It is the Application of
physical science and
Teaching in which the
teaching process is
so as to educate
maximum pupil in
minimum time and at
Implies use of equipments such as cinema, gramophone, radio, tape
recorder, projector, CCTV, video tape thus making the teaching
more and more effective.
There are three aspects of human knowledge which
Preservation, Transmission, Development. All these
three require the use of machines.
Hardware approach is a ‘Product oriented approach’
as it utilises the products of software technology such
as teaching strategies , teaching learning material etc
for its functioning.
It has its origin in Behavioural sciences
Is Logical in nature
It makes use of psychological principles of
Teaching and learning for production and
utilization of software techniques and materials in
form of learning material
This approach to educational technology was
originated from efforts of B . F. Skinner, Gagne,
Norman . A . Crowder.
According to Silverman Educational technology
is ‘Constructive Educational Technology’ as
both software and hardware approaches are so
interlinked that they cannot be separated from
Software approach is Process Oriented
Approach which utilises the knowledge of
psychology of learning to produce learning
materials for betterment of teaching learning
It is also termed as Management Technology
It acts as a link between software and hardware
It provides a scientific basis for solving
educational administrative probelems associated
with administration, management, commerce,
industry and army.
It is thus a systematic way of designing an
effective and economical educational system.
Steps in System Approach
Formulation of objectives
Deciding appropriate media to achieve them
To define learner characteristics and
To select appropriate methods for effective
To select appropriate learning experience
To assign appropriate personal roles
Implementation of programme
Evaluation of outcomes.
Role of Technologies
Advancement in education
Motivates to learn