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Introduction to medical education

This interesting, illustrative presentation is a preliminary guide for preparing medical & paramedical teachers for effective teaching and enable them to conduct different courses for medical & paramedical students

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Introduction to medical education

  1. 1. “The human brain is a wonderful organism. It works from the day we are born until the moment we stand up to speak in public…….
  2. 2. LECTURE WITHOUT PREPARATION Mumbling Trembling Fumbling Scrambling Crumbling
  3. 3. COURSE PREPAREDNESS DR. V. SATHYANARAYANAN M.B.B.S., M.D., ACME PROFESSOR OF PHARMACOLOGY &CORE MEMBER OF MEU SRM MCH & RC, CHENNAI, INDIA
  4. 4. WHAT DO STUDENTS NEED TO KNOW
  5. 5. Student Responsibility
  6. 6. High School College "teacher-supported” “ student-directed” Teachers: *Summarize main ideas *Outline notes *Provide study guides *Formulate questions. Successful students: *Use effective reading skills *Take notes and study them *Create their own study guides and references *Create questions and answers.
  7. 7. PROVIDE ACADEMIC SKILLS
  8. 8. The key/generic academic skills learning to learn (e.g. reflecting upon learning, independent learning), 01 working with others (in seminars, in pair/group-work, etc.), 02 managing tasks and solving problems (e.g. time management) 03 communicating effectively both orally (presentations, seminars, etc.) 04
  9. 9. Why are academic skills important? Academic skills encourage students to become more efficient learners They give students the confidence to participate fully invaluable outside of the classroom and after they graduate These skills, which include critical thinking and note-taking, are also highly transferable, and therefore vital for success in any career.
  10. 10. HOW TO COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY ?
  11. 11. How do you go about Establishing Rapport? You need Self-Confidence You must Understand People You must be Enthusiastic You must make Eye Contact You must be Interested in them
  12. 12. Active Listening … Allows you to make sure you hear the words and understand the meaning behind the words Goal: go beyond listening to understanding
  13. 13. Active Listening (4 Steps) Listen 01 Question 02 Reflect- Paraphrase 03 Agree 04
  14. 14. 5 academic skills to prepare your students Academic Discourse – skills for communicating effectively in debates, discussions and presentations Academic Text Strategies – skills for analyzing academic texts in greater detail Academic Strategies – skills for understanding and responding critically to lectures Composition – skills for effective academic writing Comprehension – skills for understanding academic texts and lectures
  15. 15. STUDY SKILLS Active listening, reading comprehension, notetaking, stress management, time management, testing taking, and memorization
  16. 16. WHAT TEACHERS NEED TO KNOW
  17. 17. CHIEF GOAL OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESS Goal of Education is to bring desirable change of Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes In the learner
  18. 18. DOMAINS OF LEARNING
  19. 19. What are Learning Styles? Information enters your brain three main ways: sight, hearing and touch, which one you use the most is called your Learning Style Visual Learners learn by sight Auditory Learners learn by hearing Tactile Learners (kinesthetic) learn by touch
  20. 20. Learning Styles—an Overview Visual – 40% of population. Auditory – 30% of population. Kinesthetic – 30% of population. ◦ NOTE: 100% of population uses a combination of all three styles listed above. Most often one type is dominant.
  21. 21. EFFECTIVE TEACHING IS AN ART AND SCIENCE REQUIRES 4 THINGS
  22. 22. 1. Expertise at the subject
  23. 23. 2.Grasp of the language
  24. 24. 3. Skills to communicate
  25. 25. 4th important thing required is APPROPRIATE TEACHING AID
  26. 26. NEEDS OF THE STUDENTS
  27. 27. Maslow’s hierarchy of learning needs (1943).
  28. 28. PLANNING THE CURRICULUM / SYLLABUS
  29. 29. ESTABLISHING LEARNING GOALS
  30. 30. Student Learning Outcomes Curriculum Teaching & Learning Assessment Evaluation ± change/refine
  31. 31. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
  32. 32. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR A PARTICULAR SESSION 1. LESSON PLANNING 2. SET INDUCTION 3. PRESENTATION 4. STIMULUS VARIATION 5. PROPER USE OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS 6. REINFORCEMENT 7. QUESTIONING 8. SILENCE AND NONVERBAL CUES (BODY LANGUAGE) 9. CLOSURE
  33. 33. INTERACTIVE TEACHING
  34. 34. INCORPORATING MYSTERY / CREATIVITY
  35. 35. ADVANTAGES OF POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS Can keep the attention on the topic Slide lay out, colour, font can be modified and updated Text, graphics, photographs, figures, X- rays, charts, diagrams can all be presented Animation can be given for cues or emphasis Video clips can be incorporated
  36. 36. PRINCIPLES OF STUDENT ASSESSMENT
  37. 37. We should assess what we teach and teach what we assess.
  38. 38. "Assessment Drives Learning" George E. Miller (1919-1998)
  39. 39. Crucial Distinction • Assessment OF Learning (Summative): • How much have students learned as of • at a particular point in time? Assessment FOR Learning (Formative): • How can we use assessment to help students learn more?
