THE SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH    LITERATURE MAPPING PROJECTLOOKING BACKAT A DECADEOF PCST RESEARCH, 2000-            ...
PCST at an Inflection Point• Has PCST matured into an independent field of  enquiry?• Is there an articulated research age...
UPDATINGTHE TRADITIONAL LITERATURE REVIEW USING           DATA VISUALIZATION SOFTWARE• Rapid growth of science communicati...
OBJECTIVESOF THE SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH          LITERATURE MAPPING PROJECT • Use data visualization software to m...
Two PHASESOF PROJECT METHODOLOGYConstructthe Research Literature        Analyzethedatausing IN-SPIREDatabase:             ...
CONSTRUCTINGTHE RESEARCH LITERATUREON               SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONDefining the parameters of the             Inclus...
SELECTIONOF GOOGLE SCHOLARAS SEARCH ENGINEStrengths of Google Scholar:          Limitations of Google Scholar:•   Covers a...
SELECTIONOF GOOGLE SCHOLAR SEARCH TERMSSearch terms were generated           Final Google Scholar Search Termsfrom three s...
STEPSIN THE DATA CLEANING PROCESS (ENDNOTE)Once the citation data were imported into EndNote, the followingprocess was beg...
OVERVIEW: CHARACTERISTICSOF LITERATURE• 1,237 papers from 2000-2009;• 2,462 authors (mean of about two authors per paper);...
SCI-COMM RESEARCH ARTICLES, 2000-2009                                             (n=1,237)                           Numb...
TOP10 JOURNALS PUBLISHING SCIENCE COMMUNICATION                RESEARCH, 2000-2009  Public Understanding of Science       ...
TOP 11 MOST FREQUENT AUTHORS / CO-AUTHORSOF SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH PAPERS, 2000-2009          Number of Papers as ...
NUMBEROF SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH                        PUBLICATIONSBY COUNTRY, 2000-2009                          ...
TOP FIVE COUNTRIES PUBLISHING        SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH, 2000-2009  United States                             ...
TOP5 MOST FREQUENT STUDY METHODSIN PUBLISHED     SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH, 2000-2009    Surveys or Questionnaires   ...
SELECTED TOPICSIN SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH           Frequency of Publications on Selected Topics, 2000-2009        ...
MAPPINGOFTHE SCIENCE COMMUNICATION                  RESEARCH LITERATURE, 2000-2009•   IN-SPIREuses a mathematical clusteri...
GALAXY VIEW, FULL SCI-COMM DATASET             (n=1,237)                                     19
HEAT MAP VIEW, FULL SCI-COMM DATASET               (n=1,237)                                       20
SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH LITERATURE     FIVE-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2000-2004                  (n=400)                ...
SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH LITERATURE      FIVE-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2005-2009                  (n=837)               ...
TWO-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2000-2001             (n=124)                                    23
TWO-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2002-2003             (n=184)                                    24
TWO-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2004-2005             (n=207)                                    25
TWO-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2006-2007             (n=296)                                    26
TWO-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2008-2009             (n=426)                                    27
HEAT MAP VIEW,UNITED STATES STUDIES, 2000-2009             (n=427)                                   28
HEAT MAP VIEW,UNITED KINGDOM STUDIES, 2000-2009             (n=270)                                    29
HEAT MAP VIEW,CANADIAN STUDIES, 2000-2009           (n=77)                              30
HEAT MAP VIEW,AUSTRALIAN STUDIES, 2000-2009            (n=51)                                31
HEAT MAP VIEW,NETHERLANDS STUDIES, 2000-2009            (n=35)                                 32
ARTICLESON SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH TOPICS     PUBLISHEDIN TWO PRIMARY JOURNALS, 2000-2009                          ...
RESEARCH METHODS USEDIN ARTICLES PUBLISHEDIN TWO    PRIMARY SCIENCE COMMUNICATION JOURNALS,                               ...
THREE CASE STUDIESOF SCIENCE COMMUNICATION                  RESEARCH TOPICSHow are different Science Communication researc...
FREQUENCYOF PUBLISHED ARTICLESBY YEAR                   FOR THREE RESEARCH CASES30                                        ...
HEAT MAP VIEWPUBLIC ENGAGEMENT ARTICLES, 2000-2009               (n=100)                                        37
HEAT MAP VIEW,CLIMATE CHANGE ARTICLES, 2000-2009              (n=93)                                     38
HEAT MAP VIEW:ARTICLESON GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS, 2000-2009                     (n=83)                                 ...
RESEARCH METHODSIN SCIENCE COMMUNICATION       RESEARCH STUDIESBY TIME PERIOD, 2000-200930%                     27% 27%   ...
