyP!; (M) bty;y!;yp 1/ fpuhk epyj;jPh;itj;jpl;lk; vd;why;vd;d> (,) tpy;ypak; bgz;o’; (<) ly;b~s!p 2/ epiyahd epythpj;jpl;lk; gw;wp rpW Fwpg;g[ jUf/ 3/ nkl^h; miz fl;lg;gl;l Mz;L ; (m) 1875 (M) 1895 (,) 1897 (<) 1934 3/ M’;fpnyah;fshy; Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl;lg; gzg;gaph;fs; ahit> 4/ ,e;jpa bghUshjhuj;jpd; KJbfYk;g[ (m) bjhHpw;rhiy (M) tptrhak; 4/ Rje ; j puj ; j pw ; F Kd ; g [ ,e ; j pahtpy ; fl ; l g ; g l ; l mizf;fl;Lfs; VnjDk; K:d;wpidf; Fwpg;gpLf/ (,) tpahghuk; (<) nghf;Ftuj;J 5/ ,e;jpa ifj;bjhHpy;fs; eyptile;jjw;fhdf; fhuz’;fs; ahit>II/ nfhol;l ,l’;fis epug;g[f : 1/ M’;fpnyna fth;dh; vl;th;L fpist; xnu khjphpahd V/ tphpthd tpilasp : __________ Kiwia eilKiwg;gLj;j tpUk;gpdhh;/ 1/ uaj;Jthhp Kiwapd; mk;r’;fs; mjd; epiwfs; kw;Wk; 2/ ___________ v d ; g t h ; uaj;Jthhp Kiwia mwpKfg;gLj;jpdhh;/ Fiwfis Muhat[k;/ 3/ cHth; f Sf; F thptNypf; F k; ____________ gw; w p 2/ M’;fpnyah; Ml;rpapy; ePh;g;ghrdj;Jiwapy; Vw;gl;l KiwaPL bra;a[k; chpik mspf;fg;gl;lJ/ Kd;ndw;w’;fis tpthpf;ft[k;/ 4/ 1857 Mk; Mz; o w; F s; jkpHfj; j pd; bgUk; g Fjp 3/ M’;fpnyah;fshy; jkpH;ehl;ow;F bfhz;L tug;gl;l _____________ Kiwapd; fPH; bfhz;L tug;gl;lJ/ Miyg;bghUs;fs; gw;wp vGJf/ 5/ fy;yiz ,uz;lhk; E}w;whz;oy; thH;e;j ____________ vd;gtuhy; fl;lg;gl;lJ/ bra ; K iwg ; gapw ; r pIII/ bghUj;Jf : g{kgfhUfFr; brdW m’Fss iftpidgbghUsfis ; [ ; ; ; ; ; ; m M ghh;j;J bjhpe;J bfhs;st[k;/ 1/ ug;gh; njhl;lk; njhl;lg;gaph; 2/ kfy;thhp jpl;lk; 1883 35 36
  21. 21. ghlk; 4 Rth’; vd;Dk; rPdg;gazp eurpk;kth;k gy;yth; fhyj;jpy; fh”;rpg[uj;jpw;F tUif g[hpe;jhh;/ ehse;jh gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; ntejuhf ,Uej jhkghyh; fh”rpgujij nrhejth; Mthh/ ; ; ; ; [ ; ; ; ; tpLjiyf ; F Kd ; jkpHfj ; j py ; fy ; t p irt kw;Wk; itzt kl’;fs; fy;tpia Mjhpj;jd/ tsh; r ; r p tpfhu’;fs;. rkzg;gs;spfs; g[j;j kw;Wk; rkz kjj; jj;Jt’;fisg; gug;gpd/ vz;zhapuk;. jpUgtzp kw;Wk; fw; w y; nehf; f ’; f s; Fd;wj;J}h; Mfpa ,l’;fs; gpw;fhyr; nrhHh;fs; fhyj;jpy; 1/ jkpH; e hl; o y; Rje; j puj; j pw; F Kd; g [ fy; t papy; Vw; g l; l fhzg;gl;l fy;tpf;Tl’;fs; MFk;/ tsh;r;rp gw;wp mwpjy;/ 2/ fpwpj; J t FUkhh; f spd; fy; t pj; bjhz; o id g[ h pe; J bghpa g [ u hzj ; i j vGjpa nrf ; f pHhh ; brd ; i dia mLj ; j bfhs;Sjy;/ Fd; w j; J }iur; rhh; e ; j th; / 3/ nkiyehl ; L fy ; t papd ; tpist [ f is g [ h pe ; J bfhs;Sjy;/ fy;tp epiya’;fs; ghz;oah;fs; fhyj;jpy; rhiyfs; vd;wiHf;fg;gl;ld/ ghz;oah;fs; jpUtde;jg[uj;jpw;F mUfpYs;s fhe;jS:hr; rhiy kw;Wk; ghh;jpgnrfug[uk; Mfpa ; gz; i lf; f hyj; j py; fy; t p ,l’;fspy; fy;tp epiya’;fis mikj;jdh;/ j”;rht{iu ‘,sikapy; fy;’ vd;gJ gz;ilf; fhyj;jpy; Mz;l kuhj;jpa kd;dd; ,uz;lhk; rungh$p vd;gth;tH’;fpa KJbkhHp/ gy jkpH;g;g[yth;fs; fy;tpapd; 1824 Mk; Mz;L ru!;tjp kfhy; vd;Dk; E}yfj;ijKdndwwjjpwfhf ghLglLsshhfs/ r’f fhyjjpy; thHej ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; j”;rht{hpy; epWtpdhh;/ ,t;thwhf tp$a efu murh;fs;.murh;fSk;. jsgjpfSk; Tl gy ghly;fis ehaf;fh;fs; kw;Wk; kuhj;jpa kd;dh;fs; fy;tp tsh;r;rpf;F,aw;wpa[s;shh;fs;/ bgz;fs; gy;ntW fiyfshd ,ay;. bgUk;g’;F Mw;wpapUf;fpwhh;fs;/ jkpH;ehl;oy; mnugpa,ir. ehlfk; nghd; w j; Jiwfspy; nkk; g hLw; W kwWk; ghurfffytp kjuhrhffspd; Kykhf mspffggllJ/ ; P ; ; ; : ; ; ;,Uejhhfs; vd r’f ,yffpa’fs; TWfpdwd/ bgzghw; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; fpwpj; J tf; FUkhh; f spd; fy; t pj; b jhz; Lgythfshd Xsitahh. fhfifg; ghodpahh. Kljjhkf; [ ; ; ; ; ;fz;zpahh; nghd;w g[yth;fs; r’;f fhyj;jpy; thH;eJs;sdh;/ ; 15 kw;Wk; 16 Mk; E}w;whz;oy; Vw;gl;l kWkyh;r;rpnkYk; r’;f fhy kd;dh;fs; fy;tpia Cf;Ftpj;jdh;/ ,e;jf; kw;Wk; fpwp!;Jt rka rPh;jpUj;jj;jpw;F gpwF Inuhg;gpafhy fl;l’;fspy; fpuhk’;fspy; Muk;gg; gs;spf;Tl’;fs; ehl ; i lr ; rhh ; e ; j nghh ; r ; R f ; f P r pah ; f s ; / lr ; R f ; f huh ; f s ; .kuj;jpd; epHypy; my;yJ nfhapy;fspy; braw;gl;ld/ M’;fpnyah;fs; kw;Wk; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; ,e;jpahtpw;Fnky;epiyf; fy;tpf;Tl’;fSk; fhzg;gl;ld/ mit te;jdh;/ mth;fs; fpwpj;Jt rkaj;ij gug;gj;kl’;fs;. gs;spfs; my;yJ tpfhu’;fs; vd bjhl’;fpdhh;fs;/ nkYk; jkpH;ehl;od; gy gFjpfspy;miHf;fg;gl;ld/ fpwpj;Jt FUkhh;fs; gy gs;spfis (Missionary Schools) epWtpdhh;fs;/ gyythfs; fhyjjpy. fytpj; Jiwapy; Kdndwwk; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;fhzg; g l; l J/ ,e; J . g[ j ; j kw; W k; rkzh; f Sf; f hd fpwpj ; J t FUkhh ; f spd ; tsh ; r ; r p : gjpdhwhk;fy; t pf; T l’; f s; fh”; r pg[ u k; nghd; w ,l’; f spy; E}w;whz;oy; Kjd; Kjypy; nghh;rRf;frpah;fs; jkpH;ehl;oy; ; P rkaj; bjhzoid Mukgpjjdh/ mthfs; VRr’fk; vdw ; ; ; ; ; ; ;mikf;fg;gl;ld/ fh”;rpg[uk; rk!;fpUj bkhHpapd; rpwe;j mikg ; i g Vw ; g Lj ; j pdh ; / mr ; r ’ ; f ghjphpkhh ; f Ss ;,yf;fpaf; Tlkhf jpfH;e;jJ/ ,’;Fs;s ifyhrehjh; mUl;je;ij bgh;zhd;l!; (Father Fernandas) vd; g th;nfhapy; bghJ Mtzf; fhggfkhftk; tps’fpaJ/ ath’; ; [ ; [ Kf;fpakhthh;/ 37 38
