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Netflix OSS and HATEOAS deployed on production - JavaLand

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At a major telco company in Belgium we have designed and implemented a cutting-edge architecture using microservices and hypermedia (REST level 3/hateoas) for the entire customer- and business-facing Web portfolio.

Throughout this session you will learn what the microservices hype is all about, including its benefits and pitfalls based on our experiences of running microservices (including the Netflix OSS) in production at a major company in Belgium.

To manage hundreds of microservices you need to apply certain patterns such as circuit breakers, gateways, service registries and so on. You will learn how these patterns work, how they are applied through the Netflix stack and how easy it is to use them in your architecture through code examples and demos.

The contracts between these microservices should be well defined and loosely coupled. Using hypermedia as the engine of application state (hateoas), we can benefit from independent evolution and decoupled implementation. How we can implement these using Spring Hateoas, correctly document using Spring REST Docs, integrate with the HAL browser and version using JsonViews will become clear in the second part of this session.

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Netflix OSS and HATEOAS deployed on production - JavaLand

  1. 1. @andreasevers Netflix OSS and HATEOAS deployed on production
  2. 2. @andreasevers WHOAMI •  Work for Ordina Belgium •  Open source enthusiast •  Spring contributor •  Speaker •  Technical lead & coding architect @ Proximus •  Marathon runner
  3. 3. @andreasevers
  4. 4. @andreasevers Benefits •  Small, easy to understand code base •  Easy to scale •  Easy to throw away •  Easy to deploy •  Ability to use a different technology stack •  Smaller teams •  System resilience
  5. 5. @andreasevers Pitfalls “If you can't build a monolith, what makes you think microservices are the answer?” Simon Brown
  6. 6. @andreasevers Pitfalls •  Failing to adopt a contract-first approach •  Assuming the wrong communication protocol •  Introducing a shared domain model •  Defining inappropriate service boundaries •  Neglecting DevOps and testing concerns •  Disregarding the human factor •  Operational complexity not under control •  Failing to embrace eventual consistency
  7. 7. @andreasevers Netflix OSS
  8. 8. @andreasevers Gateway
  9. 9. @andreasevers Gateway – What’s the use?
  10. 10. @andreasevers Gateway µS µS µS µS µSµS
  11. 11. @andreasevers
  12. 12. @andreasevers
  13. 13. @andreasevers
  14. 14. @andreasevers “API Gateways are fast becoming the Enterprise Service Bus of the microservices era” Sam Newman Gateway
  15. 15. @andreasevers Service Registry Service Registry loyalty user billing billing’ loyalty user user origin Origin 1 Origin 2billing loyalty origin
  16. 16. @andreasevers Service Registry Service Registry loyalty user billing billing’ loyalty user billing user origin Origin 1 Origin 2 loyalty origin
  17. 17. @andreasevers billing Service Registry Service Registry loyalty billing billing’ loyalty user user origin loyalty origin Origin 1 user billing’ billing Origin 2
  18. 18. @andreasevers Service Registry Service Registry loyalty user user origin loyalty origin Origin 1billing Origin 2 Service Registry loyalty user user origin loyalty origin Origin 1billing Origin 2 loyalty Cached Registry
  19. 19. @andreasevers Service Registry
  20. 20. @andreasevers
  21. 21. @andreasevers
  22. 22. @andreasevers Circuit Breaker BackendµS
  23. 23. @andreasevers Circuit Breaker BackendµS
  24. 24. @andreasevers Circuit Breaker µS stream information Backend
  25. 25. @andreasevers Circuit Breaker - Dashboard
  26. 26. @andreasevers Circuit Breaker - Dashboard
  27. 27. @andreasevers Config µS customer µS user µS loyalty Config Server
  28. 28. @andreasevers Metrics & Admin
  29. 29. @andreasevers Metrics & Admin
  30. 30. @andreasevers Metrics & Admin
  31. 31. @andreasevers Metrics & Admin
  32. 32. @andreasevers Metrics & Admin
  33. 33. @andreasevers Metrics & Admin
  34. 34. @andreasevers Metrics & Admin
  35. 35. @andreasevers Metrics & Admin
  36. 36. @andreasevers Contracts & loose coupling We can achieve this by using Hypermedia
  37. 37. @andreasevers Hypermedia Hypermedia As The Engine Of Application State
  38. 38. @andreasevers Hypermedia h8ps://vimeo.com/20781278 Sub-constraints: •  IdenDficaDon of resources (URIs) •  ManipulaDon via representaDons (request & response bodies) •  Self-descripDve messages (headers) •  Hypermedia as the engine of applicaDon state HTTP as applica+on protocol
  39. 39. @andreasevers Hypermedia h8ps://vimeo.com/20781278 Sub-constraints: •  IdenDficaDon of resources (URIs) •  ManipulaDon via representaDons (request & response bodies) •  Self-descripDve messages (headers) •  Hypermedia as the engine of applicaDon state If you don’t do this Then you don’t adhere to this And you are missing out on these
  40. 40. @andreasevers Concretely?
  41. 41. @andreasevers Hateoas In Action
  42. 42. @andreasevers
  43. 43. @andreasevers