PROPORTIONSOF PUBLISHED STUDIESONPUBLIC ENGAGEMENT USING VARIOUS RESEARCH METHODS                  BY TIME PERIOD50%45%   ...
PROPORTIONSOF PUBLISHED STUDIESON  CLIMATE CHANGE USING VARIOUS RESEARCH METHODS                  BY TIME PERIOD90%       ...
PROPORTIONSOF PUBLISHED STUDIESONGENETICALLY      MODIFIED FOODSUSING VARIOUS RESEARCH METHODS                      BY TIM...
PUBLIC ENGAGEMENTHEAT MAP VIEW, 2000-2004         (n=17)                           44
PUBLIC ENGAGEMENTHEAT MAP VIEW, 2005-2009         (n=83)                           45
CLIMATE CHANGEHEAT MAP VIEW, 2000-2004         (n=21)                           46
CLIMATE CHANGEHEAT MAP VIEW, 2005-2009         (n=72)                           47
GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS HEAT MAP VIEW, 2000-2004          (n=27)                             48
GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS HEAT MAP VIEW, 2005-2009          (n=56)                             49
Ramifications• What do these data say about us as a research  community?• What do these data say about us as a  publishing...
What do these data say about us as a        research community?• That we are generally more closely aligned  with science/...
What do these data say about us as a        publishing community?• We favor publications in “gray lit” rather than  peer-r...
What do these data say about who     sets the agenda for PCST research?• Seems primarily driven by “utilitarian”  approach...
AcknowledgmentsMargaret Ames, Karl PoonaiNCI Office of Science Planning and AssessmentJack Scott, Margaret BlasinksyThe Ma...
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Snapshot of research trends in PCST that Rick Borchelt presented at the conference in Firenze on April 20, 2012. Office of Public Affairs and Research Communication, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health

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  • In many ways,
  • One way to gauge the strength of an academic field is by analysis of its research publications. We’ve spent the last six months or so reviewing the PCST literature field for the decade 2000-2009 for clues about its state and evolution.
  • Remember that these are in English
  • Note that these are not exclusive. Now I know that many of you in this room are currently probably working on a survey, questionnaire, or content analysis – but really, what are we learning from these?
  • Again, not mutually exclusive
  • Note here that generic topics – risk comm, science comm – generate high peaks, as does newspaper coverage/PUS. Note that topic-dependent peaks are short and broad on the left side of the screen.
  • Note that we are currently very “bi-polar” – large peaks in newspaper coverage, small but consistent peaks for the disciplines
  • US is far and away more about risk communication and newspaper coverage, with climate change, BT and genetics the topical areas. Note how small the television blip is, ditto GMOs and scientific controversies.
  • Note heavy preponderance of PUS vis a vis coverage/newspapers but also emerging large peaks on discipline specific issues. Vaccination, nano, climate change, and GMO/food safety were emerging, but look at the peak on food safety and emerging infectious diseases.
  • Again, all about newspaper coverage, espbse/infectious diseases and genetics (see left peak). This is Genome Canada $$ being poured in, presumably.
  • All about newspaper coverage, esp genetics/BT. Fair amount in museums/PUS work. Note spike on public engagement.
  • PUS appears more qualitative, Scicomm more quantitative
  • There’s a reason these don’t sum to 100 percent. In the 2000-2004 cohort, it’s more than 100% because several methods were used at once. In the latter cohort, suggests other methodologies are in use.