  40. 40. “When the cook tastes the soup, that’s formative assessment;
  41. 41. when the customer tastes the soup, that’s summative assessment.” (Brookhart, 1999)
  42. 42. What Should We Assess? Effective Education Knowledge Attitude Skills
  43. 43. Knowledge and Performance Miller GE. The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance. Academic Medicine (Supplement) 1990; 65: S63-S7. Knows Shows how Knows how Does Professional authenticity Cognition Performance
  44. 44. *
  45. 45. Critical questions in assessment 1. WHY are we doing the assessment? 2. WHAT are we assessing? 3. HOW are we assessing it? 4. HOW WELL is the assessment working?
  46. 46. 1. WHY are we doing the assessment? What Is its purpose?  Formative?  Summative?
  47. 47. 2. WHAT are we testing?  Elements of competence Knowledge  factual  applied: clinical reasoning Skills  communication  clinical Attitudes  professional behaviour Tomorrow’s Doctors, GMC 2003
  48. 48. 3. How are we doing the assessment? Test formats Knows Shows how Knows how Does Knows Factual tests: SBAs ( MCQs ) Knows how (Clinical) Context based tests: SBAs, EMQs, SAQ Shows how Performance assessment in vitro: OSCEs Does Performance assessment in vivo: Video, WBA eg mini-CEX, DOPs
  49. 49. 4. HOW WELL is the assessment working? Evaluation of assessment systems •Is it valid? •Is it reliable? •Is it doing what it is supposed to be doing? • To answer these questions, we have to consider the characteristics of assessment instruments
  50. 50. Principles of Assessment There is no perfect assessment: compromise is always required The compromise depends on the context of the assessment The Quality of assessments is a matter of the integral assessment programme, rather than of the individual instruments
  51. 51. TEACHING THE TEACHERS
  52. 52. PEDAGOGY vs ANDRAGOGY Pedagogy is the science and art of education Andragogy is the antonym of pedagogy. In pedagogy, the concern is with transmitting the content, while in andragogy, the concern is with facilitating the acquisition of the content.
  53. 53. Adult Learners… •learn best when they feel a “need to know” •learn best in a non-threatening & flexible learning environment •have life experiences & skills to draw upon •require a variety of teaching methods to meet learning needs •respond to learning when they feel acknowledged & respected
  54. 54. What is the purpose? Increase student participation Increase student engagement Increase student retention More student ownership in course Less lecturing by instructor More exciting classroom experience Higher level thinking
  55. 55. Active Techniques Think-pair-share (pair-share) Role playing, simulations Muddiest point/clearest point Group quizzing Generate lists Cooperative learning Minute papers and writing assignments PBL and case studies Concept maps
  56. 56. TEACHING TOOLS
  57. 57. AUDIOVISUAL AIDS 1. The writing board 2. The flip chart 3. Transparencies on Overhead Projector 4. The Slide Projector 5. The Power Point Presentation 6. The video on LCD panel 7. Virtual Reality Shows
  58. 58. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE USE (BLACKBOARD) Availability of material Good illumination Plan the presentation Ensure clarity Arrange the material in sequence Emphasize key points Position of teacher Rubbing the board
  59. 59. PREPARING TRANSPARENCIES Thicker sheets are more durable Can be displayed in black and white or colour Computer printing affords clarity of text Limit each visual to one main idea Use 6 -7 lines, 6 words in each line Use large lettering ( 5 mm tall ) Printed text is easier to read
  60. 60. GUIDELINES FOR USING OHP place the projector 2 meters from the screen Rotate nob to FAN position pre-heating for ½ min then to desired intensity of light Move lens mirror frame to project ( 45 degrees inclined ) To focus, move the mirror assembly up or down
  61. 61. GUIDELINES FOR USING OHP Place the transparency Turn the projector on Bring the knob to FAN position Uncover information gradually by a white sheet Use a pointer or pencil directly on the transparency to focus attention on a specific area Notes on a piece of paper can be clipped to the mount Face the participants while talking Turn the projector off before removing transparency Before switching off, ensure cool air comes out
  62. 62. GUIDELINES Present in 4-5 bulleted points in 6 lines, 6 words in each line ( 18 – 24 font size) Contrast the text Highlight vital points Use laser beam not arm “ go slow”, don’t rush
  63. 63. GUIDELINES Preview the video CD Arrange the room so that all can see Prepare the participants State the session objectives Provide an overview Focus attention to look for what Discuss the video after the show Review the main points
  64. 64. SUMMARY
  65. 65. Defective Teaching Learning Process Dr G L Gulhane 142
  66. 66. Reduce the burden of present students
  67. 67. REINFORCE LEARNING
  68. 68. SUPPLEMENT LEARNING
  69. 69. *

This interesting, illustrative presentation is a preliminary guide for preparing medical & paramedical teachers for effective teaching and enable them to conduct different courses for medical & paramedical students

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