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From Creation to
OER Journeys from Production to Adoption
Leila Salisbury, Director, University Press of Kentucky
Tony Sanfilippo, Director, Ohio State University Press
Teri Oaks Gallaway, Interim Executive Director, LOUIS
Kelly Broughton, Assistant Dean for Research and Education Services, Ohio University
Moderator: Gwen Evans, Executive Director, OhioLINK
Affordable Learning in OhioLINK
O Governor’s announcement in January 2017
O OhioLINK joined Open Textbook Network as a system in 2017
and will hold regional workshops during Fall. OSU, CSU, MU,
YSU are already individual members.
O In 2011, OhioLINK had a $750,000 Educause Next Generation
Learning Challenge Grant for OER materials:
O Current library-led initiatives written up here:
• 500,000 FTE, 93 institutions
• One commercial publisher title list in Ohio: 6360 titles in 100+ subjects
• Open Textbook Library titles: 300
• OpenStax titles: 21 titles by 2017
• OpenSuny titles: 17
The Problem is Scale
Open Educational Resources & Scholarly Communication Coordinator
University of Oklahoma, Bizzell Memorial Library
email communication on OTN listserv Feb 13 2017
quote used by permission
Many people, myself included, are surprised at the number of
faculty members who want to create their own textbooks.
While this is a very worthy and lofty goal, I might caution
against it early on in your program.
While this is a very worthy and lofty goal, I might cautionWhile this is a very worthy and lofty goal, I might cautionWhile this is a very worthy and lofty goal, I might caution
against it early on in your program. Creating textbooksagainst it early on in your program.against it early on in your program.against it early on in your program.
takes significantly more
against it early on in your program.against it early on in your program. Creating textbooksCreating textbooksCreating textbooksagainst it early on in your program.
takes significantly more support, which may prove totakes significantly moretakes significantly moretakes significantly moretakes significantly moretakes significantly moretakes significantly moretakes significantly moretakes significantly more support, which may prove tosupport, which may prove tosupport, which may prove tosupport, which may prove tosupport, which may prove to
be challenging if you don’t have
support, which may prove tosupport, which may prove tosupport, which may prove tosupport, which may prove tosupport, which may prove tosupport, which may prove tosupport, which may prove tosupport, which may prove tosupport, which may prove tosupport, which may prove tosupport, which may prove tosupport, which may prove to
be challenging if you don’t havebe challenging if you don’t have staff and/or studentsbe challenging if you don’t havebe challenging if you don’t havebe challenging if you don’t havebe challenging if you don’t have
to help. Of course, there are lots of outside resources (e.g.
Rebus Community, this network, etc.) willing to help. But I still
think it’s tougher than many might imagine. I would certainly
encourage faculty members (and you) to thoroughly consider
what’s involved in creating a textbook from scratch. You can
take a look at our new support model for this year’s grant
cycle, and you’ll see that a lot of our time/energy could be
spent on the “creation” category if we took on a number of
spent on the “creation” category if we took on a number ofspent on the “creation” category if we took on a number ofspent on the “creation” category if we took on a number ofspent on the “creation” category if we took on a number of
these projects. As it is, I don’t expect we will take onthese projects.these projects.
more than 1
these projects.these projects.
more than 1more than 1-
Jen WallerJen Waller
As it is, I don’t expect we will take onAs it is, I don’t expect we will take onAs it is, I don’t expect we will take onthese projects. As it is, I don’t expect we will take on
more than 1more than 1-2 this year.
Support offered via University
of Oklahoma Libraries
Production: The (non-profit) publisher
Leila Salisbury, Director, University Press of Kentucky
Tony Sanfilippo, Director, Ohio State University Press
O In terms of producing content made for academia,
what are the biggest hidden costs that you think
OER at scale needs to address? What economic
realities in publishing have to be addressed?
O What is the role of the publisher in managing
rights and permissions for published content?
What implications are there for producers of OER
FACULTY, LIBRARIES, PUBLISHERS, AND STUDENTS WORKING TOGETHER
The problem of textbooks
Students respond to the high price of textbooks by not purchasing,
sharing, illegally downloading, etc. Studies indicate that students
not using course texts perform less successfully, which leads to
issues with student retention
There may not be a textbook suitable for certain specialized
Open or public domain readings may exist, but students want to
be able to use to same edition or to have access to ancillary
Perceived challenges of OER
Lack of time: With busy teaching loads, there’s little time to
investigate or create custom course textbooks
Lack of funds: Licensing material may take money; are there
Lack of quality materials: Are quality materials or peer-reviewed
textbooks even available?