  44. 44. @andreasevers
  45. 45. @andreasevers
  46. 46. @andreasevers
  47. 47. @andreasevers Hateoas in action How would you explain to a client to get to the Nerd in the Basement painting? A.  Go to Amazon.com, in the categories go to fine arts, follow paintings, more specifically oil paintings, and click on the one with the title Nerd in the Basement B.  Type http://www.amazon.com/Nerd-in-the-Basement/dp/ B00L849CSS/ref=lp_6685279011_1_2? s=art&ie=UTF8&qid=1431864368&sr=1-2 in your browser
  48. 48. @andreasevers Hateoas in action HTML is a hypermedia format <a> is a link with method GET <form> is a link with method POST (or other if specified) The browser understands this syntax and shows a link or a form if the server response contains these tags
  49. 49. @andreasevers Hateoas Requirements Communication between Client and Server depends on: •  Where does the client have to start? •  Root API •  In regular websites: the homepage •  Where am I? •  How do I interpret the current API response? •  In regular websites: the syntax of HTML is interpreted by the browser •  Where can I go? •  What does a link or form with a certain relation or class mean? •  In regular websites: link with relation “stylesheet”, form with action “login”
  50. 50. @andreasevers Hateoas in action Amazon.com (and any other website in the whole world wide web) applies Hateoas. Why wouldn’t your API do the same?
  51. 51. @andreasevers Hateoas Benefit: Runtime action discovery GET /account/12345 HTTP/1.1 HTTP/1.1 200 OK <?xml version="1.0"?> <account> <account_number>12345</account_number> <balance currency="usd">100.00</balance> <link rel="deposit" href="/account/12345/deposit" /> <link rel="withdraw" href="/account/12345/withdraw" /> <link rel="transfer" href="/account/12345/transfer" /> <link rel="close" href="/account/12345/close" /> </account>
  52. 52. @andreasevers Hateoas Benefit: Runtime operation discovery GET /account/12345 HTTP/1.1 HTTP/1.1 200 OK <?xml version="1.0"?> <account> <account_number>12345</account_number> <balance currency="usd">-25.00</balance> <link rel="deposit" href="/account/12345/ deposit" /> </account>
  53. 53. @andreasevers Hateoas Concern: Scope In case of one or two clients built in the same team, it is arguable whether auto-discoverability is really a necessity
  54. 54. @andreasevers Hateoas Benefit: Non-structural Changes “categories/1/oil-paintings/1234” auto-discoverable through HATEOAS as “categories[1].oil-paintings[1234]” will not break when 1234 as id is changed to “basementNerd”
  55. 55. @andreasevers Hateoas Benefit: Changing the URI of a resource “categories/1/oil-paitings/1234” being returned as part as the response body of “categories/1” will not break the client
  56. 56. @andreasevers Content Types •  JSON •  NOT hypermedia-aware by default •  Needs a fixed format to support links and forms •  Many formats available •  XHTML •  IS hypermedia-aware by default •  Harder to process XHTML responses using javascript (xpath is required) •  The API responses can also be read by a human as regular HTML pages •  SVG, Atom, HTML •  Similar as XHTML but not preferred
  57. 57. @andreasevers JSON Formats •  JSON-LD •  Augmenting existing APIs without introducing breaking changes •  Needs HYDRA as a vocabulary for communicating operations •  Decoupling of API serialization format & communication format •  HAL •  Minimal, light weight syntax and semantics •  Offers most of the benefits of using a hypermedia type •  Easy to convert existing API to HATEOAS •  Chosen and supported by Spring •  No support for specifying operations •  Collection+JSON •  Can list queries that your collection supports and templates that clients can use to alter your collection •  Great for publishing user editable data •  SIREN •  Represents generic classes of items •  Supports operations •  Concept of classes, bringing a sense of type information to your API responses
  58. 58. @andreasevers Considerations Maturity Client implementation Caching Versioning
  59. 59. @andreasevers h8ps://speakerdeck.com/ankinson/documenDng-resTul-apis-webinar
  60. 60. @andreasevers What should you document Resources Links Cross-cutting concerns
  61. 61. @andreasevers What shouldn’t you document URIs
  62. 62. @andreasevers What does it look like when you get it wrong?
  63. 63. @andreasevers What does it look like when you get it right?
  64. 64. @andreasevers Swagger Doesn’t support Hypermedia
  65. 65. @andreasevers Swagger It’s URI centric
  66. 66. @andreasevers Swagger It’s leaky
  67. 67. @andreasevers Swagger It’s huge
  68. 68. @andreasevers Best practices for documentation Write as much as possible in a format which is designed for writing Don’t use the implementation to provide the documentation Provide some guarantees that the documentation is accurate h8ps://github.com/spring-projects/spring-restdocs
  69. 69. @andreasevers Thank you for your attention @andreasevers https://github.com/oraj-360 http://registry.oraj360.cfapps.io/ https://netflix.github.io/ http://projects.spring.io/spring-cloud/ http://projects.spring.io/spring-hateoas/ https://github.com/spring-projects/spring-restdocs

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