2. • Hawthorne effect is the
phenomenon in which
subjects in behavioral studies
change their performance in
response to being observed.
• Hawthorne effect is the
result of an experiments
called Hawthorne Studies
conducted by Elton Mayo to
study the effects of physical
conditions on productivity.
3. • The Hawthorne experiments conducted between 1924 and 1932
at Western Electric Company's Hawthorne Works in Chicago.
• The Hawthorne plant of Western Electric manufactured
telephones and telephone equipment
• Originally, the studies is designed to determine the relationship
between lighting and productivity the initial tests were sponsored
by the National Research Council (NRC).
• Scientist included in this research team were Elton Mayo
(Psychologist), Roethlisberger and Whilehead (Sociologists) and
William Dickson (company representative).
• Three departments of Hawthorne factory were involved in this
research are relay assembling, coil winding, and inspection
Hawthorne Factory in Chicago
4. • There are 4 separate experiments in
Hawthorne Studies :
1. Illumination Experiments (1924-1927)
2. Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments
3. Experiments in Interviewing Workers (1928-
4. Bank Wiring Room Experiments (1931-1932)
5. • The purpose is to find out the effect of
illumination/lighting on worker productivity.
• Research is conducted in 2 separated group, one group
is given more lighting and the other group is with low
• hypothesis : higher illumination, productivity will
• The result : productivity of both group are increased
• Other physical changes are also made such as
maintaining clean work stations, clearing floors of
obstacles, and even relocating workstations , and
always resulted in increased productivity
• the workers are doing their best because their being
6. • Research is conducted by choosing two women as test subjects
and asked them to choose four other workers to join the test
• Research has some variables :
• changing the pay rules so that the group was paid for overall
group production, not individual production
• giving two 5-minute breaks (Productivity increased), but
when they received six 5-minute rests (reduced output)
• providing food during the breaks.
• shortening the day by 30 minutes (output went up);
shortening it more (output per hour went up, but overall
output decreased); returning to the first condition (where
7. • The result : productivity is increased.
• Researchers concluded that the workers worked
harder because they thought that they were being
monitored individually and the more personal
atmosphere in the group is also influencing the high
8. • The workers were interviewed in attempt to
validate the Hawthorne Studies.
• The participants were asked about supervisory
practices and employee morale.
• The results proved that communication in an
organization creates a positive attitude in the
9. Bank Wiring Room Experiments (1931-1932)
• These experiments were conducted
to find out the impact of small
groups on the individuals.
• In this experiment, a group of 14
male workers were formed into a
small work group, hourly wage for
each worker was fixed on the basis of
average output of each worker.
• Hypotesis : highly efficient workers
would bring pressure on less
efficient workers to increase output
and take advantage of group
• Result : the workers established their
own standard of output to protect
10. • Physical environment of work place is not important
• The supervision in management is necessery.
• A factory is not only a techno-economic unit, but
also a social unit
• Condition in the group is influencing the work
• Motivation is play great role in management
• Job satisfaction and output depended more on
cooperation and a feeling of worth than on physical
11. • Hawthorne studies, is giving the interpretation of
group behavior, were the basis for the school of
• The human relations management theory is a
researched belief that people desire to be part of
a supportive team that facilitates development
and growth. Therefore, if employees receive
special attention and are encouraged to
participate, they perceive their work has
significance, and they are motivated to be more
productive, resulting in high quality work.
12. • The finest contribution of the Hawthorne
Studies is that it laid a foundation of
understanding people's social and
psychological behaviour at the work place
• Management should recognise that people
are essentially social beings and not merely