Lack of student engagement: students want traditional textbooks,
ancillary materials, and print they can annotate and highlight
OER solutions are a click away
The University of Kentucky Libraries has an extensive guide to OER
resources, including links to open textbooks, videos of faculty
discussing how they implemented OERs, and an explanation of
available grant funding for open textbooks:
Solutions can also be a combination of faculty-created material
and published material that the UK Libraries have already
acquired or licensed; this makes better use of library-owned
resources and expedites the creation of course materials (solves
some permissions issues)
A case study: Robin DeRosa at
Plymouth State University (NH)
English professor Robin DeRosa realized her students were paying
more than $85/semester for mostly public domain materials
She had no funds and was teaching a 4/4 load, but she
successfully put together a student-led textbook using the
Pressbooks platform (https://pressbooks.com/)
She trained her students to find open/public domain versions of
the desired readings for the course
How she improved the textbook
Students missed the ancillary materials. So students from the class built
out those resources, each according to his/her interests and strengths:
some made videos, some created maps, some wrote section
DeRosa overlaid the Hypothesis app onto the web-based book to
allow social sharing/reading and annotation; during the semester,
students created more than 10K annotations
High level of student buy-in: they liked building something that would
be of use to others (the book is now in use at several institutions);
students listed as authors; students liked the multimedia aspect of the
Things to consider
Metadata! This is sometimes a problem for OERs. Using a properly created
Creative Commons license can help alleviate this as the process does
include metadata. Publisher involvement (the presence of a POD print
edition) may significantly enhance discoverability
Hosting & discoverability: Faculty need a place to lodge their OER
materials and to have the metadata that will make the resource
discoverable to others. Libraries can work with faculty to make the
resource more discoverable through linking to other OER websites
Who’s responsible? The scholarship is in the purview of the faculty, and the
rest of the process should be in collaboration with the library so the
material is properly licensed, hosted, and sharable
Peer review: Is this managed by a library or publisher? Who is the project
manager overseeing this part of the process?
Rights: Third party content, especially for an open product, is expensive; is
this the responsibility of the publisher or a library?
Who pays for the value added? Copyediting, proofreading, and
typesetting are often done by freelancers and have tangible costs. What
happens when an OER needs to be updated (and reedited, reflowed,
The possible domination of the reduced textbook market by commercial
academic publishers (they have a large sales force and wide distribution
networks); see the Indiana University case of campus-level licensing
How to improve faculty acceptance
and creation of OERs
DeRosa finds that only 20-30% of faculty may know anything about OERs,
so education is the first big hurdle
Traditional OER talking points have centered around textbook costs, and
this is a tough sell. Talk about PEDAGOGY instead.
With a pedagogical approach, students are doing the bulk of the work.
They are engaged in applied learning, and she found this encouraged a
critical thinking approach in the classroom
Cultivate faculty champions. Faculty champions/coalitions of the willing
have higher conversion rates than relying on rhetoric about student
Further reading and resources
Robin DeRosa talks about the process of creating her open
Learn about Open Access, Open Education, and Open Data,
develop critical skills, and catalyze action toward a more open
system of research and education: http://www.opencon2016.org/
Other LibGuides: http://www.library.umass.edu/services/teaching-
Full spectrum publisher
Monographs (open access after five years)
International fiction bestseller, …And the Ladies of the Club
National Book Critic Circle award for poetry, Saving Lives
First published by the Linguistics Department in the 1970s
In 1991, began working with the Press for the 5th edition
Initially created for use exclusively by OSU students.
Revenue currently accounts for ~1/3 of our budget
Their share of the revenue pays for a full time faculty member
12th edition published in May, 2016
Ebook released in September, 2016
Never available as an ebook previously
On pirate sites within two weeks
ebook files, $720
LF 10 LF 11 LF 12
Original pub date May 2007 June 2011 July 2016
Printing (original) $88,548.00 $129,618.76 $69,117.63
Printing (correction) $42,152.84
Printing (reprint) $14,885.00*March, 2010) $5,351.34*POD
included design $17,256.65 $2,889.00 *value of in-house hours
Copyediting in-house in-house $2,516.50
Cover Design $700.00 $733.00
eBook Conversion $719.15
Index (A) $2,945.00 $4,599.00 $4,207.00
TOTAL $126,767.65 $199,678.59 $80,182.28
Copies Printed (original) 40,000 44,304 25,644
Copies Printed (reprint) 5,002 410
Date Price Incr Incr
Language Files (10th ed.) 2007 $40.95 $42.95 7/08 $44.95 6/10
Language Files (11th ed.) 2011 $49.95 $59.95 2/12
Language Files (12th ed.) 2016 $74.95(ebook $44.95)
Language Files, 12th edition (OSU Press)
2106, 8½ x 11, 765 pages, $74.95, $44.95 ebook
Linguistics: An Intro to Language &Communication, 6th edition (MIT Press)
2010, 7 x 10, 648 pages, $60, Not available as an ebook
Linguistics: An Introduction, 2nd edition (Bloomsbury)
2015, 7.5 x 9.8, 498 pages, $39.95, $24.99 ebook
An Introduction to Language and Linguistics 2nd Edition (Cambridge)
2014, 7.4 x 9.7, 574 pages, $67.89, $42 ebook
2016, 8½ x 11, 538 page printable download, Free
created with Word.
