O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.

Choosing the research topic to framing the question why what how satya pptxx

Difficulty in choosing research topic in medical research ?!!
Difficulty in the framing the right research question ??!!

This ppt is for you!!!...

It deals with the basic questions WHY, WHAT, HOW in medical research, in choosing topic, framing right research question and
methods to test the effectiveness and validity of the question..
its an eyeopener for the beginners of medical research particularly for those involved in PG thesis..

Audiolivros relacionados

Gratuito durante 30 dias do Scribd

Ver tudo
  • Seja o primeiro a comentar

Choosing the research topic to framing the question why what how satya pptxx

  1. 1. Even thousands of miles of journey starts with a single step…….. lao tzu a chinese mystic
  2. 2. *
  3. 3. *
  4. 4. *
  5. 5. *
  6. 6. *
  7. 7. EBM Research Evidence Patients’ Preferences Clinical Expertise Clinical Circumstances Haynes et al. BMJ 2002;324:1350 24
  8. 8. 5As of EBM Act Ask Apply Acquire Appraise 27
  9. 9. Doing Research Methodology Research EBM Using 28
  10. 10. *
  11. 11. *
  12. 12. *
  13. 13. *
  14. 14. *
  15. 15. *Development of scientific attitude Evidence based medicine *Learning research methodology *Curricular requirement *Academic requirement ( publication ) *
  17. 17. *
  18. 18. *
  19. 19. *
  20. 20. * PROF. Dr. V. Sathyanarayanan Department of Pharmacology, SRM MCH & RC M.D
  21. 21. *To apply the processes involved in choosing the appropriate research topic, problem, idea *To formulate a good research question *To assess *To develop the research question effectively a hypothesis, aims, objectives for testing the research question *To be inspired to participate actively in planning and doing good research projects *SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  22. 22. *It Is a systematic and organised scientific process *To find answers to questions
  23. 23. * for example, want to buy a car in a proper way, *we collect information * about models and dealers, *analyse it, * then try to reach a “scientific” conclusion on which car to buy *
  24. 24. *
  25. 25. TYPES OF RESEARCH Research Quantitative Descriptive Case report Case series Analytical Crosssectional Observational Case-Control @bajammal MixedMethods Qualitative Experimental Cohort Study
  26. 26. *First and foremost, it must be interesting *You should learn something of value to you *It should be productive *
  27. 27. *Proper planning *Accuracy in data collection *Proper unbiased interpretation. *
  28. 28. *
  29. 29. Research Problem Research Design Data Collection Data Analysis Research Dissemination @bajammal Methodological, Ethical & Statistical Considerations at Each Stage Research Question
  30. 30. *
  31. 31. *An old late scientist went home for a weekend on Friday evening as usual *He left his lab without cleaning and left a window open *He arrived after vacation before his lab attender *He saw some culture plates were infected with mold *He developed a curiosity *He didn’t clean it immediately * He found bacteria had grown all over the plate, except in an area where mold had formed. *
  32. 32. *YEAR : 1928 *PLACE : St Mary’s Hospital Medical School *RESEARCH SCHOLAR : Alexander Fleming *DISCOVERY: penicillin *SIGNIFICANCE : world's first antibiotic, leading to revolutionize all medicine *AS A RESULT: Mrs. Fleming hiring a maid. *
  33. 33. * Key feature of success in research *
  34. 34. *as you go about your daily clinical practice * observe with curiosity and enquire….. * Sometimes it is the result of having a disagreem ent with a colleague *Define the problem well *
  35. 35. *Simple curiosity + enquiry *“Why are things done this way?” *“I wonder what would happen if…..?” *“What characteristics are associated with….?” *“What is the effect of…….on patient outcomes?” *
  36. 36. *Etiology and *Elucidate mechanisms *Pathophysiology *Diagnosis *Treatment *prognosis *Diagnostic approaches *Therapeutic interventions *Research into the prognostic pathogenesis * factors
  37. 37. *From standard text books *Use article databases to scan current magazine, journal or newspaper articles on the topic * Use Web search engines to find Web sites on the topic *
  38. 38. *
  39. 39. *The man with a new idea is a crank until the idea succeeds….. *
  40. 40. *
  41. 41. *
  42. 42. *
  43. 43. *Keep it manageable. *Be aware if a topic is very recent *discuss your topic with your guide *
  44. 44. *
  45. 45. * Look for words that best describe your topic *Keep a list of these words to use you search * later as
  46. 46. *Concluding sections in the critically examined individual studies, systematic review *Remaining gaps in literature *Further define the research question *MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCEDIRECT, * MEDSCAPE *
  47. 47. *
  48. 48. * To steal from one is plagiarism.to steal from many is research… ---Steven Right
