Job analysis refers to the process of collecting information about a
job. It involves collection of information that should include
knowledge, skill and ability (KSA) the incumbent should possess to
discharge a job effectively. Such information helps in the preparation
of job description and job specification.
JOB ANALYSIS: IMPORTANCE
Legal support for hiring choices
Defines obligations and responsibilities
Identifies reporting relationships
Basis for determining relative worth of jobs
WHEN JOB ANALYSIS IS USED?
1. Most commonly for personnel selection
2. For recruitment in providing realistic job data
3. For legal compliance
4. For performance appraisal
5. To identify job similarity for easy transfer
6. Job evaluation
7. Job redesign and re-engineering
Sequential Process of Job analysis Job Description and Job
1. Select jobs for analysis
2. Gather information,
3. Job description
4. Job specification
Interview Questionnaire Checklists
A logical sequence to job analysis is job design which is nothing but
organisation of tasks, duties, and responsibilities into a unit of work.
Job design affects employee productivity, motivation and satisfaction.
Hence, care must be exercised in designing jobs.
Factors affect job
Manpower Planning is a process of identifying the anticipated needs
of the numbers and specialities of the required employees in advance
so that appropriate selection can be made at appropriate time.
The sources of man-power have to be identified strategically through
the recruitment and selection procedure, selected people have to be
trained before their appropriate placement in the organizational set-
EMPLOYEE TURNOVER RATE
Employee Turn Over Rate =
𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒
The Average working force during this year is 1,000 workers.
During the year 150 workers left the company for different reasons.
Employee turnover rate =
× 100 = 15%
1.1. Analysis of the
1.2. Analysis of the manpower
1.3. Forecasting supply of
1.5. Matching the
demand and supply
1.6. Monitoring and control
4. Forecasting the
demand for manpower
ANALYSIS OF THE
The decision about the type of business activity, scale of operations,
adoption a technology, location of unit, growth phase, the style and
philosophy of management, etc. are the guiding factors in the
The management styles like autocratic or democratic style defines the
specific organizational behaviour. Similarly, the management
philosophy about the concern for the people rather than the concern
for production is also considered.
“A good management strives to integrate the personal objectives of
the human with the organizational objectives, the specifications about
the organizational objectives is essential in man power planning
ANALYSIS OF MANPOWER
The prime objective is to relate the future human resource needs to
the future enterprise needs so as to maximize the future returns on
the investments in the human resources.
As the main objective is to ensure the adequate supply of man power,
as and when required, the human resources department of the
organization, the functions of sourcing, recruitment and selection,
training and development and the final placement are the important
considerations which arise at the manpower planning stage.
FORECASTING SUPPLY OF
Unlike machines and material resources, human resources are not
available in a localized manner and in a finished form.
The company has to make deliberate efforts to identify the proper
sources of the manpower.
It is relatively difficult to identify the managerial and skilled
manpower sources as compared to the operative and unskilled
The sources of man power keeps on increasing over a period of time.
The company should develop appropriate inventory of various
sources of manpower like academic, technical and professional
institutes which meets the tailor-made needs of the business.
FORECASTING THE DEMAND
FOR THE MANPOWER
The demand forecasting for manpower in any organization is a
function of many variables taking into account host of external and
The external factors include the nature and the intensity of
competition, the prevailing economic ad political climate,
advancement of technology, government policies, etc.
The internal factors include the internal movements caused by
retirement, resignation, death, transfer, promotion, discharge, etc.
The other factors to be considered are growth in the form of
expansion, diversification, restructuring, change in leadership, etc.
The need for human resource can be planned in a systematic manner based
on retirement period and expansion plans, while the changes caused by the
resignation, accidental deaths, etc. should be estimated on some scientific
Various methods are used for estimating the manpower requirements.
Some popular methods are,
1. Work study based on planned capacity utilization
2. Time series analysis and development of trends
3. Statistical analysis with the help of defining co-relations among relevant variables
4. Delphi method using the pooling of judgement of the experts.
MATCHING THE DEMAND AND
The man power planning process provides the estimated future needs
of the manpower. While the actual requirement of a company may be
different than the estimated supply due uncertainties.
