O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.

WATER ANALYSIS /Water quality testing p.k.k

parameters to analyze water quality
WATER ANALYSIS
WATER QUALITY
WATER ANALYSIS METHOD

  • Entre para ver os comentários

WATER ANALYSIS /Water quality testing p.k.k

  1. 1. Submitted by P.K.Kr M.Sc (environmental science and management)
  2. 2. WATER QUALITY TESTING? • solvent of life • Nearly all water in the world contains contaminants • The only way to ensure safety of your water supply is to have a periodic laboratory water analysis done
  3. 3. Determination of Water quality Physical characteristics Chemical characteristics Biological characteristics
  4. 4. WATER TESTING PARAMETERS ODOUR • Most organic and some inorganic chemicals contribute • odour Rotten egg, Musty, Chemical • Unobjectionable odour TEMPERATURE • Thermometer • 15⁰-25⁰C pH • natural water PH range of 4 to 9 • pH meter
  5. 5. WATER TESTING PARAMETERS • Total Solids • filtrable or non-filtrable residue remains • TDS + TSS TS • Total dissolved solids • TDS Meters • Range 1-20,000mg/lTDS • Total suspended solids • Filtration assembly • 1-10,000mg/l TSS
  6. 6. WATER TESTING PARAMETERS • Titratable bases carbonate, bicarbonate ,and hydroxide • contributions from borates, phosphates, silicates, or other bases • Titrimetric Method • Range -2-4,000mg/l Alkalinity • Capacity of water to precipitate soap • calcium and magnesium ions present • Titrimetric Method . • Range 2-2,000mg/l Hardness
  7. 7. WATER TESTING PARAMETERS • Calcium carbonate (calcite) and calcium-magnesium carbonate (dolomite). • Titrimetric Method • Range -1 to >500 mg/L Calcium • Titrimetric Method • Range – 2 – 10000mg/lChloride
  8. 8. WATER TESTING PARAMETERS (using Spectrophotometer ) Fluoride • High concentration – dental fluorosis • Less concentration - dental caries (> 0.8 mg/l ) • Range – 0.1 – 10mg/l • Zirconium colorimetric Method Phosphate • promotes growth micro-organisms • Stannous Chloride Method • Range – 0.01 – 100mg/l
  9. 9. WATER TESTING PARAMETERS (using Spectrophotometer ) • occur in natural waters • Sulphates cause scaling, odour and corrosion due to H2S formation • Spectrophotometric Method • Range – 2 – 2000mg/l Sulphate • Growth stimulation of plants cause objectionable eutrophication • Blue baby disease in infants • Spectrophotometric method • Range – 1 – 100mg/l Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3 -)
  10. 10. WATER TESTING PARAMETERS OIL & GREASE -Cause 23-28 % of (SSO) - Insoluble in water & Harm to aquatic life -Partition Gravimetric Method - Range – 1-25mg/l
  11. 11. DISSOLVED OXYGEN (DO) • Amount of oxygen dissolved in 1L of water at given time and temperature • Key test in water pollution • Range - fresh water 6-12mg/l - river water 10-15 mg/l - sea water(surface) 8- 12 mg/l - sea water (bottom) ~0.5-6 mg/l
  12. 12. DISSOLVED OXYGEN (DO) • DO in Drinking water - Desirable limit 15 mg/l - Permissible limit >6 mg/l • Winkler Method • Calculation – DO mg/l = 4*X X = Volume of ThioSulphate Solution used for titration
  13. 13. BOD • BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) : determine the relative oxygen requirements • Aerobic oxidation of decomposable organic matter • Controlled conditions of temperature and incubation period • Finding out the level of pollution
  14. 14. BOD • Titrimetric method • Instrument - BOD Incubator • Calculation – BOD(mg/l) = D1-D5 D1 = DO of diluted sample immediately after preparation, mg/L, D5 = DO of diluted sample after 5 d incubation at 20°C, mg/L
  15. 15. BOD Quality class Designated best use BOD value A Drinking water source without conventional treatment but with chlorination 2 or less B Drinking water source with conventional treatment 3 or less Table : Guideline BOD values for classification of raw untreated water (Source : CPCB, July 2001)
  16. 16. Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD) • Definition ...... • Important for measuring organic strength • Amount of a specified oxidant that reacts with the sample under controlled conditions
  17. 17. Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD) • Digestion/Titrimetric method • Instrument – COD Digester • Range – 0 -200mg/l • Calculation – COD mg/l = (A-B)N x 8000/V A = Volume in ml of FAS Solution used in the titration in the blank B = Volume in ml of FAS Solution used in the titration with the sample N = Normality of standard FAS Solution V = Volume in ml of the sample taken for the test (FAS - ferrous ammonium sulphate)
  18. 18. Indian Standards For Drinking Water S.No Parameters Desirable limit Permissible limit 1 Odour Unobjectionable Unobjectionable 2 PH 6.5 – 8.5 No relaxation 3 Temperature[23.1] 15⁰C 23⁰C 4 TDS (mg/l) 500 2000 5 Alkalinity (mg/l) 200 600 6 Hardness ( mg/l) 200 600 7 Calcium (mg/l) 75 200 8 Chloride ( mg/l) 250 1 000 9 Fluoride (mg/l) 1.0 1.5 10 Phosphate - - 11 Sulphate (mg/l) 200 400 12 Nitrate Nitrogen 45 No relaxation 13 Nitrite Nitrogen - - 14 Aluminum 0.03 mg/l 0.2 mg/l 15 Oil & Grease - - 16 Dissolved Oxygen(DO) (mg/l) 15 >6
  19. 19. Equipments Used Water Analysis SPECTROPHOTOMETER PH /TDS METER
  20. 20. Equipments Used Water Analysis COD DIGESTER UNIT TSS FILTER ASSEMBLY
  21. 21. SUBMIT TED TO AMITY SCHOOL OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE (ASEES) AUH

×