  22. 22. ,th; 1567?y; g[ d ; d f; f hay; vd; D kplj; j py; xU ,f;ndrpa!; ynahyh vd;w rka gug;g[f;FGnjthyaj;ija[k. gs;spiaa[k; epWtpdhh;/ ,e;j VRr’;fk; ; brd;idapy; ynahyh fy;Y}hpia epWtpaJ/ jhk;guj;jpy;brd;id. ehfg;gl;odk;. jpUr;rp kw;Wk; jpz;Lf;fy; Mfpa brd;idf; fpwpj;Jtf; fy;Y}hp. ehfh;nfhtpypy; !;fhl;,l’ ; f spy ; mjpf mstpy ; gs ; s pf ; Tl’ ; f isa [ k ; fpwpj;Jtf; fy;Y}hp. kJiuapy; mbkhpf;fd; fy;Y}hp.fy;Y}hpfisa[k; mikj;jJ/ jpUr;rpapy; g[dpj n$h!g; fy;Y}hp. ghisa’;nfhl;ilapy; g[dpj nrtpah; fy;Y}hp kw;Wk; brd;idapy; bgz;fs; kJiu rkag;gug;g[f;FG (Madura Mission) fy;tp fpwpj; J tf; fy; Y }hp nghd; w it fy; t p tsh; r ; r pf; f hftsh;r;rpf;F Mw;wpa nrit Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhFk;/ rpwe;j Vw;gLj;jg;gl;ld/ br’;fy;gl;L kw;Wk; brd;id Mfpamwpthw;wy; bfhz;l uhgh;l;?o?nehgpyp vd;w ghjphpahh; ,l’fspy; gy fyY}hpfSk. gsspfSk; epWtgglld/ ; ; ; ; ; ;1605 Mk; Mz;L jkpH;ehl;ow;F te;jhh;/ 1606 Mk; Mz;L gpuhl!;lz;l; FUkhh;fs; brd;id. j”;rht{h;. flY}h;.KjJfpUc&zggehaffh; fhyjjpy; kJiufF tUif ghpejhh/ ; ; ; ; ; ; [ ; ; jpUr;rp. ghisa’;nfhl;il kw;Wk; ehfh;nfhtpy; Mfpamth; jkJ rka gug;g[g; gzpfis bjd; jkpH;ehl;oy; ,l’;fspy; fy;Y}hpfisa[k; gs;spfisa[k; mikj;jdh;/Fwpg; g hf kJiuapy; Muk; g pj; j hh; / mth; Xh; ,e; J ngry; rkagug;g[f; FG (Basel Mission) gapw;rp bgw;wrkaj;Jwtpiag; nghy jd;id khw;wpf;bfhz;L ,e;Jf; mehijfSf;F ntiy tha;g;gspj;jJ/ ViH kf;fSf;Ffyhr;rhuj;ijg; gpd;gw;wp. fpwpj;Jt rkaf; bfhs;iffis Xh; ekgpfif xspia bfhLjjJ/ yzld; rkaguggfFG ; ; ; ; ; [ ;kf;fsplk; gug;gpdhh;/ kJiu rka gug;g[f;FGtpd; ehfh;nfhtpy;. bea;a{h; kw;Wk; ghisa’; nfhl;il Mfpakw;bwhU jdpj;jd;ik tha;e;j rpwg;g[f;Fhpa mUl;je;ij ,l’;fspy; jd; ftdj;ijr; brYj;jpaJ/ ,e;j mikg;g[$hd; o?gphpl;nlh Mthh;/ mth; fpwpj;Jt rkaj;ijg; fy;tp tsh;r;rpapy; mjpf ftdk; brYj;jpaJ/gug;g[tjw;fhf uhkehjg[uk; kw;Wk; g[Jf;nfh l;ilf;F jkpH;ehl;oy; fpwpj;Jt r’;f’;fs; nkiy ehl;Lf;fy;tpbrdwhh/ tukhKdpth; vdW