  49. 49. * A Welsh hamlet was ground zero for a test on a pill to fight angina. *Unfortunately for the afflicted, it had little success against the disease. *Though it didn't work, *the men taking part in the study refused to give up their medicine. *
  50. 50. *YEAR : 1992 *INTERVENTIONAL DRUG : Viagra *INVENTORS : Scientists at Pfizer *The scientists switched gears and *marketed the drug, Viagra, *for a very different purpose *
  51. 51. *You will often begin with a word, *develop a more focused interest in an aspect of something relating to that word, * then begin to have questions about the topic. *Significance of the research question must be identified *
  52. 52. * Trying to turn a statement into a real question *
  53. 53. *The uncertainty that you want to resolve * Defines the area of interest to be addressed in your study * Forms the foundation of your study * Must be specified before you begin your Analysis *
  54. 54. *Key preliminary step of the research process *Presents the idea that is to be examined in the study *Foundation of the research study *IS THE MOST DIFFICULT *AND CRITICAL PART of the study *
  55. 55. * Literature * * * * Your previous research Mentor Conferences Patients *
  56. 56. * * * * * Do a thorough search of medical literature Identify the edge of knowledge related to that question Identify the gaps in knowledge Be certain that your question has not already been answered AND that filling the gaps is important *
  57. 57. * Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought………. ----Albert Szent-Gyorgyi
  58. 58. *Possibly the most difficult part * is to come up with a reasonable question *and focus it to the point *where it can be answered *
  59. 59. * defining the goal of your research, * identifying objectives, * refining and refining it some more and * refining it even more until * you have a neat and simple question * that is feasible to answer. *
  60. 60. *QUESTION 1 :Should women take hormones to prevent bone loss? * QUESTION 2 : Can a vegetarian diet reverse cardiovascular disease? *Often begins with a general concern…. *
  61. 61. *Must be narrowed to something measurable and researchable * QUESTION 1 : Is taking estrogen associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis in women 60+? * QUESTION 2 : Does a plant-based diet reduce serum cholesterol levels in patients with cardiovascular disease? *
  62. 62. *QUESTION 1 :Should women take hormones to prevent bone loss? * REFINED QUESTION 1 : Does taking estrogen after menopause reduce the likelihood of bone density loss in women over 60 years of age, compared to women not taking estrogen? *
  63. 63. *QUESTION 2 : Can a vegetarian diet reverse cardiovascular disease? *REFINED Research question: Does an entirely plant- based vegan diet reduce blood serum cholesterol levels in men over 50 years old with lipid levels compared to a meat- based diet? *
  64. 64. *What is the population I want to study? *How do I describe it – age, sex, background? *What is the intervention I want to study? *Do I have all the details of the intervention? *What is the outcome I want to achieve? *How am I going to measure the outcome? *
  65. 65. *PICO *P ‐ Population *I ‐ Intervention *C ‐ Comparison *O – Outcome Measured *
  66. 66. *You are in OP department ( medicine/ENT/Pediatrics ) *A patient with otitis media comes *Your Asst.Prof prescribes amoxycillin *A scientific curiosity comes to your mind *A research question IS AMOXYCILLIN EFFECTIVE FOR OTITIS MEDIA ? knocks your mind.. *You want to proceed….. HOW ? *
  67. 67. *You are sitting in Medicine/Surgery/Orthopedics/OG OP *A regular patient comes with pain on his back visits *You feel pity on his pain *you want to find out “What is the best treatment of back pain?” *How to proceed…..?!! *
  68. 68. * What is the best treatment of back pain? 155
  69. 69. Is this a good question? • In adult patients younger than 50 years old with acute low back pain (< 6 weeks), does bedrest reduce the risk of recurrence of pain within one year compared with physiotherapy? • • • • P: Adult patients <50yr with acute LBP I: Bed rest C: Physiotherapy O: Recurrence of pain within one year 157
  70. 70. *F – Feasible *I – Interesting *N – Novel *E – Ethical *R ‐ Relevant *
  71. 71. * * * * Adequate number of subjects Adequate technical expertise Affordable in time and money Manageable in scope *
  72. 72. *To you *To the guide *To the peers *Editors of the journals *Reviewers *
  73. 73. *Newer topic or idea *Not duplicated *Provides new findings *Confirms or refutes previous findings * extends previous findings *
  74. 74. *Should follow existing guidelines like * ICMR code of Ethics in biomedical research *Clinical trials should follow  ICH –GCP guidelines *Get the IEC approval *
  75. 75. *Addresses certain community needs *Addresses issues that will have an impact for policy making *Future research directions *
  76. 76. knowledge * To scientific * * To clinical and health policy To future research directions *
  77. 77. *
  78. 78. *Consult with mentors * review the literature again.. *
  79. 79. *Consult with IRB/IEC * revise research question *
  80. 80. *Collaborate with experts in those areas *