Digital use is much more expensive, sometimes impossible.
Some institutions put a limit on e-usage, either expiration dates or iteration limits.
Cost is two to four times as expensive, if both print and digital are included.
Ebook edition challenges
10th edition files were unusable for 11th because it was outsourced on proprietary
11th edition files were reusable but required massive amounts of work for the creation of
the 12th edition.
12th edition created with xml so could be repurposed as an ebook.
All images needed to be rechecked for digital rights. Most university rights holders
extended to ebook, 19 rights holders didn’t.Those images were created.
Permissioning process took six months and three people.
January 18th, 2017, Pearson’s stock plunged 28%. It is now half of what it was in
2013. Courseware represent a little over 1/3 of their total business, with
assessments and other services making up the rest.
In a 2013 presentaion at the George Washington Conference on Ethics and
Publishing, Dr. Al Greco, Professor of Marketing at Fordham who specializes in the
textbook market, predicted that the market for print textbooks would go from a $4
Billion market in 2012 to $173 million by 2017, about a 95% decline.
Is the market already adapting?
Amazon’s Rental and Used marketplace
Amazon has been selling more HE textbooks than all physical stores combined since 2012
Inclusive access model
Georgetown University Press
Foreign Languages, especially Arabic
Penn State Press
Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth
The Holy Teaching of Vimalakīrti: A Mahāyāna Scripture Trans. Robert A. F.Thurman
University of Chicago
Manual of Style
Oxford University Press
Recent author phone calls
University of Toronto Press
Of the 17 subject catalogs they offer, 12 feature only textbooks.
Teri Oaks Gallaway
LOUIS: The Louisiana Library Network
Interim Executive Director
Library role in student success
Statewide Faculty Survey
What level of priority would you place on reducing the cost
of textbooks for your courses?
N=495 98% Somewhat of a priority or greater
“The maximum is $100
per course in a semester
ideally. For books that
span two semesters,
$200 is acceptable.
students are under great
particularly at the
smaller public schools.
Reducing the cost below
$100 is really (n)eeded.”
Promote and expose Open Educational Resources (OER)
Support Curriculum Driven Acquisitions (CDA) of eBooks
Less than 5% who
know what they
are oppose n=290
Are you aware of any colleagues that have implemented an OA e-
textbook or OER in their courses?
N=494 ; 12.1 % yes
Have you received requests from your administration, department,
or students to integrate OA or OER resources into your curriculum?
N=493 ; 8.3% yes
Are you aware of any support on your campus to identify or
integrate OA or OER resources into courses that you teach?
N=487 ; 11.5% yes
Education, Class, Workshop or Training 35.65%
List of Resources; Discovery Improvements 23.26%
Relevant content 11.78%
Assurance of Quality 10.88%
Administrative Support or Directive 7.25%
Supplemental Teaching Resources 6.95%
Demonstrate Ease of Use 4.83%
Evidence of Peer Usage/Support 4.23%
Course Release/Time 3.93%
Collaborating with faculty on the selection of OER or purchase of materials within library
collections that are appropriate for course adoptions
Curating localized collections of Open Education Resources and Open Access scholarly content
Designing and supporting discovery systems and institutional repositories that enable seamless
location and delivery of educational content
Delivering educational programming to faculty and educational technology professionals on
tenants of scholarly licensing including Creative Commons principles
Developing professional competencies for new roles as advocates for affordability and leaders
on their campuses
Advocating for institutional policies that support Open Access, Open Education, and Open Data
High rate of return for small investments
Requires institutional change and support
Faculty Stipends for Adopters
Focus on Textbooks
Open Textbook Network (OTN) Program – 9 cohorts, 58 participants,
18 workshops, 120+ stipends, ~40% adoption rate.
OTN Align-a-thon – common course articulations
Leverage existing technology and human infrastructure – addressing “if
I build it problem…”
Support content expert groups – English, Math, Science, History
Community of practice
Small changes = big successes, set realistic expectations
Academic Freedom – rewards vs. mandates
Prioritize people over technology
Stable funding or business model
Creation ($$$$$) over adoption ($)
Creation to Classroom: an
OER Journey from Production
Ohio University Libraries
26 instructors saved
Biggest Faculty Hurdles
• TIME / PRIORITIES / INERTIA
• Lack of knowledge about what is
• Lack of supplemental material
integration (problem sets, quizzes, etc.)
O Leila Salisbury email@example.com
O Tony Sanfilippo firstname.lastname@example.org
O Teri Oaks Gallaway email@example.com
O Kelly Broughton firstname.lastname@example.org
O Gwen Evans email@example.com