bgUikald; mwpaggLk; ; ; P ; [ ; Kiwia Kjd;Kjypy; mwpKfg;gLj;jpd/ fpwpj;Jtfhd;!;ld;ild; n$hrg; bg!;fp ,e;jf;FGtpy; 1711 Mk; FUkhh;fshy; jpwf;fg;gl;l gs;spfs; rhjp kj ngjkpd;wpMz;L Kjy; 1742 Mk; Mz;L tiu gzpahw;wpdhh;/ nkYk; midjJ ,d khzthfSfFk; gapwrpaspjjJ/ ,tthwhf ; ; ; ; ; ;,th; jkpHpy; ,yf;fz E}y;fisa[k; mfuhjpfisa[k; jkpH ; e hl ; o ypUe ; j fpwpj ; J t FUkhh ; f s ; fy ; t papd ;vGjpa[s;shh;/ Kd;ndw;wj;jpy; Kjd;ikahd g’;F tfpj;jhh;fs;/ mbkhpf;f ahH;g;ghz rka gug;g[f;FG vd; w M’ ; f pnyah ; tUiff ; F gpwF jkpHff ; f y ; t pmikg;g[ 1834 Mk; Mz;L epWtg;gl;lJ/ ,e;j mikg;g[kJiu. jpzLffy; kwWk; uhkehjguk; Mfpa ,l’fspy; ; ; ; [ ; ; M’fpy fpHffpejpaf; fkbgdp nghjpa bghUshjhu ; ; ; ;gy gs;spf;Tl’;fis epWtpaJ/ Mw;fhL rka gug;gfFG [ ; trjpapy;yhj fhuzj;jhy; fy;tp tsh;r;rpapy; ftdk;1853 Mk; Mz; L mbkhpf; f hit nrh; e ; j !; f l; l h; brYj;jhJ fhyk; jhH;j;jpaJ/ 1813 Mk; Mz;L gl;lar;rnfhjuh;fshy; (Scudder Brothers) Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ/ mth;fs; rl;lj;jpd; go ,e;j epiyapy; khw;wKk;. fy;tp tsh;rrpapy; ;kUj;Jtkidfisa[k;. jh;k!;jhgd’;fisa[k; kw;Wk; xU g [ j pa bjhlf ; f Kk ; Vw ; g l ; l J/ ,e ; j gl ; l ar ;gs;spfisa[k; epWtp moj;jl;L kf;fspilna gpurpj;jpg; rl;lj;jpd;go nkiy ehl;Lf; fy;tp tsh;r;rpf;fhf M’;fpybgw;whh;fs;/ Mw;fhL khtl;lj;jpy; ChP!; (Voorhees) ghuhSkd;wk; Mz;L xd;Wf;F xU yl;rk; U:gha; epjpiafy;Y}hpiaa[k; kw;Wk; gy gs;spfisa[k; epWtpdhh;fs;/ xJf;fpaJ/ ,ijj; bjhlh;e;J gs;spf;Tl g[j;jf r’;fk; 39 40
  23. 23. (School Book Society) 1819 Mk; Mz;L bjhl’;fg;llJ/ 1820 ; fy; t papypUe; J fy; Y }hpf; fy; t p tiu midj; JMk; Mz;L jhk!;kd;nwh vd;gth; brd;id khfhzj;jpd; goepiyfisa[k; ,izg;gnj ,jd; Fwpf;nfhshFk;/MSeuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ mth; fy;tp jpl;l’;fSf;fhfr; nkiy ehl;Lf;fy;tpiag; gug;g[tjw;F ,j;jpl;lk; mjpfbrytplg; gLk; bjhif vd; W k; mHptpy; yhjJ vd tha;g;gspj;jJ/ ,e;jg; g[jpa Kiwapy; khtl;l kw;Wk;thjpl;lhh;/ mijj;bjhlh;e;J 1822 Mk; Mz;L fy;tpf;FG tl;lmstpyhd gs;spfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpj;jJ/(Education Commission) xd;W mikf;fg;gl;lJ/ bghJf;fy;tp ,e;jg; gs;spfspy; jha;bkhHpapy; fy;tp nghjpf;fg;gl;lJ/thhpak; (Board of Public Instruction) xd;W mikf;fg;gl;L. M’;fpyk; xU ghlkhf fw;gpf;fg;gl;lJ/ tl;lhubkhHpg;xtbthU khtlljjpYk; muRg; gsspfs; epWtgglld/ ; ; ; ; ; ;nkYk; tl;l’;fspYk; gs;spfs; jpwg;gjw;F gs;spfs; jpwf;fg;gl;ld/Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl;ld/ kd;nwhtpd; Kaw;rpapdhy; brd;id rhh;y!; cl;mwpf;if fy;tp tsh;r;rpapd; ‘kfhrhrdk;’ vd;Wkhfhzj;jpy; Vwj;jhH 70 gs;spfs; epWtg;gl;ld/ miHf; f g; g l; l J/ 1823 Mk; Mz;L bghJf;fy;tp ,af;Fdufk; mikf;fg;gl;lJ/ gj;bjhd;gjhk; E}w;whz;od; kj;jpapy; fy;tp rPuhf V/n$/mh;g[j;ehl; vd;gth; mjd; Kjy; ,af;Feuhf epakpf;fg; tsuj;bjhl’;fpaJ/ nky;epiyf;fy;tp epiyahd totp gl ; l hh ; / idg; bgw;wJ/ 1835 Mk; Mz;o ypUe;J bray;gl;lfPH; nehf;fpg; gut[k; jpl;lk; (Filtration theory) : 1830Mk; Mz;L. M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpaf; fk;bgdp fPH;nehf;fpgut[k; jpl;lj;ij mwpKfg;gLj;jpaJ/ mjd;go fy;tpnky;kl;l gphpitr; rhh;e;j kf;fSf;F kl;Lk; Kjypy;mspf;fg;gl;lJ/ mth;fs; jhk; bgw;w mf;fy;tp mwpitbghJkf;fSf;F mspf;fntz;Lk;/ nky;kl;lkf;fsplkpUe;J fy;tpahdJ bghJkf;fis brd;wilahjfhuzj;jpdhy; ,k;Kiw njhy;tpapy; Kotile;jJ/ brd; i d kUj; J tf; f y; Y }hp (1835). brd; i dkhepyg;gs;sp (1836) brd;idf; fpwpj;;Jtg;gs;sp (1840).brd;id gr;irag;gd; gs;sp (1841) Mfpa gs;spfs; khepy fy;Y}hpbry; t e; j h; f s; kw; W k; cah; F oapdhpd; njitiaepiwntw;wpaJ/ efug;gs;spfisj; jtpu kw;w gs;spfs; kUj;Jtg; gs;sp 1851 Mk; Mz;L kUj;Jtf; fy;Y}hpahfg[wf;fzpf;fg;gl;ld/ tsh;e;jJ/ brd;id apy; bjhl’;fg;gl;l epy msitg;gs;sp 1857 Mk; Mz;L bghwpapay; fy;Y}hp ahfrhh;y!; cl; mwpf;if (Charles Wood’s Despatch) : M’;fpyf; tsh;ejJ/ khepyg;gs;sp khepyf; fy;Y}hpahf cUg; bgw;wJ/ ;fpHffpejpaf; fkbgdp jdJ jtWfis czheJ/ 1854 Mk; ; ; ; ; ; mJ epyggpugffSk. murFkhuhfSk; gofFk; fyY}hpahf ; [ ; ; ; ; ;Mz;L rhh;y!; cl; mwpf;ifapd; K:yk; fy;tpapy; rpy fhzg;gl;lJ/ 1857 Mk; Mz;Lr; rl;lj;jpd;go brd;idg;rPh;jpUj;j’;fisf; bfhz;L te;jJ/ fPH;nehf;fp gut[k; gy;fiyf; fHfk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ/ 1859 Mk; Mz;ow;Fs;jplljjpwF khwwhf rhhy!; cl; jpllk; mikejJ/ Mukgf; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; 41 42