  • Refer back to pubs numbers in 10 ten
  • In our world, it’s all about clinical research, not basic research. You can’t build a robust science on clinical research only
  • Firenze phd slides

    1. 1. THE SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH LITERATURE MAPPING PROJECTLOOKING BACKAT A DECADEOF PCST RESEARCH, 2000- 2009 Rick Borchelt National Cancer Institute, US National Institutes of Health rick.borchelt@nih.gov
    2. 2. PCST at an Inflection Point• Has PCST matured into an independent field of enquiry?• Is there an articulated research agenda with commonly agreed provocative questions to drive research?• Who sets/controls the PCST research agenda?3/28/2012 2
    3. 3. UPDATINGTHE TRADITIONAL LITERATURE REVIEW USING DATA VISUALIZATION SOFTWARE• Rapid growth of science communication research over the past ten years;• Need to understand what has been accomplished and where future research should head;• Traditional literature reviews seek to identify important patterns in research—research fronts, emerging issues;• ―Visual representations of data take advantage of the unique ability of visual perception to detect meaningful patterns that might otherwise remain hidden.‖ (Few, 2007) 3
    4. 4. OBJECTIVESOF THE SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH LITERATURE MAPPING PROJECT • Use data visualization software to map the landscape of recent science communication research (2000- 2009); • Identify the active countries, major methodologies, and research topical fronts during the past decade; • Lay the foundation for a research agenda for the next decade of science communications research 4
    5. 5. Two PHASESOF PROJECT METHODOLOGYConstructthe Research Literature Analyzethedatausing IN-SPIREDatabase: data visualization software• Define the parameters of the •Upload EndNote data into literature review (dates, inclusion IN-SPIRE and exclusion criteria); • Data refinement in IN-SPIRE; and• Select the search engine; • Use of IN-SPIRE analytic tools• Select the search terms; (Galaxy View, Heat Map, Time, Correlation)• Import citation data into EndNote; and• Clean the citation data. 5
    6. 6. CONSTRUCTINGTHE RESEARCH LITERATUREON SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONDefining the parameters of the Inclusion / Exclusion Criteriareview:Focus on reports of original science Included: Journal articles, historicalcommunication research that articles, evaluation studies, meta- analyses and systematic reviews. – Were published in peer-reviewed scientific journals; – Were available in English language; Excluded: Abstracts, bibliographies, – Were published between 2000 and 2009; books, commentaries, conference or symposia proceedings, editorials, – Excluded research on formal science education and teaching; and essays, introductory articles, letters to editor, narrative reviews, – Excluded research on health responses and rejoinders, reports, communication. and narrative literature reviews. 6
    7. 7. SELECTIONOF GOOGLE SCHOLARAS SEARCH ENGINEStrengths of Google Scholar: Limitations of Google Scholar:• Covers a wide range of social • Absence of a controlled search science, biomedical and natural vocabulary; science journals and sources; • Cannot restrict output to peer-• Convenience (speed, ease of reviewed journal articles; use, free); • Cannot view more than the first• Generates many results; and 1,000 results (―hits‖); • Duplicate citations must be• Can easily import citation removed manually from information into bibliographic successive searches; database (EndNote). • Unknown scope of coverage. 7
    8. 8. SELECTIONOF GOOGLE SCHOLAR SEARCH TERMSSearch terms were generated Final Google Scholar Search Termsfrom three sources: Science / Technology Communication Public Understanding of Science /• The Science Communication Technologyproject team at the National Public Engagement /ParticipationCancer Institute; Science / Technology Coverage in: mass media; print media; newspapers; television;• Members of the PCST Scientific film or moviesCommittee; and Science or Scientific Literacy Science Journalism• Several terms suggested byBurns, O’Connor and Stocklmayer Risk Communication(2003) in their article on definingscience communication research. Risk Perception Science / Technology and Culture 8
    9. 9. STEPSIN THE DATA CLEANING PROCESS (ENDNOTE)Once the citation data were imported into EndNote, the followingprocess was begun: Review Key Create Key Revise availableWords for each Words if none Key Words and record were encoded either delete or re-code as (n=1,237) (~70 % of records) needed Review final list Inspect final Review authors of Key WordsEndNote dataset in each record (n=670) and prior to import and standardize reduce to a into IN-SPIRE names manageable set (n=199) 9
    10. 10. OVERVIEW: CHARACTERISTICSOF LITERATURE• 1,237 papers from 2000-2009;• 2,462 authors (mean of about two authors per paper);• 471 Journals; and• 199 Key Words; 10