Such situation results into either surplus or shortages of the
The shortage is managed through the action plan to recruit, select
and train the required skill staff before their placement.
For the surplus staff, schemes like voluntary retirement is offered by
the company to the exiting staff.
Reducing the number of employees is know as “Downsizing”.
MONITORING AND CONTROL
As manpower planning is a planning exercise about the manpower
requirements in anticipation of demand and the demand of employee
needs are uncertain caused by the uncertain business environment, it
is likely that the gap may arise between the frecasted supply and
The mismatch between the two results into surplus or shortage
The situation has to be continuously monitored, measured and
required rectifications in form of timely recruitment, selection,
training, layoff, etc. are to be taken.
Recruitment is a search for appropriate human resource required by a
company from time to time.
It is a process of locating, identifying and attracting capable
It is a continue process arising when an organization is established,
occurs during the operating stage as well as at time of expansion,
diversification and restructuring of the company.
For getting appropriate human resource, first the skill and the
competence required for the job must be identified.
SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
•Backlog of past applications
•Private consultancy agencies
•Unsolicited direct Applications
•Word of mouth
Where positions are few and are required to be filled-up promptly,
then recruitment is made from the existing employees in the form of
promotions and transfers.
Promotions, refers to upgrading of an employee to a higher position
carrying higher status, pay and responsibilities.
Transfer refers to shifting an employee from one job to another
without any change in position, pay, status and responsibilities.
The retired employees willing to work in the company are contacted.
Another source is retrenchment caused by earlier closures or
BACKLOG OF PAST
The list of applicants who have shown interest in the company but
who were not selected for some reasons are approached.
Such applicants are refered and are advised to face the recruitment
process once again if they are interested.
Applications are invited in a open forum through the advertisement in
the general or technical newspaper or magazines.
However it should be cleared about requirements of job profile to
eliminate unwanted applicants.
This is a popular form of recruitment and even newspaper agencies
provide a separate supplement for employment advertisement.
In the modern business world many private professional agencies
provide consultancy services for effective recruitment.
A consulting agency is commonly utilized to fin specialized executive
It either helps the HR Department by supplementing the efforts or
works on its behalf.
In such situations, the agency must understand and estimate
correctly the client’s requirement and the context of the client’s past
experiences and future projections.
Many companies find it easier to pick up the required man power
directly from the profession training institutes to fill up the positions.
In fact these institutions have provided an excellent recruitment
source to the firms who are capable of offering an attractive
compensation and a future to the new talents.
The government has opened employment exchanges at the district
The unemployed people-educated and uneducated, are required to
register their names at the respective employment exchanges.
The industry people are required to notify the vacancies to the
Employment exchanges maintain a live register of unemployed
Raiding refers to snatching away the competent executives of rival
organizations through offering attractive salary and better terms of
It is also known as “Porching”.
Raiding is considered unethical practice in terms of business ethics.
One deviation from raiding is offering attractive salary and favourable
terms of employment to retirement nearing persons, who generally
leave the organization early and joins other companies.
Some middle employment stage employees do also resort to
voluntary retirement scheme (VRS) and join another organization.
WORD OF MOUTH
It is a common experience that one can get a better person compared
to a person selected through a rigorous recruitment process from the
recommendations of some side experts.
The company passes a message to some known executives of own or
another companies may be rival or other, about the probable
vacancies and requesting them to recommend some appropriate
candidates to apply for the same.
It provides fresh as well as experienced persons This source is
economical and objective in nature.
3. EMPLOYMENT TESTS &
Selection is the process of differentiating between applicants in order
to identify and hire those with a greater likelihood of success in a job.
Selection is significant as it has its impact on work performance and
Selection is generally done by the
HR department often in consultation
with the line managers.
Selection is an eight-step process, commencing from preliminary
interview and ending with evaluation and control.
In our country, selection of blue-collared and white-collared
employees is unsystematic. However, in the case of managerial
personnel, the process is fairly systematic.
After an employee is hired, he or she needs to be placed in his or her