  24. 24. mJ KGtsh;r;rp bgw;w gy;fiyf;fHfkhf tsh;e;jJ/ khzth; f Sf; F k; . Mrphpah; f Sf; F k; tpLjp trjpfs;gj; b jhd; g jhk; E}w; w hz; o d; gpw; g Fjpapy; brd; i d. Vw; g Lj; j g; g l; l d/ mjpf mstpy; g[ j ; j f’; f isa[ k ; .nfhak; g [ j ; J }h; . nryk; . jpUr; r p. kJiu kw; W k; gj;jphpf;iffisa[k; bfhz;l bghpa E}yfk; xd;Wk; ,’;Fghisa’; n fhl; i l Mfpa ,l’; f spy; fy; Y }hpfs; epWtg; gl;lJ/ ,Ugjhk; E}w;whz;oy; jkpH;ehL fy;tpepWtg;gl;ld/ tsh;rrpapy; ey;y Kd;ndw;wj;ijf; fz;lJ/ gs;spfs; kw;Wk; ; fy;Y}hpfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpj;jJ/~z; l h; FG (Hunter Commission ) 1882 Mk; Mz; Lmikf;fg;gl;l ~z;lh;FG fy;tp tsh;r;rpapy; xU 1935 Mk; Mz;L ,e;jpa murpay;Mait nkwbfhzlJ/ mjd; Kyk. Mukg epiyffytp ; ; ; : ; ; ; ; mikg ; g [ r ; r l ; l g ; g o fy ; t p khepy murh’ ; f j ; j plk ;mjpf mstpy; gwffzpffgglLtpllij fzLgpojjJ/ [ ; ; ; ; ; ; ; xg; g ilf; f g; g l; l J/ 1944?y; rh; $hd; rhh; $ z; l ; o d;,e;jpahtpy; kw;w gFjpfisg; nghy jkpH;ehl;od; Mnyhridg; go. 6 taJ Kjy; 14 taJ tiu cs;sfpuhkggFjpfspy; fytp gwffzpffgglljhy; Mukgffytp ; ; [ ; ; ; ; ; ; ; khzth;fSf;F ,ytrf; fl;lhaf;fy;tp tH’;fg;gl;lJ/kpFe;j ghjpg;g[f;Fs;shdJ/ Mfnt ~z;lh; FG fy;tpg; ,t;thwhf jkpH;ehl;oy; fy;tp gog;goahfbghWg;ig efuhl;rp kw;Wk; khtl;l ika’;fsplk; Kd;ndw;wkilaj; Jt’;fpaJ/gphpj;Jf;bfhLf;f rpghhpR bra;jJ/ nkiyehl;Lf;fy;tpapdhy; Vw;gl;l ed;ikfs; : 1890 Mk; Mz;L brd;id MSeh; fd;dpkhuhgpug[. fd;dpkhuh bghJ E}yfj; i j cUthf; f pdhh; / 1/ nkiyehl; L f; fy; t p kf; f spd; Kw; n ghf; F rpe; j idia tsh; j ; J rKjha kW kyh; r ; r pf; F tpj; j pl; l J/ ,Ugjhk; E}w; w hz; o d; rpwe; j jkpH;g;g[ytd; ghujp jd;Dila Kw;nghf;fhdf; fUj;Jf;fis btspapl;lhh;/ vy;nyhUf;Fk; fy;tp kw;Wk; rKjha ePjp fpilf;f ntz;Lk; vd;gJ ghujpahhpd; nehf;fkhFk;/ 2/ nkiyehl;Lf;fy;tp kf;fspilna njrpa tpHpggzhrrpia tshjjJ/ ; [ ; ; ; ; 3/ ntw;Wikapy; xw;Wik vd;w nfhl;ghL tsujbjhl’fpaJ/ gyntW gFjpapypUeJ kffs; ; ; ; ; ; xUtnuhL xUth; xU’;fpize;J bray;gl;ljhy; mz;zhkiy gy;fiyf;fHfk; njrpa ,affk; tsuj; bjhl’fpaJ/ ,J murpay; ; ; 1891 Mk; Mz;L brd;idapy; rl;lf; fy;Y}hp xw;Wikf;F tHp tFj;jJ/mikf;fg; gl;lJ/ 1929 Mk; Mz;L mz;zhkiyg; 4/ M’;fpnyah;fshy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l ,f;fy;tpgy;fiyf;fHfk; uh$h rh; mz;zhkiy brl;oahuhy;epWtg; gl;lJ/ ,g;gy;fiyf; fHfj;jpy; MH;fly; caphpay; KiwahdJ bjhHpy;fy;tpf;Fk;. bgz;fy;tpf;Fk;Jiw (Marine Biology) cl;gl gy Jiwfs; bjhl’;fg; gl;ld/ njitahd Kf;fpaj;Jtk; mspj;jJ/ 43 44

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