    11. 11. SCI-COMM RESEARCH ARTICLES, 2000-2009 (n=1,237) Number of Articles Published by Year250 230 196200 148 148150 112 115100 92 72 62 62 50 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 More than twice as many articles were published between 2005-2009 as between 2000-2004 11
    12. 12. TOP10 JOURNALS PUBLISHING SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH, 2000-2009 Public Understanding of Science 179 Science Communication 135 Risk Analysis 55 Journal of Risk Research 33Journal of Science Communication 29 New Genetics and Society 26 Health, Risk, and Society 24 Global Environmental Change 14 British Food Journal 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 The top 10 journals accounted for 518 of 1,237 papers, or 42 percent. 12
    13. 13. TOP 11 MOST FREQUENT AUTHORS / CO-AUTHORSOF SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH PAPERS, 2000-2009 Number of Papers as Author or Co-Author, 2000-2009 Pidgeon, N. 22 Frewer, L.J. 21 Rowe, G. 16 Condit, C.M. 15 Nerlich, B. 14 Brossard, D. 11McComas, K.A. 11 Siegrist, M. 11 Besley, J.C. 10 Poortinga, W. 10 Priest, S.H. 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 404 authors (16 percent) published 2 or more papers between 2000-2009. 13
    14. 14. NUMBEROF SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH PUBLICATIONSBY COUNTRY, 2000-2009 Russia Canada United Kingdom 2 77 270 Japan2 4 United States Netherlands: 35 China 427 Germany: 30 Italy: 23 14 Sweden: 23 Morocco Denmark: 23 2 IndiaMexico Spain: 16 11 France: 13 4 Greece: 12 Portugal: 2 Columbia Nigeria 2 1 Brazil 10 Australia 51 South Africa 3 New Zealand 25 14
    15. 15. TOP FIVE COUNTRIES PUBLISHING SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH, 2000-2009 United States 427United Kingdom 270 Canada 77 Australia 51 Netherlands 35 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 15
    16. 16. TOP5 MOST FREQUENT STUDY METHODSIN PUBLISHED SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH, 2000-2009 Surveys or Questionnaires 331 Content Analysis 290 Interviews 159 Case Studies 149Secondary Analyses of Surveys 78 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 16
    17. 17. SELECTED TOPICSIN SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH Frequency of Publications on Selected Topics, 2000-2009 Public Engagement 100 Climate Change 93 Environment 91Genetically Modified Foods 83 Natural Resources 64 Nanotechnology 62 0 20 40 60 80 100 1204/12/12 17
    18. 18. MAPPINGOFTHE SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH LITERATURE, 2000-2009• IN-SPIREuses a mathematical clustering algorithm to calculate degrees of similarity and dissimilarity in most frequently occurring key words. Based on this algorithm, the software can create several visual representations of a dataset:• Galaxy view: A plot of all of the documents contained in the dataset showing the topical relationships between them. – Proximity implies relatedness; distant clusters are less topically related. – Each document is represented by a dot, and the closer two dots are plotted, the more similar they are in topical content.• ThemeView Classic (Heat Map): The ThemeView Classic is a form of Heat Map, which is a three-dimensional version of the Galaxy view. – The height of a peak corresponds to the number of documents on a topic, and is further highlighted by a brighter color. – Look for proximate peaks, valleys and spaces between formations as indicators of underlying topical patterns. 18
    19. 19. GALAXY VIEW, FULL SCI-COMM DATASET (n=1,237) 19
    20. 20. HEAT MAP VIEW, FULL SCI-COMM DATASET (n=1,237) 20
    21. 21. SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH LITERATURE FIVE-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2000-2004 (n=400) 21
    22. 22. SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH LITERATURE FIVE-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2005-2009 (n=837) 22
    23. 23. TWO-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2000-2001 (n=124) 23
    24. 24. TWO-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2002-2003 (n=184) 24
    25. 25. TWO-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2004-2005 (n=207) 25
    26. 26. TWO-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2006-2007 (n=296) 26
    27. 27. TWO-YEAR HEAT MAP VIEW, 2008-2009 (n=426) 27
    28. 28. HEAT MAP VIEW,UNITED STATES STUDIES, 2000-2009 (n=427) 28
    29. 29. HEAT MAP VIEW,UNITED KINGDOM STUDIES, 2000-2009 (n=270) 29
    30. 30. HEAT MAP VIEW,CANADIAN STUDIES, 2000-2009 (n=77) 30
    31. 31. HEAT MAP VIEW,AUSTRALIAN STUDIES, 2000-2009 (n=51) 31
    32. 32. HEAT MAP VIEW,NETHERLANDS STUDIES, 2000-2009 (n=35) 32
