Introduction Software and Hardware
What is Software?
Types of Software
What is Computer Hardware?
Components of Computer
Computer Input Devices
Computer Output Devices
The Central Processing Unit
Computer Memory, Floppy Drive, DVD Drives
Elements of a computer system fall into two
categories and they are:
Hardware: Hardware is the equipment to perform
the necessary computations and includes the
central processing unit i.e. CPU, keyboard, monitor,
mouse, printer, and speaker.
Software: Software consists of the programs that
enable us to solve problems with a computer by
providing it with lists of instructions to perform.
4. WHAT IS SOFTWARE
“A set of instructions given to the computer to solve
a problem is called Software.”
“Software is a single/collection of programs that
performs a particular task.”
Software is also called Program.
Different software's are used to solve different
5. TYPES OF SOFTWARE
System software: It is an operating system, which
is an interface between user and hardware. This is
divided into two types:
CUI - Command line user interface
GUI – Graphical user interface
Application software: The application software is
divided into two types and they are:
6. WHAT IS COMPUTER HARDWARE?
Computer Hardware is the
physical part of the
computer system, the
machinery and equipment.
10. THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
• CPU (Central Processing Unit) also called the
Microprocessor or “The Brain” of the
• Processor speed: The speed at which a
microprocessor executes instructions. This is
usually measured in megahertz (MHz).
• Brands of Processors include:
Main circuit board inside
your computer is called a
The motherboard contains
the connectors for
boards, such as the CPU,
BIOS, memory, mass
storage interfaces, serial
and parallel ports,
expansion slots and all the
controllers that are
required to control
devices such as the
display screen, keyboard,
and hard drive.
Here we see a diagram
and a photo of a
motherboard (or main
This one is suitable for a
14. COMPUTER MEMORY: (RAM)
Before your CPU can process any instructions you
give it, those instructions must be stored
somewhere, in preparation for access by the
The more memory that is available in a machine,
the more instructions and data that can be stored
at one time.
15. COMPUTER MEMORY: (RAM)
If the computer does not have enough RAM to run
an application than pieces of the running
application will be stored on the Hard Drive
temporarily in a method known as “Virtual
Memory” and the CPU will then have to retrieve
information from the virtual memory causing a
bottleneck in the system.
RAM is measured in bytes.
16. FLOPPY DRIVE
Storage Devices -- "How it saves data
Hard disk drives are an internal,
higher capacity drive which also
stores the operating system which
runs when you power on the
"Floppy" disk drives allow you to save
work on small disks and take the data
18. HARD DISKS
Speed: Very fast!
The speed of a hard disk is often
quoted as "average access time"
speed, measured in milliseconds. The
smaller this number the faster the disk.
Enormous! Often 40/80 Gigabytes. A
equivalent to 1024 Megabytes.
Hard disks costs are falling rapidly and
represent the cheapest way of storing
19. CD-ROM DRIVE
They are disc drives which
read Compact Discs (CDs).
They are transportable and
can be used to perform
various tasks such as
reading data from the
computer and listening to
Data is written on a CD by
burning pits into the disc to
20. DVD DRIVES
Computer DVD drives can
be used to watch DVD
video, play audio CDs and
store information on DVDs
and CDs. DVD drives are
now being installed in new
computers instead of CD
Computer DVD drives are
able to read data stored on
CD-ROMS and DVDs and
can play both video and
audio DVDs. CD-ROM
drives cannot read DVDs.