  81. 81. *Question too broad = Reduce variables of interest * narrow focus * Not enough subjects available = Expand inclusion criteria; lengthen time frame; modify exclusion criteria * Too expensive = Consider less costly study designs; fewer subjects; shorter duration; fewer follow-ups *
  82. 82. *
  83. 83. * A research scientist made 10,000 unsuccessful attempts at an invention *One day, an assistant asked him why he didn’t give up…. * After all, he failed over 10 times…. thousand * the researcher replied that he had not failed once… *
  84. 84. *Thomas Edison held a world record of 1093 patents for inventions including *Telegraphs, *electric lights, electric lamps, light bulbs, *telephones, vacuum pumps, storage batteries, *phonographs, transmitters …..etc *
  85. 85. Questions to ask yourself Is the question asked in a single sentence? Is the question simple? P Does the question specify the population? I Does the question state the intervention? C Is there a comparison group? O Is there a clear outcome in the question? O Has the measure for the outcome been specified? F Is the question FEASIBLE? I Is it INTERESTING ? to you? to others? N Is it NOVEL? ‐‐ new? Innovative? E ETHICAL? ‐‐ is there a state of equipoise between comp eting therapies? Will your investigations  harm? R RELEVANT? To policy makers? To patients? Yes No Vague
  86. 86. *Can be considered as intelligent hunches or predictions *that help to answer a research question *Provide a bridge between theory and real world *
  87. 87. * single statement that contains sufficient information that it can be tested using *statistical methodology
  88. 88. * are procedures for making ration al decisions about *what is real and what is opinion *
  89. 89. Hypothesis Testing (α & β errors) Null Hypothesis: No association between predictor & outcome Results in the Study Sample Reject null hypothesis Fail to reject null hypothesis @bajammal Truth in the Population Association Between Predictor & Outcome No Association Between Predictor & Outcome Correct Type I error (α) Type II error (β) Correct
  90. 90. *This may be the answer to your research question *and/or a way to clearly state the purpose of your research. *Your thesis statement will usually be one or two sentences *that states precisely what is to be answered, proven *
  91. 91. * stated in broad terms * and covers the topic that interests you *
  92. 92. * more focused * There could be more than one *but all would contribute to the overall goal *Define it *
  93. 93. Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) Drug A @bajammal Outcomes Drug B Patients with MI F/U F/U Outcomes RANDOM
  94. 94. *Designing a protocol *
  95. 95. *
  96. 96. *CHOOSE MENTOR..
  97. 97. *
  99. 99. *Focus on the mentor
  100. 100. *it is common to modify your topic *Be aware of the depth of coverage *and the due date. *Your guide will provide *
  101. 101. * DON’T Study something in which your mentor does not have expertise
  104. 104. *STAY FOCUSED
  105. 105. * Hulley SB, Cummings SR. “Designing Clinical Research: An epidemiological approach. * Centre for Health Evidence: “Users’ Guides to Evidence Based Practice” * http://www.cche.net/usersguides/start.asp#Questions * Guidelines for graduate students: “Choosing and refining a research topic” http://www.fiu.edu/~kowert/topic.html * How to write Specific Aims: http://www.theresearchassistant.com/tutorial/4‐4.asp *
  106. 106. * you can write the one page description required for the assi gnment. * should write the goal of the research, * what the general objective of the research is, * try to formulate specific aims which can be your refined que stion(s) and then, * if you have a hypothesis that can be tested, write that down. * summarize your thinking on the feasibility * and general plans you have for conducting the research. *
  107. 107. *
  108. 108. * What is the sample size you are looking for ? * would you have access to the population you wanted? * Would the selected population agree to participate? * Would you be able to obtain the drug samples? * Think through what budget you might need? * Will the ethics committee approve of your project? * How novel are the questions? ( not repeated ) *

    Seja o primeiro a comentar

    Entre para ver os comentários


    Jul. 27, 2014
  • DrSabahImranFCPSComm

    Dec. 1, 2016
  • shiellantombikayisempana

    Jun. 19, 2017
  • vrkarthik

    Oct. 8, 2018
  • GautamAdhikary2

    Dec. 23, 2019
  • MohammadNasir39

    Jun. 24, 2020
  • FatimaTuzZahra3

    Jul. 30, 2020

Difficulty in choosing research topic in medical research ?!! Difficulty in the framing the right research question ??!! This ppt is for you!!!... It deals with the basic questions WHY, WHAT, HOW in medical research, in choosing topic, framing right research question and methods to test the effectiveness and validity of the question.. its an eyeopener for the beginners of medical research particularly for those involved in PG thesis.. enjoy...


Vistos totais


No Slideshare


De incorporações


Número de incorporações