    33. 33. ARTICLESON SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH TOPICS PUBLISHEDIN TWO PRIMARY JOURNALS, 2000-2009 Total Articles on Public Understanding Science Research Topic This Topic in of Science Communication DatasetPublic Engagement 20 10 100Climate Change 13 7 93Environment 10 6 91Genetically Modified 12 3 83FoodsNatural Resources 5 6 64Nanotechnology 11 9 62Food Safety 3 4 54Emerging Infectious 1 5 53DiseasesScience Journalism 7 9 46 33
    34. 34. RESEARCH METHODS USEDIN ARTICLES PUBLISHEDIN TWO PRIMARY SCIENCE COMMUNICATION JOURNALS, 2000-2009 Public Understanding Science Total ArticlesResearch Method of Science Communication Using This (n=179) (n=135) Method in DatasetSurveys or 17% 30% 331QuestionnairesContent Analysis 24% 31% 290Interviews 13% 9% 159Case Studies 18% 7% 149SecondaryAnalysis of 7% 4% 78SurveysFocus Groups 10% 4% 72Evaluation Studies 3% 2% 56 34
    35. 35. THREE CASE STUDIESOF SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH TOPICSHow are different Science Communication research issues investigatedover time?Are particular research methods more likely to be applied at different timesin the investigation of a science communication research issue?We selected three research issues (Public Engagement, Climate Changeand Genetically Modified Foods) to examine in greater detail.These cases met the following criteria: –Actively investigated over entire 10-year period; and –Reasonable number of papers published on each in the dataset. 35
    36. 36. FREQUENCYOF PUBLISHED ARTICLESBY YEAR FOR THREE RESEARCH CASES30 2625 23 2220 18 17 15 15 1515 11 11 1110 9 9 9 8 7 6 6 5 55 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 20 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Public Engagement Climate Change Genetically Modified Foods 36
    37. 37. HEAT MAP VIEWPUBLIC ENGAGEMENT ARTICLES, 2000-2009 (n=100) 37
    38. 38. HEAT MAP VIEW,CLIMATE CHANGE ARTICLES, 2000-2009 (n=93) 38
    39. 39. HEAT MAP VIEW:ARTICLESON GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS, 2000-2009 (n=83) 39
    40. 40. RESEARCH METHODSIN SCIENCE COMMUNICATION RESEARCH STUDIESBY TIME PERIOD, 2000-200930% 27% 27% 25%25% 23%20%15% 13% 13% 13%10% 9% 7% 6% 6% 6%5%0% Content Surveys or Case Studies Interviews Secondary Focus Groups Analysis Questionnaires Analyses 2000-2004 2005-2009 40
    41. 41. PROPORTIONSOF PUBLISHED STUDIESONPUBLIC ENGAGEMENT USING VARIOUS RESEARCH METHODS BY TIME PERIOD50%45% 43%40%35%30%25% 24%20% 18% 17%15% 12% 12%10% 5%5% 0%0% 2000-2004 2005-2009 Content Analysis Case Studies Surveys or Questionnaires Interviews 41
    42. 42. PROPORTIONSOF PUBLISHED STUDIESON CLIMATE CHANGE USING VARIOUS RESEARCH METHODS BY TIME PERIOD90% 81%80%70%60% 52%50%40% 31% 29%30%20% 15%10% 5% 5% 3%0% 2000-2004 2005-2009 Content Analysis Case Studies Surveys or Questionnaires Interviews 42
    43. 43. PROPORTIONSOF PUBLISHED STUDIESONGENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODSUSING VARIOUS RESEARCH METHODS BY TIME PERIOD30% 26% 25%25% 23%20% 15%15% 13%10%5% 4% 4% 4%0% 2000-2004 2005-2009 Content Analysis Case Studies Surveys or Questionnaires Interviews 43
    44. 44. PUBLIC ENGAGEMENTHEAT MAP VIEW, 2000-2004 (n=17) 44
    45. 45. PUBLIC ENGAGEMENTHEAT MAP VIEW, 2005-2009 (n=83) 45
    46. 46. CLIMATE CHANGEHEAT MAP VIEW, 2000-2004 (n=21) 46
    47. 47. CLIMATE CHANGEHEAT MAP VIEW, 2005-2009 (n=72) 47
    48. 48. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS HEAT MAP VIEW, 2000-2004 (n=27) 48
    49. 49. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS HEAT MAP VIEW, 2005-2009 (n=56) 49
    50. 50. Ramifications• What do these data say about us as a research community?• What do these data say about us as a publishing community? (and about access to research findings by practitioners)?• What do these data say about who sets the agenda for PCST research?3/28/2012 50
    51. 51. What do these data say about us as a research community?• That we are generally more closely aligned with science/technology focus areas that with communication research per se• Is there life beyond content analysis and attitude surveys?3/28/2012 51
    52. 52. What do these data say about us as a publishing community?• We favor publications in “gray lit” rather than peer-reviewed journals (esp. books and monographs)• This might be okay for the small community of researchers, but puts our research out of the reach of most practitioners• Need a more robust “open access” approach to PCST research3/28/2012 52
    53. 53. What do these data say about who sets the agenda for PCST research?• Seems primarily driven by “utilitarian” approach, emerging issue by issue• Sustained funding is not available to address fundamental questions in PCST research not tied to utilitarian model• PCST requires a new agenda driven by provocative questions and a funding stream to support it3/28/2012 53
    54. 54. AcknowledgmentsMargaret Ames, Karl PoonaiNCI Office of Science Planning and AssessmentJack Scott, Margaret BlasinksyThe Madrillon Group, Inc.Ben CarolloNCI Office of Public Affairs and ResearchCommunication3/28/2012 54

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